“ Teachers who wish to maintain a balanced view of linguistics should not overlook the fact that traditional grammar has many useful virtues. The traditional handbooks provided an array of terms and distinctions which most of us used in learning to talk about our own language, and which many people continue to find serviceable throughout their lives”
Allen and Widdowson
Structural Linguistics Was founded in 1930 th By Leonardo Bloomfield
1. The grammar of the language is described in terms of syntagmatic structures which carry the fundamental propositions( statement, interrogative, negative, imperative) and notions ( time, number, gender). By varying words within these structural frameworks, sentences with different meaning can be generated.
2. With the help of the structural linguistic the structural syllabus was created. In such syllabus , items are graded so that simpler and more immediately useable structures precede the more complex ones.
Example: ESP syllabus based on structural principals
Now I have to change to the final size drill I require, which is three-quarters of an inch diameter, and this is called a morse-taper sleeve. A slower speed for a larger drill. Nice even feed should give a reasonable finish to the hole. Applying coolant periodically. This is mainly for lubrication rather than cooling. Almost to depth now. Right. Withdrawing the drill. That`s fine. Select required drill. Mount drill in tailstock. Use taper sleeves as necessary. Set speed and start machine spindle. Position tailstock to workpiece. Apply firm even pressure to tailstock hand wheel to feed drill into workpiece. Apply coolant frequently. Drill hole to depth. Withdraw drill. Stop machine.
The Type of ESP The Concept of Language Variation Register Analysis
Functions Notions Concerned with social behaviour and represent the intention of the speaker or writer. Reflect the way in which the other man thinks Functional/Notional Grammar
difficult to divide up the learning tasks into units of equivalent value across the various languages on the basis of formal grammar.
The Functional View of Language
have an influence on language teaching in the 1970s
The student of German The gender/case endings of articles, nouns and adjectives. The learner of English The spelling, the simple/continious tense distinction or the countable/uncountable distinction.