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CIC-SL@CUHK CIC-SL@CUHK Presentation Transcript

  • 社區有教室 與服務學習 陳國邦 CHAN Kwok-bong [email_address] http://servicelearning.bgca.org.hk http://www.slideshare.net/bongsir 以 共享創意署名 - 非商業性 - 相同方式共享 3.0 香港 授權條款 釋出
    • 「 青年 變成 青少年 的原因就是因為我們沒有提供他們事情去做。我們不覺得他們有生產力,只把他們視為容易受騙上當的消費者。」
    湯瑪士.海恩斯, 美國青少年的崛起與沒落 ( The Rise and Decline of the American Teenager )
    • 我們想對全球青年傳達的訊息是:「我們需要你!我們希望你能接受挑戰,拿起榔頭協助你的鄰居興建家園,打開書本教導比你年幼的孩童,並為長者減輕病痛的磨難。」
    美國國家青年領袖協會 主席 Dr. James C. Kielsmeier
  • 一種互動視野
    • Classroom-in-community
    社區有教室
  • CIC believes….
    • School is one of the constituting parts of the community.
    • The meaning of classroom should be extended to all implicit, explicit and hidden learning situations
    • Curriculum refers to all formal, informal and hidden knowledge, tradition and cultural transmissions .
    • Curriculum constitutes part of the community activities and culture , which is non-linear, fluid and dynamic in nature.
  • 社區有教室的精神與內涵
    • 以 學生所生活的社區 之各種可能潛在資源,作為學習的空間與材料,
    • 以社區內人文、藝術、社會、自然生態等空間, 在地民間工作者之工作場域,作為學生的教室 ;
    • 透過有系統的課程設計與實施,引導 教師與學生積極向社區學習 ,培養社區人才,傳揚社區文化 (承傳) ;
    • 更要進一步開發社區活力,改造社區的行動 (創新) ;
    • 而其最終目的,在於達成「社區總體營造」之理想。
  • 社區有教室的特色
    • 學校本位
      • 發展呼應學校及學生特殊需求的課程
      • 教師不只是課程的實施者,而且是課程背後所蘊含的意識型態,及其在歷史、文化、社會脈絡下所呈現之意義詮釋者。
      • 教師是知識的生產者,不再是知識的消費者
    • 社區學校化: 重視社區參與,引導學生從小關心並參與公共事務,形塑一個生活與教育相結合的環境
  • 社區有教室的特色
    • 學校本位
    • 社區學校化
    • 學生學習經歷
      • 學生中心 : 學生主動在生活環境中建構知識
      • 情境學習: 「學習本身情境化」與「學習環境的設計要情境化」
      • 意義學習 : 新學習與原有認知結構中的舊經驗取得關聯
      • 體驗學習
    • 課程意識
      • 人文關懷
      • 多元文化
      • 批判教育
  • 社區有教室與服務學習 學校 (認知式學習) 社區 (經驗式學習) 服務學習 ( 中介‧中界 ) 理論 . 價值觀 行動 . 策略 問題與介入
    • 培養公共事務的參與意識
    • 增進教育社群的對話機會
    • 轉化知識為服務社區的動力
    • 結合公共環境資源為終身學習場所
  • Outlines of my presentation:
    • Introduce the principles of CIC
    • Show how to employ CIC in the development service learning curriculum
    • Illustrate with examples of community services
    • Concluding remarks
  • 社區有教室的三個要旨
    • 社區教育的三個範疇
    • 教師作為「社區學習者」和「提問者」
    • (Community Learner & Problem-poser)
    • 「社區資本」到「課程資本」
  • 社區教育的三個範疇 Connecting teachers and the community
  • 社區教育的三個範疇
    • 環顧社區的教育
      • Education about the community
    • 關注社區的教育
      • Education for the community
    • 投入社區的教育
      • Education in / through the community
    Connecting teachers and the community
  • 社區教育的三個範疇
  • 教師作為「社區學習者」和「提問者」 (Community Learner & Problem-poser) Connecting teachers and the community
  • Teachers as community learners and problem-posers
    • students, teachers, school and the community are the
    • Curriculum participants, contributors and users
    • of curriculum.
    Connecting teachers and the community
  • Teachers as learners in community
    • teachers are learners of the community  can use Community resources in teaching
    • implies teachers are moving from “teaching knowledge for” the community to “realizing knowledge with” the community.
    • teachers engage continuously in the collective dialogues with “curriculum participants”, which in turn facilitates teachers to generate meaningful and contextual questions for student learning in the course of CIC.
  • Teachers as problem posers
    • While culture, tradition and mutuality are key elements to community building, these elements have to be renewed from time to time, so that the community have the power to renew itself. In doing so, teachers should see their mission as problem-posers
    • Critical praxis of CIC
    • to generate critical, relevant and motivating questions for and with “curriculum participants”
    • Questions of these kinds provide the necessary momentum and tension for the “curriculum participants” to work together.
    • discover new knowledge towards the power structures to the existing social arrangements and conditions
    • then try to answer the questions.
    Teachers as problem posers
  • 「社區資本」到「課程資本」 Connecting curricula and the community
  • 「社區資本」
    • 物質資本:原料、工具
    • 人力資本:個人技術與知識
    • 文化資本:個人及其家庭階級所繼承的語言和文化能力
    • 社會資本:人與人的關係
    • 環境資本: 3Ps
    • People, Planet, Prosperity
  • “ Community Capital” & “Curriculum capital” Connecting curricula and the community
    • “ Curriculum capital”
    • “ Community Capital” available for curriculum development
    • is the question of transformation of “community capital” and “curriculum capital” in curriculum development.
    • If the school could develop favorable conditions for this transformation, the CIC can be prolonged in the community.
  • 從「社區資本」到「課程資本」
    • 「 社區資本 」
    • 「 社區資本 」在 課程議題 中的轉換
    • 「 課程資本 」建立與再生產
    • 「 課程資本 」促成新的「 社區資本 」
    • 例子:長幼共融社會服務
  • 社區有教室的三個要旨
    • 社區教育的三個範疇
    • 教師作為「 社區學習者 」和「 提問者 」
    • ( Community Learner & Problem-poser )
    • 「社區資本」到「課程資本」
  • 社區有教室的 服務學習課程發展
  • Community Investigation
    • First step and the most important step
    • curriculum initiator , e.g. teachers and social workers , identify community capital
    • Observation, dialogue and empathetic understanding are the essential activities
    • Interview, community walk…. or in any form you like
    • Locate Social capital
  • 「社區資本」
    • 物質資本:原料、工具
    • 人力資本:個人技術與知識
    • 文化資本:個人及其家庭階級所繼承的語言和文化能力
    • 社會資本:人與人的關係
    • 環境資本: 3Ps
    • People, Planet and prosperity
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  • SERVICE 可以是……
    • 義工服務
    • 社區服務
    • 公民行動
    • 社區環境改善
    • 活化社區行動
    • 例子 :
    • 指示標誌設計與復修
    • 推廣使用回收箱
    • 推廣公平貿易產品
    • 設計「公共傢俱」
    • 推廣或設計無障礙社區
    • 推動「日行八千步」運動
  • 蒐集社區資源,建立教學網絡
    • 人 :協助教材蒐集或課程發展的關鍵人士
    • 事 :社區的生活事件
    • 地 :社區的自然與文化地景,可供教學運用的地點或場所
    • 物 :社區活動成果的遺產
    • 時間 :人、地、事、物在社區的變化與發展
  • 社區踏查,建立社區伙伴關係
  • 建立校本伙伴資料庫
    • 社交網站 (Facebook)
    • GIS 網站 (Google Map)
    • 社交 + GIS 網站 (OpenRice)
    • 包括 :
      • 服務機構資料 (受資助 / 非受資助 )
      • 政府部門資料
      • 地區團體 / 地區領袖資料
      • 商界 / 商戶資料
      • 老師回饋 / 使用者回饋 / 伙伴回饋
      • 以課程為本 / 服務為本 分類搜尋
  • 端午糭子送長者
    • 糭子材料
    • 健康食譜 (長者中心 / 營養師)
    • 贊助 (商界:煤氣公司)
    • 贊助 (商戶:街市商戶 )
    • 預備糭子
    • 教授 (社區長者 / 家長)
    • 煮 (大爐頭 / 器皿 : 酒樓 / 安老院)
    • 探訪長者
    • 名單
    • 老人中心
    • 安老院
    • 房署 / 房協長者屋
    • 區議員
    • 探訪訓練
    • 老人中心
  • 建立社區資產地圖
  • Initiating SL curriculum: Key points
    • Cross-disciplinary: e.g. EPA, HE, D&T
    • Put forward a powerful issue : that could facilitate students to find answers from senior citizens of the community and motivate students to apply their learning to develop community services which are relevant to the senior citizens.
      • e.g. “A healthy and wealthy lives and lifestyles for senior citizens”
  • 有力的議題 (Powerful Issue)
    • is a set of motivational and relevant questions that could engage students in the learning process
    • connects students and teachers to larger communities
    • provides the momentum and tension for the “curriculum participants” to work together
    • facilitate students to find answers from the service users (stakeholders) in the community
    • motivate students to apply their learning to develop community services which are relevant to the service users.
    (Chan, 2009)
  • P.R.O.J.E.C.T
    • P articipation (動手參與)
    • R elevant (與生活相關)
    • O riginative (具原創性)
    • J oy (有喜樂)
    • E nthusiastic (引起學習熱誠)
    • C ommunity concerns (培養對社群關注)
    • T eamwork (提供協作機會)
  • Structure of the Curriculum
    • Classroom teaching sessions interlace with community experiences sessions
      • So that classroom teaching and community experience inform each other
    • The structure follows the education about, education for, education in/through processes
    • community services in CIC is not a preset activity in the curriculum, its emerges in the flow of the curriculum
    • Integrate discipline knowledge into services
  • 課程發展 規模與課節安排:
    • 按發展的規模而定,可由 12 至 50 多個雙課節( DL ,約 1.5 小時)。以下以一小規模,即 12DL 作說明:
    • 課堂課節 ( 8DL )
      • 課堂(主題引介)  社區探索  課堂(主題探討)  社區考察:(各 2DL )
    • 服務課節 ( 4DL)
      • 服務籌備 ( 1.5DL )  服務推行 ( 2DL )  反思 ( 0.5DL )
      • 服務推行可於非課節時間進行,如於小息時向同學推廣環保
    • 慶賀課節:
      • 可於反思課節中安排,或按排於周會或特別活動時段
  • 課程發展的例子 ( 1 )
    • 常識
      • 主題:尊重別人及社區共融
      • 服務:服務社區長者及少數族裔兒童
    • 中文
      • 主題:馬鞍山區的貧窮情況 (閱讀與寫作)
      • 服務:長者服務 / 老礦工服務
    • 綜合人文 / 通識
      • 主題: 可持續發展的中西區
      • 服務:設計及推廣堅道歷史建築路線
    • 綜合人文 + 視覺藝術
      • 主題:善用餘閒
      • 服務:手工藝 / 裝置藝術製作及醫院服務
  • 課程發展的例子 ( 2 )
    • 常識 +宗教
      • 主題:社區與愛
      • 服務:長者服務 / 少數族裔兒童 / 兒童友好社區倡議
    • 經公+家政
      • 主題:香港經濟發展與長者的退休生活
      • 服務:長者服務 – 長者健康飲食推廣
    • 生活學習課 (服務學習課)
      • 主題:荃灣面面觀
      • 服務:鄉郊區服務 / 社區環保推廣 / 無障礙社區倡議
  • Community Service A
    • Dialogue with critical understanding
    Sub- theme Healthy Eating Discipline Home Economics Services Promote healthy eating Task Design and promote Chinese Pudding Recipes
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  • Community service B
    • Initiate another level of social changes
    Sub- theme Leisure activities Discipline Design and technology Services redesign benches and chairs in community gardens Task Lobby councilors and officials to realize the changes
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  • Community service C
    • Sub- theme: intergenerational solidarity
    • Community Services:
      • Students learnt Baduanjin ( 八段錦 ), one form of Chinese qigong ( 氣功 ), from the senior citizens.
      • They convinced their Physical Education teacher to open the school mini-golf field for them to teach senior citizens mini-golf.
      • After that, they gained the support from their Chinese teacher in having some senior citizens to sit in their Chinese lessons, followed by that is the Chinese History lessons.
    • Process of Capital Transformation
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    • Waterfall
    • M.C.Escher, 1961
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Escher-waterfall.jpg
    • Circle of Friendship. Picasso, 1959
  • ‘ There are only two lasting bequests we can hope to give our young people – one of these is roots, the other is wings’ (Hodding Carter)
  • 參考資料
    • 余安邦等著( 2002 ) . << 社區有教室:學校課程與社區總體營造的遭逢與對話 >> 遠流 . 台灣
    • 余安邦等著( 2004 ) . << 社區有教室的批判性實踐 >> 遠流 . 台灣
    • Rahima C. Wade (ed.) 1997. Community service-learning : a guide to including service in the public school curriculum. Albany : State University of New York Press.
    • Ms Lynn Montrose (2001). Building Community & World-Ready Youth. Paper Presented in the National Service-Learning Conference 2001: National Youth Council
    • James C. Kielsmeier (2002) Recasting the Role of Youth in the 21st Century: Active Learning and Civic Engagement. Paper presented in the National Service-Learning Conference 2002: National Youth Council.
    • Kwok-bong, Chan (2009). Classroom in community: Serving the Elderly People, Learning from Senior Citizens. A community-based Service Learning for Secondary School students in Hong Kong. The Journal of Education, Vol.57, No.3. HK:Hong Kong Teachers' Association.
    • The Bank of I.D.E.A.S Website. http://www.bankofideas.com.au/
  • 謝 謝 ! 以 共享創意署名 - 非商業性 - 相同方式共享 3.0 香港 授權條款 釋出 陳國邦 CHAN Kwok-bong [email_address] http://servicelearning.bgca.org.hk http://www.slideshare.net/bongsir