+Social Skills for Teachersof Students with AutismByBonnieHoughton
+Goal of PresentationThe goal of this presentation is toprovide teachers and Ed Techs with aneducational system designed to usewith children with low functioningautism.
+“Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is arange of complex neurodevelopmentdisorders, characterized by socialimpairments, communicationdifficulties, and restricted, repetitive,and stereotyped patterns of behavior.”(NINDS, 2012)
+Characteristics of Autism The three constant deficits of Autism1. Communication2. Social Interaction3. Maladaptive BehaviorThese three deficits can be improved by developing skills in thefollowing areas:a) Social Communicationb) Social Initiationc) Social Reciprocityd) Social Cognition
+Social Skills and Autism By developing skills in the areas of social communication, socialinitiation, social reciprocity, and social cognition, children learn thecoping skills they need to behave appropriately. These skills help children make good choices, feel comfortable incommunity situations. These skill help a student communicate their needs..("Nasp Resources: Social Skills: Promoting Positive Behavior,Academic Success, And School Safety” )
+The Importance of being able toCommunicate Some children with autism have difficulties with verbal communication aswell as non-verbal. Without an appropriate method of communication, students will turn tonegative behaviors to demonstrate:a) Sensory needsb) Task avoidancec) Attention seeking behaviorsd) Access a wanted or needed object("Autism Community: Communication And Behavior", n.d.). The video on the following page demonstrates a child who is unable tocommunicate his wants, needs or frustrations appropriately.
+ Methods of Communicating with Low functioningVerbal or Non Verbal Students Naturalistic—A naturalistic approach is teaching in looselystructured or natural settings. In order to teach with a naturalisticapproach, the child needs to be able to generalize. Generalizing isthe ability to take a concept and apply it to different situations(Cowen & Allen, 2007). (High Functioning Autism) Analog--An analog approach is produced in an artificial setting.This approach takes the child out of the natural environment andplaces them into a controlled situation. Autistic children havedeficits in the areas of language, socialization, and behaviors.Because of this, a highly structured analog setting will allow thechild to progress at his or her own rate. Training is arranged in away that is understandable, predictable, scripted, and nonthreatening (Cowen & Allen, 2007).(Lower Functioning Autism
+TEACCHThe Analog Approach TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and RelatedCommunications--Handicapped Children)a) Scheduling1. Daily Activity2. Within Activity/Picture Activityb) Work Stations1. Work Session—New Material2. Wall work--Maintenance3. White Board—Maintenance
+SchedulesVisual ScheduleThis is an example of a schedule board. Student will start at thetop of the board and complete each task.
+Schedules Photographic/Within Activity SchedulesA. Can be used for communication startersB. Can be used for Social StoriesC. Routine and self Monitoring strategiesD. Used as a step by step prompt for an Activity such asLaundry (Banda & et al, (2009).
+ Here is an example of a Photographic/Within ActivitySchedule for the bathroom routine
+Communicating Work Stations Work StationsA. Work Session—New MaterialsB. White Board—Maintenance MaterialsC. Work Wall-Maintenance Materials Work materials should be self explanatory and visually communicateexpectations, they should be:A. ShortB. Closed endedC. Accompanied with minimum communicationD. ConsistentE. TexturedF. Encouraging independence
+Work SessionsWork Session—Done with learning materials Here is an example of six buckets filled with working materials.Student will match the picture on the front of the bucket--example, Pizza Hut will match to the picture--and place thebuckets on the top of bucket holder in order to complete.
+White BoardWhite Board--Maintenance materials are used for white board.In this case, color swatch is matched to the word. This is a wayof getting the student up and changing the area of instruction.
+Work Wall Work Wall--Maintenance materials are used for wall. In thiscase, the student is matching the front to the back ofmotorcycles--parts-to-whole category.
+Social InitiationProblemsStudents with autism tend to be groupedinto one of two categories when it comesto social initiation.1. Barely ever initiates2. The inappropriate initiator( Boutot, Myles, 2011)
+Why a Student Rarely InitiatesSocialization ( Boutot, Myles, 2011)RarelyInitiatesSocializationIndifferenceFearAnxiety
+Social Initiation Scripts An effective strategy for initiating a social situation is“Photographic Activity Schedules”. Photographic ActivitySchedules are:A. Sequenced events shown in picture form.B. Activities that are broken down into each individual step.C. A method of teaching socialization with minimum staff interaction.D. Is a social script that promotes independence. (Hall, 2013)
+ Example of a Photographic Activity Schedule (This givesstudents’ examples of conversation starters)
+ Social Scripting Here is anexample of socialscripting. This is used topromoteindependenceand routine.
+Social Reciprocity According to “Boutot&, Myles”, (2011) socialreciprocity refers to “the give-and-take of socialinteractions. Students with autism may have difficulties with socialreciprocity.
+Social ReciprocitySocial Reciprocity ActualizationAdd to a conversationwithout monopolizing.Stay on topic.Joint attention skills.
+Strategy for Social Reciprocity An effective strategy for social reciprocity is a Social SkillsCurriculum. Social Skills Curriculum (Social Skills Group):A. Is specifically for high functioning students but can be used for alllevels of functioningB. Teaches awareness of non-verbal communicationC. Teaches awareness of other peoples perspectivesD. Promotes joint attentionE. Teaches Emotional controlF. Promotes pro-social behaviors (Hall, 2013)G. Should help generalize skillsH. Students with similar needs and levels of cognition
+Social Skills Groups This is a video that describes the components and structure ofan effective social skills group. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qogksh7gxEo Keefer (2011)
+Social Stories A social skill acquisition tool that can be used to helpstudents develop non-verbal skills is a social story. A socialstory:a) Should promote social understandingb) Can be written in the first or third person perspectivec) Should be positived) Should be reinforced right before the skill is practicede) A social story can be faded out as the student learns thesequence of the routine. (Hall, 2013)
+The Personalized Story Book This is an example of a social story that deals with deficits fornon-verbal communication; it is in the form of a story bookcreated for a little girl named Kealy (Houghton, 2013).http://www.kerpoof.com/#view?s=2gs11dD98Mo5cjs4c000-d-8c48b7-x
+Social Cognition Social cognition is the ability to predict where a conversationmay be going and the ability to alter your behavior andresponses to fit the situation. In order to do this, a studentneeds:a) Social awarenessb) Knowledge of social norms1) Procedural—Learned behaviors2) Declarative—The ability to decipher idioms andknowledge of unspoken rules.c) Perspective taking (Boutot, Myles, (2011)
+Promoting Social Cognition Using self-monitoring techniques with students whohave ASD helps them develop independence,generalizations, self and social-awareness. Studentsreally need an understanding of what is expected ofthem, and with self monitoring techniques, thestudent will have the expectations—in word orpicture form--of what they need to do right in front ofhim.
+ Daily Initiation and Response Self MonitoringChecklist I walked up and said hello to people on the playground Yes No I asked someone on the playground if I could join an activity. Yes No I asked someone what they were eating in the cafeteria. Yes No I said “hello, how are you?” when someone said hello to me. Yes No I asked someone to play with me on the playground Yes No During a quiet time in a conversation, I asked a question from my social scripts Yes No
+Social Cognition--Integrated PlayGroups: Integrated play groups:A. Are intended to promote socialization and play as well as introducepeer cultureB. Promotes acquisition of cultural skills and expectationsC. Combines both neuro-typical and typical studentsD. Should have a larger number of typical peers than neuro-typicalE. Use scaffolds to promote independent playF. Requires joint engagement
+Integrated Play Group Model Here is a video that explains the Integrated Play Group Model http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u867ilizx8M ("United Way Vancuver: Integrated Play Group ModelProgram", 2009).
+Social Skills Acquisition In order for a student with autism to acquire a social skill, theremust be a plan or method put into action. MethodsA. Social Scripting—demonstrates step by step conversations oractivity proceduresB. Video Modeling—watching and imitating videos for social training.C. Problem Solving Strategies—a strategy that replaces a problembehavior with a replacement behavior that is appropriate.
+Video Modeling Here is an example of video modeling. This videodemonstrated the process and expectations of going to thedentist. Look at Me Now (2012, June 7) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s_n1aZy1NV8
+Reinforcements When working with students who have autism, some arereinforced intrinsically and others need a little push. Students who are reinforced extrinsically need to have thereinforcements often in the beginning, but as they learn theskill, reinforcements need to be faded.
+Reinforcement Hierarchy Positive Reinforcement--Positive reinforcement for each stage that iscompleted correctly. When that stage is mastered, the next stage will bethe one to be reinforced. Behavior Charts-- behavior chart can be used to show how muchprogress the student has made in their social shaping procedure. Theywill get a star for every stage they have successfully mastered. Fading Strategy--When the stage is mastered, the student no longerearns a reinforcement for that stage—they will only earn on the stage theyare working on at the time. Extinction--Decreasing a behavior in steps. E.g. a student who will sitdown in the middle of the road during the mail run because she wants tosee the other students walk by. Have a student peer walk with her untilshe sits down. When she sits down, the peer is to walk to the nextdestination and wait for the the student. This will happen for all threestops of the mail run.
+Behavior Charts Here is an example of a sticker chart reinforcement schedulehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rQYywH73u2A(Goalforit2010)
+Social Skill Assessments In order to determine a students progress with social skilldevelopment, teachers need to use measurement tools. Someexamples are:A. TOPL (Test of Pragmatic Language)—This is a method ofevaluating conversational skills and group therapy.B. Celf (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals)—Evaluatespragmatic language in studentsC. CASS (Contextual assessment of social skills.)--This measuresconversation skills and social behavior in students with the use ofrole plays.
+The road to Social Success There are many strategies that can be used to promote socialsuccess in students with autism. There is no way to show all ofthem. The key to success is being consistent. Students with autism do not tend to like socialization. If wedon’t train them to socialize, they will be alone. The more theyare left alone, the more they want to be left alone. We owe tothese students to add a quality of life through socialization.(Bonnie Houghton)
+References: Autism and university. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://autismandu.weebly.com/autism-the-specifics.html Banda, D., Grimmett, E., & Hart S.(2009).Activity Schedules.Teaching ExceptionalChildren.Vol.41. Issue 4, p16-21. Boutot, E. A., & Smith, Myles, B. (2011) Autism spectrum disorders: Foundations,characteristics, and effective strategies. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Goalforit.com (2010, September 9). The behavior charts kids love [Video file]. Retrievedfrom Youtube.comwebsite: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rQYywH73u2A Houghton, B. A. (2013). Kerpoof: Princess Kealy learns about personal space. Retrievedfrom http://www.kerpoof.com/#view?s=2gs11dD98Mo5cjs4c000-d-8c48b7-x http://www.educateautism.com/applied-behaviour-analysis/discrete-trial-training.html Jacobs, J. (2012). Social Skill Builder:Development of social skills in children with AutismSpectrum Disorder . Retrieved fromhttp://www.socialskillbuilder.com/articles/socialskillsASDchildren.html Keefer, A. (2011). Health Central:How to find the right social skills group for your child withautism. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qogksh7gxEo
+References cont.: Koegel, L. K. (n.d). Education.com: Pivotal Response Treatment: Identifying and targeting areas of need in childrenwith ASK. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article NASP Resources: Social Skills: Promoting positive behavior, academic success, and school safety. (). Retrievedfrom http://www.nasponline.org/resources/factsheets/socialskills_fs.aspx National Institude of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Autism fact sheet. (2012). Retrieved fromhttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/autism/detail_autism.htm Naturally Autistic (Y2010ar, November 2). How to teach social skills to autistic childen [Video file]. Retrieved fromYoutube website: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=E1PeC4jvLvs Non-Comm: Non verbal communication. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttp://www.google.com/search?q=nonverbal+communication&client=safari&rls=en&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=yEB9UfGKJ4PB4APauYGIAw&ved=0CAoQ_AUoAQ&biw=1045&bih=614#imgrc=Ls2u3Y5E6_7kqM%3A%3BbMp5csHqSsmfmM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252F3.bp.blogspot.com%252F-wN9q_evuLPQ%252FTV1pOZPNUqI%252FAAAAAAAAAAM%252F-IerC4KSDks%252Fs1600%252Feffective_teaching_016.gif%3Bhttp%253A%252F http://speechtimefun.blogspot.com/ Look at Me Now (2012, June 7). Autism video model--Going to the dentist [Video file]. Retrieved fromYoutubewebsite:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s_n1aZy1NV8252Fverbalandnoncomm.blogspot.com%252F2011%252F02%252Fnon-verbal-communication-is-it-really.html%3B647%3B464