Culture and behavior


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Culture and behavior

  1. 1. CULTURE AND BEHAVIOR:APPLICATIONS FOR MARKETING AND COMMUNICATIONS A Perspective for A Common Platform Compiled and Proposed by Rahim Jabbar 28th May 2003 1
  2. 2. Points of discussions• Culture : concept boundary and the elements• Three Layers of Culture• Foundations of Culture• Culture : three silent languages of culture• Human Behavior – Overt and Covert Behavior – Values – Beliefs – Determinants of human behavior• Cultural Basis of Human Behavior• Cultural Basis of Social Interactions• Consumption as a Cultural Phenomenon: • Consumption Ritual • Brands as carriers of meanings • Brands as cult objects • Link between the consumers and their brands • Cultural-based Brand Development Process• Marketing as a Social and Cultural “Engineering” Process : A view from the Hinterland 2
  3. 3. CULTURE: Concept boundary and the elements Symbolic aspects: •Systems of distinctions (classification, histories, knowledge coded in symbolic ideas or beliefs) •Culture is the way in which a group of people ( a community or society or any autonomous group) solve problems and reconcile dilemmas that incorporate individual and collective responses to environmental conditions. As such, contents of a culture is continually subjected to historical and evolutionary forces and processes. •Contents of a culture is accumulation of symbolic (a. o. scientific, artistic), behavioral (including social) , and physical characteristics of that specific group of people. Culture is perpetuated through inter-generational communication of information other than genetic/biological information. As such, culture comprises the heritage of that community. Behavioral aspects: Physical aspects: •Distinctive forms of behavior •Material artifacts (songs, rituals, institutions, (tools, weapons, buildings, organizational forms) Works of art) 3Source: Analyzed from the Encyclopedia of Sociology, Michael Mann (1994) & Dictionary of Psychology, Arthur Reber (1995)
  4. 4. CULTURE:Three Layers of Culture ( Trompenaars & Hampden) ARTIFACTS (External/Explicit) NORMS (“Right” v.s. “Wrong” Basic Assumptions about Human Existence: PERSPECTIVES AND WORLDVIEWS (Core/Implicit) VALUES (“Good” v.s. “Bad” PRODUCTS (External/Explicit) 4
  5. 5. CULTURE : THE FOUNDATIONS •Morality •Work •Leisure Logic & General Religion attitudes •Property Philosophy •Crime •Authority •GovernmentMaintained through •Human rights & privileges •Places of residence Perspectives & World Views Influence Spiritual practices Medium Of Expressions Modes of •Division of labor •Age roles Social •Family organizations interaction •Child rearing practices •Social status •Degree of formality •Gender roles Language Visual Arts Music •Manners •Verbal communications •Non-verbal communications Recorded in Literature 5 Source: Analyzed from the Encyclopedia of Sociology, Michael Mann (1994) & Dictionary of Psychology, Arthur Reber (1995)
  6. 6. CULTURE: Three Silent Languages of Culture (Stuart Hall) Time Mono-chronic Poly-chronic•Linear •Simultaneous occurrence of many things•Tangible •A great involvement with people•Divisible•Events are scheduled one item at a time. Schedule takesprecedence over interpersonal relationship Context (Refers to the amount of information that a person can comfortably manage in social interactions) High Low•Background information is implicit •Background information must be made explicit in an•People send more information implicitly interaction•People usually have a wider network •People verbalize much more on background information•People tend to stay well informed on many subjects •People tend not to be well informed on subjects outside of their interest Space (The invisible boundary around an individual that is considered “personal”. This sense of personal space can include an area, or objects, that have come to be considered as that individual’s “territory”. This sense of personal space can be perceived not only visually, but by the ears, thermals space by the skin, kinesthetic space by muscles, etc.) Wide Narrow 6
  7. 7. HUMAN BEHAVIOR OVERT BEHAVIOUR: •External/observable/visible acts/actions/behavior COVERT BEHAVIOUR: • Internal dispositions: 1. Values & Norms 2. Beliefs 3. Attitudes 7Source: Analyzed from the Dictionary of Psychology, Arthur Reber (1995)
  8. 8. COVERT BEHAVIOR: VALUES Values are general central principles concerning the patterns of behavior within a particular culture or society which its members hold in high regards. Around those values, individual and social goals can be integrated. Values are transmitted and adopted through socialization process. 8Source: Analyzed from the Dictionary of Psychology, Arthur Reber (1995)
  9. 9. COVERT BEHAVIOR: BELIEFS Beliefs are emotional acceptance of some proposition, statement, or doctrines. Beliefs are learned expectations about the values of people, events and objects in the environment and the roles they play with respect to one’s behavior. 9Source: Analyzed from the Dictionary of Psychology, Arthur Reber (1995)
  10. 10. DETERMINANTS OF BEHAVIOR: VALUES, BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES Actions “Conative component” (disposition for action) “Evaluative component” (positive or negative) Attitudes The Self “Cognitive component” (Consciously held beliefs) Beliefs “Affective component” (Emotional Tone or feeling) Emotional acceptance Of values Values Emotion & Norms Instigating Physiological Cognitive Motivational stimuli correlates appraisal properties 10Source: Analyzed from the Encyclopedia of Sociology, Michael Mann (1994) & Dictionary of Psychology, Arthur Reber (1995)
  11. 11. CULTURAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR S H The Society/ A The Individual/ Community R Person E D ActionsPerspectives & Attitudes World Views Values Beliefs Social & Norms Practices CULTURE BEHAVIOR Socialization process Internalization process 11
  12. 12. CULTURAL BASIS OF SOCIAL INTERACTION CULTURAL VALUES & NORMS SENDER/ Intended Shared RECEIVER/ Attributed INITIATOR meanings meanings meanings PARTNER Clifford Geertz: “Culture is the means by which people communicate, perpetuate and develop their knowledge and attitude about life. Culture is the fabric of meanings, in terms of which human beings interpret their experiences and guide their actions . 12Source: Analyzed from the Interpretation of Culture, Clifford Geertz (1993 )
  13. 13. CONSUMPTION AS A CULTURAL PHENOMENON : Consumption Rituals Parts of Products/ Cultural Symbolic Consumption Services Myths & Meanings Rituals Social & Social & Consumption Social Cultural cultural Rituals interaction of Exchange stability individuals processes Ritual : the performance - by one or more persons – of actions designed to express some range of BRANDS meanings. The actions are permeated by symbolic content and are highly constrained by the character As the Exchange of that content. Carriers of Of meanings Meanings 13
  14. 14. CONSUMPTION AS A CULTURAL PHENOMENON : Brands as carriers of meanings Symbol: indirect representation of something intended to signify ideas or principles beyond that specific action, event, device, or utterance. The ideas or principles Presentation represented as such are meanings of & communications: the symbol. •Design •Color Symbols Meanings •Shape •Tone •Style •Ambience •Goals achieved •Objectives reachedBRANDS VALUES •Demands fulfilled •Requirements satisfied Interaction Delivery of Product/ Between Functional service Product/ Service benefits functionality and the Consumers 14
  15. 15. CONSUMPTION AS A CULTURAL PHENOMENON : Brands as Cult ObjectsTribe: Traditionally meant to be a group connected Note: Cult object has got the “social bonding through descent from a common ancestor, power” organized around an ascribed status due to “experience sharing and “exchanges structure. In this case brand users are of meanings” , amongst the “tribe members” likened as tribe, since they are connected through the cult object. through a common cult object, “the brand” Tribe member “Social bonding” “Social bonding” Sharing BRAND Sharing Tribe Sharing Tribe As Cult member Object member “Social bonding” Sharing “Social bonding” Tribe member Cult : a loosely constructed type “faith organization” with an amorphous sets of beliefs and rituals. In this case, consumers of a brand Note: each period in the history of society displays certain are likened as followers of certain “faith” constellation of cult objects that coalesced around the since they have certain beliefs about rise of certain segments in the society (like Yuppies their brands (i.e. emotional acceptance in early 1990’s and Net Generation in late 1990’s of certain values attached to the brand) 15
  16. 16. CONSUMPTION AS A CULTURAL PHENOMENON : Link between the consumers and their brands Layers of Consumer Layers of the Brand Consciousness Socio-cultural link Socio-cultural layer: Symbols: Values Meanings Functional link Rational layer Identity/Character Emotional Personality Core Psychological bonding 16Source: The first two layers are adapted from Heylen (JRMS, Viol 37 No.1), the third layer is added by the writer
  17. 17. CONSUMPTION AS A CULTURAL PHENOMENON : Cultural-based Brand Development Process*) Meanings may include gender, status, age, lifestyle, etc.**) Symbolic elements may include objects, persons, contexts and motifs Symbolic elements **) Creative selection & to communicate the meanings Development: (e.g. something exclusive, only (the way, the feel, the mood, etc) for a happy few) Product, Packaging & Cultural meanings*) Campaign communication available in the society (color coding, verbal/visual cues, etc) (e.g. Respectability is a valid goal in life”) at a Price Secondary meaning transfer****) The product become the locus Primary meaning transfer***): of selected meanings, (e.g.” BMW is the status symbol and the consumers use the product a successful Yuppie”) to create notions of self and the world ***)Transfer of meanings from to total stimuli to the product/brand(e.g.:” With my BMW, I belong to the Yuppie Club” through repeated associative process “My BM is my status. It is me” ) ****) Transfer of meanings from the product to the users/consumers. 17
  18. 18. MARKETING AS SOCIO-CULTURAL ENGINEERING PROCESS : A view from the hinterland The BRAND In Se mu An rate te t li g of st d i Individual Individual specificity specificity A particular To consume A particular Socio-cultural Socio-cultural Being certain PRODUCT Transformed millieu millieu ‘ENGINEERED” and into The universal The universal to choose a human human nature nature specific BRAND CONSUMERS Human beingsRahim Jabbar/1989 18