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  • 1. Tourism Planning Toolkit For Local Government May 2006810387 - 578239
  • 2. INTRODUCTION - TOURISM PLANNING TOOLKIT The development of a Tourism Planning Toolkit for local government is a collaboration between the Ministry of Tourism, Local Government New Zealand and Lincoln University. The Toolkit brings together extensive existing information, as well as developing new resources, that will enable local government to improve tourism destination management in their areas. Over time it is hoped to enhance the existing components of the Toolkit, by adding new resources as they become available, to increase its scope and quality, as well as to promote good practice. The format for the Toolkit is: 1. Glossary of Terms 2. Tourism – A Major New Zealand Industry 3. Local Government’s Role in Tourism 4. Why Local Government Should Invest in Tourism 5. Potential Benefits of Tourism 6. Potential Challenges with Tourism 7. Purpose of the Toolkit 8. The Link Between the Tourism Toolkit and Local Government 9. How to Use the Tourism Planning Toolkit 10. Tourism Toolkit Structure 11. Situation Analysis Toolkit - Introduction - Visitor Demand Toolbox - Public Sector Infrastructure Toolbox - Natural Assets Toolbox - Visitor Satisfaction Toolbox - Tourism Industry Inventory Toolbox - Economic Impact Toolbox - Community Tourism Toolbox 12. Strategic Planning Toolkit - Introduction - Local Authority Tourism Planning Toolbox - Working with the Tourism Industry Toolbox - Infrastructure Planning Toolbox 13. Implementation Toolkit - Introduction - Tourism Partnerships Toolbox - Project Design, Appraisal & Development Toolbox - Tourism Project Evaluation Toolbox - Event Development, Funding & Evaluation Toolbox810387 2
  • 3. 14. Monitoring Performance Toolkit - Introduction - Performance Indicators Toolbox810387 3
  • 4. GLOSSARY OF TERMS Terms Definitions ACC Auckland City Council AEE Assessment of Environmental Effects CAM Commercial Accommodation Monitor CCO Council Controlled Organisation CGA Central Government Agency DoC Department of Conservation DTO District Tourism Organisation DTS Domestic Travel Survey FIT Free and Independent Travellers IPENZ Institute of Professional Engineers New Zealand IVA International Visitor Arrivals IVS International Visitor Survey LGA Local Government Act LGNZ Local Government New Zealand LTCCP Long Term Council Community Plan MAP Major Accommodation Providers RC Regional Council RMA Resource Management Act RTO Regional Tourism Organisation RTONZ Regional Tourism Organisation New Zealand TIANZ Tourism Industry Association New Zealand TLAs Territorial Local Authorities TRREC Tourism Recreation Research and Education Centre (Lincoln University) TSA Tourism Satellite Account UAC Uniform Annual Charge VFR Visiting Friends and Relations810387 4
  • 5. WHAT IS THE TOURISM PLANNING TOOLKIT? The Tourism Planning Toolkit (TPT) is a resource to help local government understand and plan for tourism. The kit consists of a series of toolboxes, each dealing with different aspects of tourism planning and management. These can be used together or separately. Each toolbox contains case studies and references to additional material. 1.1 PURPOSE OF THE TOURISM PLANNING TOOLKIT The purpose of the Tourism Planning Toolkit is to enable local authorities to take a comprehensive, sustainable approach to tourism planning. This might involve developing a full tourism strategy for a region, or improving specific aspects of existing tourism planning or management. Local governments play a key role in tourism in New Zealand. The TPT provides resource for territorial local authorities (TLAs) to respond to the opportunities and challenges tourism presents. The intended audience for the Tourism Planning Toolkit includes planners, economic development officers, and environment officers in TLAs. It also includes regional tourism organisations (RTOs), private planning firms which work with TLAs, and anyone else with an association with or interest in tourism planning.810387 5
  • 6. 1.2 STRUCTURE OF THE TOURISM PLANNING TOOLKIT 1. Tourism Planning Toolkit 2. Local Government and Tourism 3. Situation 4. Strategic 5. Implementation 6. Monitoring Analysis Planning Section Performance Section Section Section Toolboxes Toolboxes Toolboxes Toolboxes 3.1 Visitor 4.1 Local 5.1 Tourism 6.1 Performance demand authority tourism partnerships indicators 3.2 Economic planning 5.2 Project design, impact 4.2 Working with appraisal & 3.3 Tourism the tourism development industry inventory industry 5.3 Tourism 3.4 Visitor 4.3 Specific project evaluation satisfaction infrastructure 5.4 Event planning development 3.5 Public sector infrastructure funding & evaluation 3.6 Natural assets 3.7 Community The four main Sections form the basis of a tourism strategy. Each section consists of a number of Toolboxes, which contain a range of checklists and templates. These can be used, free of charge and copyright, to obtain the required information. Each Toolbox follows a standard format: – Introduction and Scope; – Why use this Toolbox? – Toolbox Resources; – Good Practice and Case Studies; – Additional Information.810387 6
  • 7. 1.3 HOW TO USE THE TOURISM PLANNING TOOLKIT This Toolkit is designed for use by TLAs and regional tourism organisation (RTO) staff who have some responsibility for destination management in their area. The Toolkit can be used in two ways: • To tackle specific issues associated with the development and management of tourism, including collecting data; • To develop a comprehensive tourism strategy to assist in planning for and funding key projects. If you wish to compile a tourism strategy, it may be easiest to start with the Situation Analysis Section. Complete the checklists, and note where you need to undertake additional research to gather the required information. By completing all four sections, you will have the information to prepare a tourism strategy. This will be a valuable planning tool which can sit alongside statutory and non-statutory council planning documents. You may find that it isn’t practical to obtain all of the information in the Toolkit at the moment. You can still work through the material and develop a tourism strategy which builds on the knowledge you do have, and note any information gaps you may wish to address in the future. Currently many local authorities do not have specific staff members responsible for tourism issues.3 The material in the Toolkit will be most effective where there is a person/s with designated responsibility for tourism issues, who can act as a coordinator and contact point for those within and outside the TLA. Implementation of a tourism strategy requires active and ongoing partnerships between the public and private sectors. A Note on the VICE Model Throughout the TPT, the VICE model (see below) is used as a tool to check whether the needs of stakeholders are being met. Viable tourism decisions require positive answers to these four questions: • How will this issue/decision affect the visitor? • What are the implications for the industry? 3Emerging Tourism Planning Processes and Practices in New Zealand: A Local and Regional Perspective; Lincoln University Report No 56/2003 http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm810387 7
  • 8. • What is the impact on the community? • What is the environmental effect? Environment Visitors Industry Community A successful, sustainable tourism industry needs to identify how to: Welcome, involve and satisfy Visitors Achieve a profitable and prosperous Industry Engage and benefit host Communities Protect and enhance the local Environment810387 8
  • 9. 2.1 TOURISM – A MAJOR NEW ZEALAND INDUSTRY4 Tourism and New Zealand’s economy Tourism is important for New Zealand’s future economic growth. It contributes $18.6 billion to the economy each year—9% of New Zealand’s gross domestic product. It is also an important source of employment. One in every 10 New Zealanders works in the tourism industry. Tourism is our largest export sector. International visitors contribute $8.3 billion to the economy each year, which accounts for 19.2% of export earnings. During 2006, 2.4 million international visitors arrived in New Zealand. Unlike other export sectors, which make products and sell them overseas, tourism brings its customers to New Zealand. The product we are selling is New Zealand itself—the people, the places, the food, the wine, the experiences. Domestic visitors are also a vital part of the tourism industry. They contribute $10.3 billion to the economy each year, and they help sustain tourism businesses during the low season. Product development for the domestic market provides a springboard for building export capability. The future growth of tourism in New Zealand Tourism is a large and growing part of the global economy. In 2006 there were 842 million international arrivals, an increase of 4.9% on the previous year. Total international expenditure on tourism was US$735 billion, an increase of 8.5%. In the global context, New Zealand is a very small player, with just 0.3% of international arrivals and 0.6% of international tourism expenditure. New Zealand’s international visitor arrivals have doubled since 1993, and they are expected to continue keep growing at a rate of about 4% a year. Domestic tourism is expected to grow more slowly—by about 0.8% annually. Income from international tourism is forecast to overtake that of domestic tourism by 2011. Visit www.tourismresearch.govt.nz for up to date research. 4 New Zealand Tourism Strategy 2015; www.nztourismstrategt.com810387 9
  • 10. 2.2 LOCAL GOVERNMENT’S ROLE IN TOURISM Local government is a key player in New Zealand’s tourism sector. Local government manages the natural and cultural resources that tourism relies on, provides core infrastructure, attractions and facilities, and often funds regional marketing and visitor information. Much of the quality of the visitor experience derives from the environment, amenities and services at a destination. Balanced tourism development therefore requires a public/private partnership approach. Post cards from Home: The Local Government Tourism Strategy 2003 (www.lgnz.co.nz and search for ‘Postcards from Home’) provides more detail about local government’s involvement in tourism: a) By statute, local government is responsible for the planning and management of New Zealand’s natural and cultural resources. Tourism, among other industries, relies on having these resources in a healthy state; b) Local government provides the core utilities and infrastructure on which the tourism industry is based. This includes district and city roads, lighting, water and sewerage, public transport systems, signs, airports and ports. Local government operates attractions such as museums, art galleries, sports stadia, convention centres, parks, events, tours, and other amenities. Collectively, this represents a multi billion dollar investment of public money. It also means that local government is perhaps the largest tourism operator in the country; c) Local government enables regional marketing and provides visitor information by being the primary source of funding for regional tourism organisations (RTOs) and the Visitor Information Network (VIN). The challenge for local government is to enable a quality visitor experience. Tourism planning by local authorities should: • Be strategic, and well-coordinated with other stakeholders; • Facilitate participation by stakeholders, and be accountable to them; • Respect the scale and character of the location; • Include monitoring, and be open to adaptation.5 5 Sustainable Tourism Development, Hall 1997, Hall 2000810387 10
  • 11. 2.3 WHY LOCAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD INVEST IN TOURISM Tourism contributes to the social, cultural, economic and environmental wellbeing of an area. Therefore many local authorities place high priority on supporting and developing tourism. Tourism is estimated to provide one in ten jobs in New Zealand, many of them located outside the main employment centres, in small businesses employing fewer than five people. Research undertaken for Local Government New Zealand and the Economic Development Association of New Zealand in 2003 indicated that local authorities collectively spent $29.5 million on tourism, making it the largest area of direct economic development expenditure. Areas of expenditure specified in the study included: events (see Event Development, Funding & Evaluation Toolbox); cultural tourism; (www.creativenz.govt.nz/resources/demand-for-cultural-tourism.pdf); regional tourism organisations; tourism marketing (promotion); and visitor Information Centres (VIN) (http://www.newzealand.com/travel/ index.cfm?01AEF69B-7947-46E4-A548-CDA5370874E6).810387 11
  • 12. 2.4 HOW THE TOURISM PLANNING TOOLKIT CAN FIT WITH LOCAL GOVERNMENT PLANNING A tourism strategy is one of what may be a number of specific strategic plans developed by a local authority to provide direction in the preparation of an Annual Plan. TLAs are not legally bound to provide a tourism strategy. However the new requirement for Long Term Council Community Plans6 provides a possible pathway for the preparation of a tourism strategy, or for consideration of a council’s specific tourism-related activities. The diagram below indicates where a tourism strategy might fit in the planning process. For TLAs wishing to develop a tourism strategy, the Tourism Planning Toolkit identifies the essential information requirements. The Toolkit also provides tools to address region-specific issues. The Planning Framework “Wellbeing” Community Outcomes Council Monitoring and Contribution to Review Outcomes Long Term Council Tourism Strategy Annual Report Annual Plan Action 6 Local Government Act 2002810387 12
  • 13. 2.5 POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF TOURISM FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT Tourism can benefit many sectors of the community. There are also potential challenges which communities may need to develop strategies to address. Benefits Economic Social/Cultural Environment Protects and provides a source of income for natural and built heritage Enhances the image of an area, attracting commercial investment outside the tourism industry as well, by demonstrating to potential investors that the place is good to locate to A significant catalyst for Leads to the creation and maintenance of Draws attention to the need to economic growth and local amenities protect the natural environment employment and encourages a more rigorous Increases demand for other non analysis of the importance of the tourism businesses local eco-system Supports and helps to maintain local services, such as shops and restaurants Provides re-skilling, training and employment opportunities Provides supplementary incomes to those seeking second jobs, part time hours, unsocial hours Encourages residents to stay and spend leisure time Encourages upgrading and re-use of derelict land and buildings Brings expenditure from external Supports a programme of events, arts, sports sources into the local market and other culture Helps to build distinctive communities, thus increasing local pride and self confidence Provides opportunities for social inclusion Encourages cultural diversity Challenges Economic Social/Cultural Environment Tourism is a diverse sector so co-ordination is complex and ongoing Tourism spending is dependent on economic, social and other factors. High Places strain on transport levels of the dollar can reduce the numbers of and spending power of foreign infrastructure, particularly roads visitors and encourages New Zealanders to travel overseas and parking, and other infrastructure, like sewerage and water An economic downturn in source Can be an unattractive sector for people Can place additional pressure on countries can lead to a reduction entering the labour market because of sensitive local environments and in visitors which impacts on New unsocial hours, seasonal/part time work therefore needs effective visitor Zealand businesses in the short or management long term depending upon the severity of downturn Demand can be seasonal and variable over a weekly cycle, which impacts particularly on employment Requires all weather facilities and activities Is very competitive and increasingly sophisticated Requires ongoing investment from local government810387 13
  • 14. 3. SITUATION ANALYSIS SECTION To address specific local tourism issues or to develop a tourism strategy, you first need to ask, “what information do I need and why?” The Situation Analysis Section includes the following toolboxes, which will help you to answer this question and develop a comprehensive situation analysis: 3.1 Visitor Demand Toolbox; 3.2 Economic Impact Toolbox; 3.3 Tourism Industry Inventory Toolbox; 3.4 Visitor Satisfaction Toolbox; 3.5 Public Sector Infrastructure Toolbox; 3.6 Natural Assets Toolbox; 3.7 Community Tourism Toolbox. These areas are repeated in the Monitoring Performance Section (6.1), with suggested performance indicators for each. The diagram below identifies the dimensions for a situation analysis using the areas of visitors, industry, community and environment (see VICE model, 1.3), with examples of data requirements in each area. Situation Analysis Audit Situation Analysis Outcomes V Visitors - numbers, trends, satisfaction D a • Key issues t a • Constraints I Industry - inventory, trends, performance S • Impediments o C Community - trends, economic, status, needs & u r • Dynamics outcomes c e s • Performance Environment - infrastructure, capacity, quality, E policies810387 14
  • 15. Complete the checklist below to confirm what information you already have about tourism in your area, and what you are unsure about. The rest of this section will help you fill in any gaps you identify. Checklist - Key Tourism Information for Local Authorities Information Yes No Unsure/ Partially 1. The number and type of visitors to the area 2. The economic benefits provided for your area by visitors 3. The number and range of accommodation facilities in the area 4. The number of attractions and activities in the area 5. The forecast number of visitors to the area for the next five years 6. The impact on accommodation and attraction requirements from the forecast visitor increases/decreases 7. The views of visitors on the quality of their experience to the area 8. The views and opinions of residents in respect to the current levels of tourism in the area 9. The views and opinions of residents in respect to the forecast levels of tourism in the area 10. The capacity of current infrastructure and services to cope with existing and future demand from visitors 11. The impact of visitors on the environment 12. The level of satisfaction of the tourism industry with maintenance and development of tourism infrastructure and services in the area810387 15
  • 16. 3.1 VISITOR DEMAND TOOLBOX 3.1.1 Introduction and Scope Effective tourism planning by local authorities, RTOs and businesses requires an understanding of visitor numbers and visitors’ use of infrastructure and facilities. This section provides tools for you to check what you know about visitors to your region, and find out how to obtain data about current and future visitor numbers. The Toolbox follows the standard format (see Tourism Planning Toolkit Structure, 1.2): 3.1.1 Introduction and Scope; 3.1.2 Why use this Toolbox? 3.1.3 Toolbox Resources; 3.1.4 Good Practice and Case Studies; 3.1.5 Additional Information. 3.1.2 Why use this Toolbox? Understanding visitor demand will provide you with essential data to plan for future tourism infrastructure needs and develop destination management strategies. An essential starting point in understanding the needs of visitors is to have a clear definition of what is meant by the visitor industry. In general terms the visitor industry is understood to include international and domestic overnight and day excursionists. These three categories can be further refined as shown below: International – overnight, day trips; Domestic – overnight, day trips; Local – day trips. Without visitors there wouldn’t be a tourism industry. It is critical that you understand the characteristics and behaviour of visitors to your area, so that you are able to address issues that exist or may arise in the future. As well as the traditional visitors who visit tourism attractions and undertake activities (eg tramping, kayaking), the visitor market also includes families going to another city for a day to attend a sporting event, people attending conferences and those visiting relations. The definition of ‘visitor’ is very broad. The diagram, “Visitor Demand Model for a Destination”, indicates the demand components and helps you to answer the questions of who comes, why they come, what services they utilise, how long they stay, their level of satisfaction with their visit and the economic benefit generated.810387 16
  • 17. Visitor Demand Model for a Destination International Visitor Arrivals to NZ International & Domestic Visitor Arrivals to a Region/Destination Purpose of Visit Visiting Friends & Holiday/Leisure Business Other Relations (VFR) Services/facilities utilised Accommodation Transport Activities Attractions Other infrastructure Amenities Length of stay (nights) Day trips Visitor satisfaction Economic impact 3.1.3 Toolbox Resources By completing the checklist about visitor characteristics and behaviour, you can confirm what information you already have, what you need and what you are unsure about. The rest of the Toolbox will help you fill in any information gaps. Checklist - Visitor Characteristics and Behaviour Information Information Yes No Unsure/ Partially 1. Trends in visitor arrivals (international) and domestic tourism 2. The number of international and domestic visitors to your area 3. The country that international visitors come from 4. The regions in New Zealand that domestic visitors come from 5. The reason they are visiting the area 6. The transport used to reach the area 7. The type of accommodation they are staying in 8. The attractions and activities undertaken by visitors in the area810387 17
  • 18. 9. How long they stay in the area 10. The number of day trips to the area as distinct from those who stay overnight 11. Seasonality visitor profile for the area 12. International and domestic visitor forecasts for the area a) New Zealand Core Tourism Data Set There are various agencies that provide tourism-related information relevant to visitor demand. The table below (developed from the Ministry of Tourism’s research material – www.tourismresearch.govt.nz) contains details on the core tourism data set. New Zealand Core Tourism Data Set Data Type What it Tells Us Use by Local authorities Limitations 1. Tourism Prepared by Statistics NZ, Comparison of the size Provides information Satellite the TSA utilises a range of and contribution of for whole of New Account (TSA) data from a number of different New Zealand Zealand only, not Provides an official sources. Through this industries regions or specific measure of the national process a number of key destinations economic contribution measures of tourism are Indicate changes in the of the tourism industry generated, including: performance of the tourism industry Expenditure Direct and indirect tourism value-added expenditure Contribution to GDP Employment GST revenue Export earnings 2. International The IVA records the Visitor arrival trends Provides arrival data at Visitor number of short-term key airports and ports visitors to New Zealand Specific market trends Arrivals (IVA) Not an indicator of The IVA measures and provides a range of arrivals to New Zealand information these visitors, visitor numbers staying by international visitors. including: in the city/port The data are derived Country of origin from arrival cards and collated by Statistics NZ Purpose of visit Intended length of stay Age and gender characteristics Port of entry Seasonal arrival patterns 3. International The IVS provides national Determining visitor For most small Visitor Survey level information on a numbers to larger local destinations and local (IVS) quarterly and annual basis. authorities and specific authorities the sample The IVS provides key It covers the measurement destinations (Auckland, sizes are too small and information on the of: Rotorua, Wellington, the information should810387 18
  • 19. Data Type What it Tells Us Use by Local authorities Limitations behaviour and Expenditure Christchurch, be treated with caution expenditure of Queenstown) can provide international visitors in Activities undertaken essential information to New Zealand Transport and aid destination accommodation used management and Visitor demographics marketing 4. Domestic The survey provides Determining visitor For most small Travel Survey quarterly and annual numbers to regions, larger destinations and local (DTS) statistics on domestic local authorities and authorities the sample The DTS measures travel including: specific destinations sizes are too small and behaviour and Day trips and (Auckland, Rotorua, the information should expenditure of domestic overnight trips Wellington, Christchurch, be treated with caution travellers within New Queenstown) can provide Zealand Nights spent in individual regions essential information to aid destination Purpose of travel management and Expenditure, marketing accommodation and transport used Activities undertaken Traveller demographics 5. Commercial The CAM generates Reliable data at the local For smaller local Accommodatio monthly, quarterly and authority level in most authorities details for n Monitor annual statistics on the cases specific (CAM) following measures: accommodation types CAM measures the Good indicator of demand Guest nights and spare capacity may be withheld capacity and utilisation because of of commercial Capacity Good indicator of trends in confidentiality due to accommodation in New Occupancy rates terms of both supply and small sample sizes Zealand. Statistics NZ Employee numbers demand produces the CAM, with Does not include non Origin of guest GST registered data collected from a monthly survey of Accommodation types providers around 3,500 Seasonal and regional Many B&Bs will not accommodation patterns be included providers 6. Forecasts – The forecasts cover a Provides trends Cannot account for National range of key measures unknown acts that may The TRCNZ provides including: To date the forecasts have been very reliable influence tourism forecasts for the NZ International arrivals, demand – economic tourism industry. The indicators of future nights and expenditure performance downturns, wars, suite of forecasts disease etc provides a seven year Breakdowns by forward forecast of market and purpose of visit expected tourism demand levels Domestic overnight travel Domestic outbound travel 7. Forecasts – The forecasts cover a Assist with planning of Cannot account for Regional range of key measures infrastructure and services unknown acts that may Regional forecasts including: at the regional and some influence tourism810387 19
  • 20. Data Type What it Tells Us Use by Local authorities Limitations establish an expectation Reports of tourism sub-regional levels demand – economic of how tourism will be activity for each New Identify marketing downturns, wars, distributed throughout Zealand region opportunities disease etc New Zealand and International arrivals Identify potential provides a seven year to each region, nights congestion/overcrowding/ forward forecast of expected tourism and expenditure environmental impacts demand levels Breakdowns by market and purpose of visit to each region Domestic overnight and day travel to each region www.tourismresearch.govt.nz b) Gathering Accommodation Data for Smaller Destinations For smaller local authorities the required information may not be directly available from existing resources and it may be necessary to develop your own surveys. Some RTOs’ websites include specific information on visitors to their regions. The table below provides a method of obtaining data on the use of accommodation in your area. It can also be useful in obtaining data where there are many accommodation providers which are not included in the Commercial Accommodation Monitor because their revenue is less than $40,000 per year (eg bed and breakfast operators). Method for Developing Visitor Profile for Smaller Local Authorities and Destinations Information Method Benefits Required Accommodation Data Develop a monthly survey for Provides base data on who visits accommodation operators in your area and over time will indicate trends, to include: peaks and troughs Number of rooms Can provide feedback to operators % of rooms sold per month which they can use to benchmark Origin of visitors their position Length of stay Assists in marketing the area to specific visitor/ market types 3.1.4 Good Practice and Case Studies a) Lincoln University Lincoln University has prepared case studies funded by the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology (Tourism Strategic Portfolio Output), which include information on visitor profiles and characteristics in four different New Zealand locations – Rotorua, Kaikoura, West Coast and Christchurch. The latest study is ‘Christchurch and810387 20
  • 21. Canterbury Visitor Profile and Forecasts; Characteristics, Attractions and Decision Making: Lincoln University; Report No 30/2003’. Details of the reports including methodologies used are available on the web at: http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm b) Christchurch & Canterbury Marketing (CCM) – Key Tourism Statistics CCM is the regional tourism organisation (RTO) which has the responsibility of marketing Christchurch and Canterbury to domestic and international visitors. It has over the last few years developed the Key Tourism Statistics (KTS). This provides specific information on the performance of the Canterbury region across a range of tourism indicators applicable to all local authorities – visitor numbers, accommodation, comparison across local authorities and with other major centres (Auckland, Rotorua, Wellington and Queenstown). In addition information is provided on sales through the Visitor Information Centre. http://www.christchurchnz.net/canterbury/ktsdetail/ c) Obtaining Visitor Numbers for Small Destinations As noted earlier most national data sources can only be broken down to provide a regional picture at best. For tourism planning and provision, especially when peak volumes are a crucial issue (eg for water provision), there is a need to develop reliable measures of local visitor demand. Akaroa As part of a study to determine water and waste water usage in Akaroa5, it was essential to estimate the number of visitors staying in the town during specific periods. In testing demand estimation models at Akaroa, it was discovered that a reliable estimate of demand could be established by four “snapshot’ interviews, especially when these could be related to longer term measures (eg CAM, traffic counts). To estimate visitor numbers a three stage approach was undertaken and this proved to be a viable alternative method of determining the number of visitors for small communities. Stage 1 involved choosing three specific periods and reviewing the Akaroa occupancy rates of the Commercial Accommodation Monitor for these periods. Stage 2 involved surveys (house to house calls) of resident properties to identify whether they were permanent residences or holiday homes. Surveys were completed of those in residence. 5 Tourism: Waste and Water in Akaroa (Kaikoura, Hanmer); Cullen, R., Dakers, A., McNicol, J., Meyer-Hubbert, G. Fairweather, J.R., Simmons, D.G. TRREC Report No 38, Lincoln University, 2003. http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm810387 21
  • 22. Stage 3 involved a street survey to determine type of visit (eg holiday, visiting friends and relations, business), type of accommodation used and length of stay. These sets of information were then analysed to assess the degree of correlation and usefulness. Kaikoura The flow diagram provides a second example of assessing visitor numbers in small communities, taken from Lincoln University’s work in Kaikoura. Annual Flow of Visitors into Kaikoura 1. Five samples taken - November, December, January, early March, late March 12. Add in the estimated number of visitors 2. Traffic counted for one week in each month: arriving by bus or train - provides hourly data flow - provides seven day average flow for each hour 11. Calculate the annual total from estimated flows for the weeks not sampled (regression 3. Vehicles observed for a sample day of that analysis) week: - from 8.00am to 5.00pm (usually) 10. Repeat for each of the five sample months to get a weekly total for each month 4. Each hour sampled (6 minutes) to: - identify visitor vehicles (licence plates checked) - determine percentage of visitor vehicles 9. Multiply by seven to get estimated number of - count number of visitors per vehicle visitors for the week 5. Estimate number of vehicles each hour from: - seven day average flow for each hour 8. Calculate daily total from sum of each hour - percentage of visitor vehicles 6. Vehicle number adjusted for double counts 7. Estimate visitors per hour from: (licence plates identified) caused by vehicles - adjusted vehicles per hour entering Kaikoura more than once - visitors per vehicle The graph below compares actual Lincoln data recorded and regression data for Kaikoura and Hapuku Transit NZ traffic counters (north of Kaikoura). The graph shows a close correlation between the actual and regression data, indicating that the survey methodology was robust.810387 22
  • 23. 25000 20000 VEHICLES 15000 10000 5000 0 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 WEEKS KAIKOURA-ACTUAL HAPUKU-ACTUAL HAPUKU-REGR KAIKOURA-REGR 3.1.5 Additional Information TRREC Report No. 2: Estimating the Number of Visitors to Kaikoura Over One Year By Developing A Vehicle Observation Method Fairweather, J.R.; Horn, C.M.; Simmons, D.G, 1998. TRREC Report No. 3: Summertime Visitors to Kaikoura: Characteristics, Attractions and Activities Simmons, D.G.; Horn, C.M.; Fairweather, J.R, 1998. TRREC Report No. 12: Visitors to Rotorua: Characteristics, Activities and Decision- Making Moore, K.; Fairweather, J.R.; Simmons, D.G., 2000. TRREC Report No. 20: West Coast Visitor Report, Moran, D., Sleeman, R, Simmons, D.G., 2000. TRREC Report No. 30: Christchurch and Canterbury Visitor Profile and Forecasts. Sleeman, R, Simmons, D.G., 2003. All reports are available through the Lincoln website: http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm810387 23
  • 24. 3.2 ECONOMIC IMPACT TOOLBOX 3.2.1 Introduction and Scope Data on the local economic impact of tourism is very important for councils and businesses. Yet national economic data is often not reliable at the local authority level. This Toolbox provides checklists and survey methodologies to help you calculate the economic impact of tourism in your region. The Toolbox follows the standard format (see Tourism Planning Toolkit Structure, 1.2): 3.2.1 Introduction and Scope; 3.2.2 Why use this Toolbox? 3.2.3 Toolbox Resources; 3.2.4 Good Practice and Case Studies; 3.2.5 Additional Information. 3.2.2 Why use this Toolbox? Knowing the economic value of tourism within a local authority area is important in understanding the benefits tourism can bring to a community. Many local authorities own and manage tourism facilities such as museums, art galleries, visitor information centres, convention centres and events. In addition, local authorities invest in regional tourism organisations (RTOs) to market the region on their behalf. Once you have obtained information about the economic contribution of tourism, you can use it to: Determine the priority for tourism within the local authority as a contributor to the economic development of the region; Help evaluate whether current and potentially increased expenditure on tourism facilities and marketing is a sound investment, providing economic and social benefits for residents and businesses as well as for the local authority. 3.2.3 Toolbox Resources By completing the checklist about the economic contribution of tourism, you can confirm what information you already have, what you need and what you are unsure about. The rest of the Toolbox will help you fill in any information gaps.810387 24
  • 25. Checklist: Economic Contribution of Tourism Key Information Yes No Unsure/ Partially 1. How many visitors come to the area? 2. How much do visitors spend in the area and on what? 3. How many tourism businesses are there in the area? 4. How many people are employed directly in different types of tourism businesses? 5. How do other businesses and residents benefit from tourism expenditure? 6. How much of the money spent by visitors stays in the area? 7. Regional and national tourism trends/performance a) Methods of Measuring Tourism Impacts Local authorities require cost-effective ways of measuring both the direct and flow-on impacts of tourism. In this section two methods of establishing direct impacts are illustrated, a source of approximate multipliers is given, and copies of recent questionnaires are provided. The two approaches to estimating visitor impacts are: Direct surveys of visitor numbers and spend, and; Direct surveys of business employment and financial ratios. Both need to be combined with estimates of employment to output ratios, and value- added to output ratios, to give the whole range of direct impacts which include output, employment and value added. The diagram below, “Options for Estimating the Economic Impact of Tourism”, illustrates the two approaches.810387 25
  • 26. Options for Estimating the Economic Impact of Tourism Visitor Numbers Visitor Spend Visitor numbers by category, Spend per visitor, by sector type, preferably separated into day trip and for both day visitors and overnight overnight and further separated into visitors and calculate for both international and domestic. international and domestic visitors Direct Visitor Spend Total visitor spend by sector type Conversion ratios1: Survey of Businesses $ sales : FTE; Alternative method of estimating household income : sales; tourism direct impacts valued added : sales Direct Direct Direct Employment in tourism Household income in Value added in tourism by sector type tourism by sector type by sector type Industry Multipliers Industry Multipliers Industry Multipliers Total tourism- Total tourism – Total tourism- dependent employment dependent annual dependent annual in region household income in value-added in region region 1. Information on the ratio of employment to output, value-added to output and, household income to output comes from the study input/output models, which in turn are based on a Statistics New Zealand national model. This is one of the most technical Toolboxes and local authorities may decide that external assistance will be the most cost effective way to obtain the information required.810387 26
  • 27. b) Strengths and Weaknesses of the Visitor Survey Method The survey of visitors is more accurate than the survey of tourism businesses for estimating visitor expenditure in both small and large centres, and probably also for estimating tourism employment and value-added in large centres. Large centres are likely to have employment : output and value-added : output ratios which are similar to national averages, whereas in small centres this might not be the case. The weakest part of the visitor survey method is the difficulty in establishing total visitor numbers by visitor type. It is also necessary to survey a large number of visitors to get reliable estimates of average expenditure per person. The survey cost is about $5 per visitor, or $10,000 for a sample of 1,000. In small centres the estimates of employment and value added are also unreliable unless businesses are surveyed to find out their value-added to output and employment to output ratios. This costs around $15 - 20,000. (See section 3.7.3 for an example of a visitor survey form to collect data used to estimate the economic impact of tourism on an area). This has been designed for a specific destination and therefore should be used as a guide for developing surveys appropriate to the destination. c) Strengths and Weaknesses of Business Survey Method This method provides good measures of direct employment in tourism by industry type, but does not provide a good measure of output or value-added, unless it is supplemented by a more extensive survey of businesses in the region to estimate value added and output per FTE. In reasonably small regions the method is only appropriate where it is practical to visit every business selling directly to visitors and where businesses have a good feel for whether their customers are visitors or locals. The survey to estimate direct employment costs under $5,000 in a small – medium sized centre, because it is possible to survey 5 – 10 businesses per hour. A broader survey to estimate value added and output per FTE is considerably more expensive, especially if information on the mix and origin of inputs is gathered, and costs around $15 - 20,000. It does however have the advantage of giving information which enables the calculation of region-specific multipliers.810387 27
  • 28. d) Estimation of Multipliers The estimation of multipliers is expensive. As described above a survey of business expenditure will cost $15 – 20,000 and then the information has to be incorporated into a regional economic model. For small centres with small multipliers, the costs are high for an improvement in accuracy which is unlikely to change estimates of total tourism impacts by more than ten per cent. In our view it is much more cost effective to use a typical GRIT approach (Generation of Regional Input-output Tables – which estimate the source of inputs into regional industries) to estimate multipliers. The cost of this is likely to be around $2 - 3,000. At present both Butcher Partners Limited in Christchurch and Market Economics Ltd in Auckland provide industry-specific impact multipliers to order. ------------ Hello, Lincoln University is doing some work to find out the economic importance of tourism to Christchurch and other communities in New Zealand. To do this we need to find out something about visitor expenditure. Would you be able to spend five minutes to answer a few questions? 1. What country are you from? 2. Did you stay in Akaroa Town or District last night or will you stay tonight ? YES- TOWN YES – DISTRICT NOT TOWN NO What sort of accommodation did you / will you stay at in Akaroa or the district ? 1 2 3 4 Bed & Commercial Camp / campervan Motel Breakfast Camp Ground (not at commercial (not DOC) campground) 5 6 7 8 Backpackers Private Home Hotel Other (specify) hostel 3. How long have you been in Akaroa until now: days hours 4. How long do you expect your total stay in Akaroa will be: days hours Interviewer Note for Tables on Next Page: For overnight visitors who have been here less than 24 hours, we want to be able to adjust their expenditure to a per 24 hours, so get actual hours to date. Some people think of expenditure in some categories on a per trip basis (e.g. accommodation, where they pay at the end). If someone is staying overnight in commercial accommodation but has spent nothing so far or in the last 24 hours, please ask them to estimate what their accommodation expenditure per night will be.810387 28
  • 29. For day visitors we want to rate up their expenditure to date to expenditure per trip, so we need to know how many hours they have been here so far and how many hours they expect to be here in total. There is a feeling that Akaroa gets only a small part of visitor spending but has to provide a major amount of public facilities (toilets, walks, parking areas etc). So for day visitors only (people who will not stay in town or district for a night) we want to find what proportion of 24-hours of expenditure is spent in Akaroa. This is the reason for the middle column in the expenditure table. For the following table we want to know how much the average person spends in a day here, and what they spend it on. • If you are in a group (e.g. family or friends) where spending by one person is not representative of each person (e.g. if one person pays for most of the food or petrol or accommodation), please tell us all the spending by the group; • If you are on your own, or you pay your own share of joint spending, please tell us only your own spending. 5. How many people does this expenditure cover ? 6. What is your best estimate of your expenditure (or that of your group) ? a. In Akaroa up until now for each of the following categories ? For day visitors and overnighters who did not stay here last night. or b. In Akaroa during the last 24 hours for the following categories ? For overnighters who stayed in Akaroa last night # Category Estimated Spend (NZD) All Visitors: Day visitors only: Total stay.** Only if that is how the Spend In Akaroa and District Tourism Spend outside respondent wants to to date or last 24 hours Akaroa and District in give the answer: (whichever is less) the 24 hours prior to Note total and your departure from number of days: Akaroa* e.g. “$250 for 3 nights” 1 Accommodation in this town 2 Travel (excl. international fares) 3 Food and beverages at takeaway, café, hotel etc810387 29
  • 30. 4 Entertainment / activities / attractions 5 Petrol 6 Retail (groceries, clothes, souvenirs etc. etc. ) 7 Miscellaneous / any other spending in this town *** * e.g. If they arrived in Akaroa at 9:00a.m. and will leave at 4:00 p.m., how much did they spend outside of Akaroa since 4:00 p.m. yesterday . Do not fill in for those whose day trip is from home to Akaroa. ** Those staying overnight might find it easier to give expenditure on some items for the whole stay – especially accommodation. That is fine. Remember that for those staying at least one night, the objective is to calculate expenditure per 24 hours. If they are staying in commercial accommodation but have not given a cost for accommodation, inquire about this. If they do not know what the cost will be, code as n.a. *** Interviewer may recode this to appropriate place. E.g. wine is either hotels and restaurants or retail. 3.2.4 Good Practice and Case Studies The Economic Impact of Tourism – Christchurch City and Akaroa A study undertaken by Lincoln University6 highlights the different economic impacts that tourism can bring to an area. The study showed that in Christchurch every direct job in tourism leads, on average, to a further 0.46 jobs elsewhere in Christchurch. In Akaroa, however, each direct job in tourism leads, on average, to only a further 0.15 jobs elsewhere in the Banks Peninsula District economy, and probably only half of those are created in Akaroa. The study indicated that there are high flow-on effects of visitor spending in Christchurch (multiplier 1.81), whereas Akaroa, because of the undiversified nature of the economy, has a much lower multiplier (1.15). Previous studies indicated multipliers of 1.19 for Westland and 1.38 for Kaikoura. Proportionally Christchurch has a flow-on effect of two to three times the other areas because of the diversified nature of its economy. Despite the high level of visitor numbers and visitor nights, Christchurch is the least dependent tourism centre of those studied because of its diversification. Akaroa is the most tourism-dependent centre studied, and major tourism growth or a significant decline would both have very far-reaching effects. To find out more click on http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm 6 TRREC Report 37810387 30
  • 31. 3.2.5 Additional Information Priority Reports with methodological appendicies: TRREC Report No. 37: The Economic Impact of Tourism on Christchurch City and Akaroa Township: Butcher, G., Fairweather, J.R., Simmons, D.G., 2003. TRREC Report No. 8: The Economic Impact of Tourism on Kaikoura:Butcher, G.; Fairweather, J.R.; Simmons, D.G., 1998. Other Reports : TRREC Report No. 17: The Economic Impact of Tourism on Rotorua: Butcher, G.; Fairweather, J.R.; Simmons, D.G., 2000. TRREC Report 55 No. 26: The Economic Impact of Tourism on Westland: District Butcher, G., McDonald, G., Fairweather, J.R., Simmons, D.G., 2001. These reports are available through the Lincoln website, at http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm Effects of Tourism Demand on Water and Sewerage Infrastructure in Four Local Authorities; Market Economics Limited, 2003, www.tourism.govt.nz810387 31
  • 32. 3.3 TOURISM INDUSTRY INVENTORY TOOLBOX 3.3.1 Introduction and Scope Local authorities are inextricably linked with the tourism industry. Local authorities relate to tourism businesses through the services they provide as regulator, planner, funder, facility owner, manager and infrastructure and service provider. Tourism businesses can be difficult to categorise, since many also operate across other sectors. It is nonetheless important that local authorities are aware of both the demand and supply side of tourism. The Visitor Demand Toolbox considered the demand side, and this Toolbox looks at the supply side of tourism – the accommodation, transport, attractions and activities available to visitors to your region. It will help you to identify the tourism product which exists in your area, and any gaps and opportunities for development. The Toolbox follows the standard format (see Tourism Planning Toolkit Structure, 1.2): 3.3.1 Introduction and Scope; 3.3.2 Why use this Toolbox? 3.3.3 Toolbox Resources; 3.3.4 Good Practice and Case Studies; 3.3.5 Additional Information. 3.3.2 Why use this Toolbox? To maximise a region’s potential for tourism, the local authority needs to be proactive about ensuring it has the products to attract and retain visitors. The local authority is best-placed to perform this function, by using its statutory and non-statutory roles to facilitate the development of appropriate tourism products through the public and private sectors. RTOs’ focus is marketing, and their ability to influence the supply, range and quality of tourism product is often limited. So the responsibility rests with the local authority as the enabler, and the private sector as the major supplier of tourism product. What can a local authority do to meet this responsibility? Essentially, it needs to be aware of levels of demand for all the key elements of the tourism product, like accommodation and transport (see diagram below, in 3.3.3), and be proactive in ensuring that supply can match demand. There are a number of advantages for a local authority in taking a proactive approach: Where a TLA plans in advance of peak tourism demand, there is an opportunity to shape tourism development in the area. This improves the likelihood of meeting community expectations, rather than simply responding to development pressures.810387 32
  • 33. In the accommodation sector, the time lag between identifying a need for more facilities and opening new ones can act as a significant brake on tourism’s development and potential. This disadvantage is reduced when gaps have been identified in advance and appropriate action taken. A similar approach applies for visitor attractions. Where gaps are identified in advance, local authorities can work with the tourism industry, developers and investors to identify market needs, development opportunities and potential sites. This Toolbox contains checklists for you to review the number, range and quality of tourism products in your area, and identify any gaps. 3.3.3 Toolbox Resources The diagram below identifies the key elements of the tourism product (supply side). Tourism Product Accommodation Transport Activities Tourism Product Attractions Restaurants Retail Entertainment An inventory of tourism products identifies the opportunities and constraints that a local authority has in attracting visitors to their town/ city/region. Gaps in the product range and/or poor quality facilities will make places less attractive to visitors. Lack of transport and accommodation will deter visitors from travelling to and stopping at the destination.810387 33
  • 34. Until an inventory of attractions, activities, accommodation and transport has been completed and matched with an understanding of visitor demand and satisfaction, destinations will be unsure whether they are meeting visitor expectations. In terms of prioritising tourism requirements, the attraction and activity sectors are the key areas. Visitors come to New Zealand ‘to see and do things’ and it is the attractions sector that provides this opportunity. Local government is often also, a key provider of attractions and amenities for visitors (and residents). The checklists which follow enable you to complete a tourism product inventory for your region. a) Checklist: Attractions Inventory Type of Attractions No of Businesses Amusement/theme parks/entertainment complex Art galleries Historic buildings/sites Industry (brewery, winery) Māori cultural experience Museums Natural (glacier, caves, rivers, lakes mountains) Nature (zoos/wildlife/aquaria) Transport (train, boat trips, plane trips) Other Total b) Checklist: Activities Inventory Type of Activity No of Businesses 4WD adventures Abseiling and climbing Adventures and outdoor pursuits Jet boating Boating – other Bungy jumping Canoeing, kayaking Caving Cycling/mountain biking Diving Eco tours Fishing Gliding Golf courses Horse trekking Hot air ballooning Hunting and shooting Parachuting and skydiving Paragliding, hang gliding, parasailing Rafting and river surfing810387 34
  • 35. Snow sports Tramping, trekking, hiking, walking Other Total c) Checklist: Accommodation Inventory Accommodation Type No of No of No of Beds Avg No of Properties Rooms/sites Rooms Hotel Motel Backpacker/hostel Farm stay/home stay/B&B Caravan/camping sites Student accommodation Luxury lodge Rented accommodation shared flat National Park/DoC hut Time share/apartment Free camping/ campervan Other Total d) Checklist: Transport Inventory Type of Transport No of Businesses Campervan and motor home rentals Bus charter companies Limousine and chauffeur services/tours Rental cars and vans Trains Launch and sailing charter and cruises Ferry and water taxi services Coach tour operators Air transport Other Total From the inventory it will be possible to identify any obvious gaps in the provision of tourism product. These may need to be addressed in the Strategic Planning Section (Section 4). From the attractions inventory it should be possible to identify the attributes (physical and man-made) that emphasise the local distinctiveness of the area. This will be particularly important in determining competitive advantage and marketing strategies. 3.3.4 Good Practice and Case Studies a) Lake Coleridge Basin Tourism Group810387 35
  • 36. As part of the development of a strategic plan for the group, it was considered essential to know the extent and condition of the services and infrastructure available. The survey assessed public facilities, food and beverage, shopping and services, accommodation, attractions and activities. The inventory, which is relatively straightforward for a small area, was particularly useful in that it identified the gaps in the range of facilities and services available. An assessment was then made regarding the importance of these facilities and services for the growth of tourism in the area. For more information, visit www.lakecoleridgenz.info. TOURISM INVENTORY PLANNING CHECKLIST ATTRACTIONS Attractions List Existing List Development/Improvement Providers/Programmes/Assets Requirements for Each Attraction KEY OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES Activities List Existing List Development/Improvement Providers/Programmes/Assets Requirements for Each Activity KEY OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT OTHER OPPORTUNITIES810387 36
  • 37. ACCOMMODATION Accommodation List Existing List Development/Improvement Providers/Programmes/Assets Requirements for Each Acommodation KEY OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT FOOD AND BEVERAGE Food and Beverage List Existing Providers List Development/Improvement Services Requirements KEY OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT SHOPPING AND SERVICES Shopping and Services List Existing List Development/Improvement Providers/Programmes/Assets Requirements KEY OPPORTUNITIES PUBLIC FACILITIES Type List Existing Facilities List Development/Improvement Requirements810387 37
  • 38. KEY DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES b) Community Tourism Planning The Tourism Industry Association New Zealand (TIANZ), Lincoln University and The Tourism & Leisure Group Limited prepared a document “Community Tourism Planning – A Guide to the Sustainable Co-ordination, Development, and Management of Tourism in Small Communities” The guide provides a range of checklists/ survey forms to assist in the development of tourism inventories. The document can be viewed http://www.tianz.org.nz/Files/Comm-Guide.pdf and copies purchased from TIANZ. 3.3.5 Additional Information Community Tourism Planning – A Guide to the Sustainable Co-ordination, Development, and Management of Tourism in Small Communities; Tourism Industry Association, Lincoln University and The Tourism & Leisure Group Limited. The document can be viewed http://www.tianz.org.nz/Files/Comm-Guide.pdf and copies purchased from TIANZ.810387 38
  • 39. 3.4 VISITOR SATISFACTION TOOLBOX 3.4.1 Introduction and Scope A successful tourism industry is based on visitor satisfaction. Failure to meet and exceed visitor expectations will lead to a reduction in visitor numbers and the associated economic benefits to the area. Local authorities should measure visitor satisfaction, given tourism’s role as a growing component of a region’s economic wellbeing. Visitor satisfaction surveys are an important part of information-gathering and can help you to identify the strengths and weaknesses of your area against competing destinations. This Toolbox will help you ascertain whether you have all the information you need about visitor satisfaction with the services available in your region. The Toolbox follows the standard format (see Tourism Planning Toolkit Structure, 1.2): 3.4.1 Introduction and Scope; 3.4.2 Why use this Toolbox? 3.4.3 Toolbox Resources; 3.4.4 Good Practice and Case Studies; 3.4.5 Additional Information. 3.4.2 Why use this Toolbox? Visitor satisfaction is about more than accommodation or activities. Local authorities provide the essential services and infrastructure which enable the tourism industry to operate. If these services are below standard, visitors will not be fully satisfied. This places considerable pressure on local authorities to ensure that the first impressions visitors have of places are positive and that this is carried through as visitors utilise further services. Visitor satisfaction surveys can provide a useful basis for setting priorities and allocating funding to improve the tourism products in an area. Some destinations in the United Kingdom undertake visitor satisfaction surveys in which results are compared against a set of key criteria. This process, called destination benchmarking, has a number of benefits, including: Providing a customer-focused basis for planning and action; Helping to identify comparative strengths and weaknesses; under-performance against competing destinations can be a strong influence on decision makers; Providing solid grounds for seeking additional resources for a project; Raising the profile of visitor management and building support for tourism; Encouraging improved standards from external suppliers;810387 39
  • 40. Building civic pride from positive findings; Helping to identify best practice across a range of areas; Demonstrating improvement over time against benchmarks and measuring the impact of capital expenditure on visitor-related projects. 3.4.3 Toolbox Resources What are the services that local authorities should be concerned with and how satisfied are visitors with them? Complete the checklist on visitor satisfaction information requirements to find what information you have about how satisfied visitors are with services available in your region. The rest of this Toolbox will help you address any information gaps. Checklist: Visitor Satisfaction Information Requirements Key Criteria Yes No Unsure/ Partially 1. Quality, range, value for money of accommodation 2. Ease and cost of parking in the area 3. Range/choice, quality of visitor attractions and activities to do 4. Range/choice, quality of service, value for money of places to eat and drink 5. Range/choice, quality of the shopping environment, value for money of shops 6. Ease of finding way around – road signs, pedestrian signs, display maps and information boards 7. Availability and cleanliness of public toilets 8. Cleanliness of the streets 9. Upkeep of parks and open spaces 10. Range and quality of evening entertainment 11. Overall impression of city/town 12. Popularity of attractions 13. Feeling of safety in terms of crime and traffic 14. Ease of finding, quality of service, usefulness of information received from the I Site/information centre 15. Things liked most about the city/town 16. Things that spoilt the visit 17. Likelihood of recommending city/town to others 18. Improvements like to see Despite the importance of visitor satisfaction to the success of destinations, very little research has been completed in New Zealand on how particular destinations meet visitor expectations. One exception is work undertaken for Christchurch & Canterbury Marketing in 2001. This research is described below in the Case Study Toolbox. 3.4.4 Good Practice and Case Studies a) Christchurch and Canterbury Marketing (CCM)810387 40
  • 41. In 2001 CCM commissioned The Tourism & Leisure Group Limited to complete interviews of almost 600 domestic and international visitors at four Christchurch locations to identify their views on specific facilities and services that comprise the Christchurch tourism product. The summary visitor satisfaction results for Christchurch City are contained in the table below. Summary of Destination Benchmarking (Visitor Satisfaction) Survey Facility/Service Average Score (max 5) Accommodation Quality of service 4.4 Value for money 4.1 City centre car parking Ease of parking 3.3 Cost of parking 3.4 Attractions and places to visit Range/choice 4.2 Quality of service 4.3 Value for money 4.0 Places to eat and drink Range/choice 4.3 Quality of service 4.2 Value for money 4.0 Shops Range/choice 4.0 Quality of the shopping environment 4.1 Quality of service 4.2 Ease of finding way around Road signs 4.1 Pedestrian signs 4.0 Display maps and information boards 4.0 Public toilets Availability 3.7 Cleanliness 4.1 Cleanliness of streets 4.3 Upkeep of parks and open spaces 4.6 Evening entertainment Range 3.7 Quality 3.8 Overall impression of Christchurch General atmosphere 4.5 Feeling of welcome 4.5 Meeting expectations 4.3 Safety Felt safe from crime in Christchurch 4.1 As a pedestrian felt safe from traffic 3.9 Visitor Information Centre Ease of finding 4.2 Quality of service 4.2 Usefulness of information received 4.4 Overall enjoyment of visit to Christchurch 4.4 Likely to recommend Christchurch to someone else 4.4810387 41
  • 42. b) Other Studies Some RTOs have undertaken surveys within which there has been a visitor satisfaction component. These include: Auckland – in-depth interviews in Christchurch & Wellington cafes of visitors from the UK, Japan, and China on their perceptions of Auckland; Coromandel – annual survey involving expenditure and satisfaction components. The satisfaction survey measures satisfaction with attributes of the region, usage of Pacific Coast Highway and usage of the information centre; Southland – a qualitative and quantitative intercept interview capturing expectations before, and opinions after, a visit to Stewart Island. 3.4.5 Additional Information Christchurch City, Destination Benchmarking Report 2001; The Tourism & Leisure Group Limited (http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.benchmarking%20rpt.pdf)810387 42
  • 43. 3.5 PUBLIC SECTOR INFRASTRUCTURE TOOLBOX 3.5.1 Introduction and Scope The focus of the Toolbox is public sector infrastructure.7 The target audience is infrastructure planners and designers, and managers of the infrastructure services used by the tourism sector. The Toolbox aims to provide information, data and resources for this audience. This Toolbox focuses on three specific aspects of public sector infrastructure supplied by local government which are essential to New Zealand’s tourism industry: Water supply; Wastewater management; Solid waste management. Tourism can place significant demands on public sector infrastructure. For example in some small communities, like Akaroa, tourism accounts for more than fifty percent of total annual water use. As visitor numbers increase, so does the pressure on services Each area has a different visitor profile depending on the proportion of holiday homes, day visitors and overnight visitors relative to the permanent population, and on commercial and industrial demands. Different visitor profiles represent different demands on public sector infrastructure. There is also increasing emphasis on providing infrastructural services that meet sustainability criteria.8 This Toolbox will help you to estimate visitor use of water, wastewater and solid waste services, so that planning and management can better meet the needs of all stakeholders in the VICE model – visitors, industry, community and the environment (see section 1.3). The Toolbox follows the standard format (see Tourism Planning Toolkit Structure, 1.2): 3.5.1 Introduction and Scope; 3.5.2 Why use this Toolbox? 3.5.3 Toolbox Resources; 3.5.4 Good Practice and Case Studies; 3.5.5 Additional Information. 7 It is recognised that there is growing interest in New Zealand in public-private partnerships (PPPs) for the provision of infrastructure – refer to Institute of Professional Engineers NZ Informatory Note 10, December 2002. 8 Ministry of Economic Development, Sustainable Development and Infrastructure, November 2003.810387 43
  • 44. 3.5.2 Why use this Toolbox? Good information about usage of public infrastructure by visitors enables a local authority to better plan for tourism growth. It also allows for informed debate about charging policies for public infrastructure, and helps secure funding for additional infrastructure. Yet few local authorities have the data they need to make quality decisions. This Toolbox contains resources to help local authorities gather data about key areas of pubic sector infrastructure usage. It recommends that local authorities adopt an integrated and systematic approach to addressing infrastructure issues. Good planning, design and management of infrastructure helps achieve sustainable economic development, efficient services and optimal benefit from the use of public funds. There are two main reasons why it is difficult for local authorities to estimate accurately the usage of water, wastewater and solid waste disposal systems by visitors: The number of visitors to the community is unclear; No accurate data on usage of water per visitor, or wastewater and solid waste production per visitor. Gathering the necessary data is complicated by variations in seasonal visitor patterns and usage of services, and varying levels of usage by different categories of visitor (such as luxury hotel users compared with backpackers). The resources in this Toolbox will help you gather the information you need. 3.5.3 Toolbox Resources Within this Toolbox are a number of resources that local authorities can use to collect data and provide a better understanding of public sector infrastructure, covering: a) Potable water supply and consumption data; b) Wastewater services and production data; c) Solid waste services; d) Data collection; e) Snapshot studies; f) Private sector infrastructure. The Strategic Planning Section contains further resources associated with public sector infrastructure, including funding and charging structures, and infrastructure design, planning and management. a) Potable Water Supply and Consumption Data810387 44
  • 45. There are two ways of obtaining data on water consumption by the visitor sector. These are: – Using typical consumption data; or – Field data gathering (refer to Data Collection section). Typical data (see below) should only be used for a low-cost desktop study that will enable the investigator to create an approximate quantitative picture of the relative demand tourism places on the town’s water services. The limitations of this type of analysis are: Water consumption per guest-night (litres – L/GN) varies between accommodation type, business type and external water demands (eg garden irrigation); Peak demand periods are poorly quantified; The analysis does not provide sufficient data to enable modelling and improved cost allocation and charging structures. For more accurate data collection refer to Data Collection section. There are two approaches to estimate typical water consumption by visitor. These are: 1. Using total guest-nights (GN) for the town and using the consumption values in the table below (refer to Table 1); 2. Using guest-night data for each accommodation category and using typical consumption data (refer to Table 2). Table 1: Average crude water consumption per guest-night (GN) from two studies (Hanmer and Akaroa – property boundary values. TRREC Report 57, 2004) www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm Off peak season Peak Season (winter) (summer) For accommodation businesses Water consumption, L/GN 175 275 To estimate approximate total L/GN to include service demand due to non- accommodation visitor related businesses add 20% to the above values. These values are the averaged crude L/GN obtained from the snapshot studies conducted for Hanmer and Kaikoura . Crude L/GN for each town was the average L/GN of all accommodation provider categories that were measured each day of the snapshot period. Table 2: Normalised water demand (L/GN) statistics from three study areas Accommodation Winter Summer category Mean Range Mean Range810387 45
  • 46. Motel 180 75 - 270 260 120 - 1000 Hosted accommodation (B&B) 170 70 - 250 400 70 - 1300 Backpackers 150 70 - 200 180 135 - 300 Camping ground 150 50 - 240 150 100 - 190 Source: (Akaroa, Hanmer and Kaikoura) – TRREC Report 57, 2004 http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm b) Wastewater Services and Production Data There are two ways of obtaining data on wastewater production by visitors. These are: – Using typical wastewater production data; or – Field data gathering (refer to Data Collection section). As with water usage, typical wastewater data should only be used for a low-cost desktop study that will enable the investigator to create an approximate picture of the relative demand tourism places on the town’s wastewater services. The limitations of this type of analysis are the same as for water usage (see a), above). There are two approaches to estimate typical wastewater production by visitors. These are: 1. Estimating total guest-nights (GN) for the town and using consumption values in Table 1 below; 2. Using guest-night data for each accommodation category and using typical consumption data in Table 2 below. Table 1: Average crude wastewater production per guest-night (GN), property boundary values Wastewater production, L/GN All season 175 Notes on Table 1: To estimate approximate total L/GN to include service demand due to non-accommodation visitor related businesses add 20% to the above values. These values are the averaged crude L/GN obtained from the snapshot studies conducted for Hanmer and Kaikoura where crude L/GN for each town was the average L/GN of all accommodation provider categories that were measured each day of the snapshot period. Source: TRREC Report 57, 2004 http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm810387 46
  • 47. Table 2: Normalised wastewater production (Litres/GN) statistics from three study areas (Akaroa, Hanmer and Kaikoura), property boundary values. Accommodation Wastewater category L/GN Mean Range Motel 180 75 - 270 Bed and Breakfast 170 70 - 250 Backpackers 150 70 - 200 Camping ground 150 50 - 240 Notes on Table 2: The property boundary values means the quantity yielded at the property boundary (not at the wastewater treatment plant). Source: TRREC Report 57, 2004 c) Solid Waste Services There is a lack of good information and data on the demand tourism places on a local authority’s solid waste service. The data given in the following table of litres of solid waste per guest night, are average rates based on snapshot studies done in Kaikoura where a University hostel, a camping ground and one motel were monitored for 7 to 14 days. Typical Solid Waste/Guest Night L/GN Recyclables 7.0 Rubbish 4.4 Total 11.4 It is very difficult to obtain both typical data and field data on solid waste production from different visitor activities. This is because of the many different solid waste streams and different ways in which they are managed. The waste management streams may consist of some or all of the following: Street collection of domestic rubbish; Street collection of recyclables; Street bin rubbish; Community recycling stations; Commercial and industrial (tourism and non-tourism) rubbish; Commercial and industrial (tourism and non-tourism) recyclables; Private collection and transport of rubbish, greenwaste and recyclables to landfill, transfer station or recycling centre.810387 47
  • 48. There are a number of resources which would be helpful to TLAs looking to reduce waste.9 d) Data Collection The quality of data required depends on the nature of the study being carried out. This Toolbox suggests two types of studies as follows: A low-cost desktop scoping study to evaluate the overall demand the tourism industry exerts on the town’s water, wastewater and waste service. A comprehensive study involving more detailed data collection and evaluation of the impact of tourism on the services of water, wastewater and waste. Desktop Scoping Study This is a low-cost desktop study that will enable the council or the local tourism industry to create an approximate quantitative picture of the relative demand tourism places on the town’s services. Data required Monthly guest-night data for the town from the Commercial Accommodation Monitor (CAM – sourced from the regional tourism organisation or Statistics NZ www.stats.govt.nz ); Permanent resident population; Twelve months of monthly water consumption and wastewater production data for the town. For details of the methodology for a desktop study refer to TRREC Report No. 57/2004 (see Additional Information 3.5.5). Comprehensive Study As a consequence of the scoping study, it may be decided that a detailed study is needed to assist the council in designing an improved cost allocation and charging structure. For details of how to carry out such a study refer to TRREC Report No. 57/2004 http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm One of the techniques recommended for collecting micro data is by snapshot studies (see below). e) Snapshot Studies Obtaining real micro data for visitor demand on a town’s infrastructure such as water consumption, wastewater and solid waste production can be difficult and costly. The demand is seasonal and depends on the nature of the activities of the visitor (for example type of accommodation used). There are certain services that are shared between visitors and permanent residents; for example restaurants, cafés and visitor attractions. In such circumstances identifying and 9Ministry for the Environment, The New Zealand Waste Strategy: Towards Zero Waste and a Sustainable New Zealand, March 2002, http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/waste/waste- strategy-mar02/index.html. The Zero Waste website www.zerowaste.co.nz. The Redesigning Resources website www.redesigningresources.org. The Waste Management Institute of New Zealand (WasteMINZ) www.wasteminz.org.nz810387 48
  • 49. quantifying the sector demands can be complicated. It is recommended that snapshot studies be used to provide representative micro-level data. Snapshot studies were carried out in Akaroa, Hanmer and Kaikoura and reported by the Tourism Recreation Research and Education Centre (TRREC reports 38 and 57 http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm). The snapshot study method involved four 1-week snapshot studies carried out in the town. The purpose is to obtain the necessary daily data to be able to create a reliable picture of the demand visitors place on the town’s water, wastewater and waste services. Two 1-week studies should be done during the low visitor season and another two 1- week studies during the peak visitor season for the town. In these studies the specific daily data collected during each snapshot study includes: Guest-nights for all commercial accommodation. This information can be obtained by delivering a survey form to each commercial accommodation provider; Water and wastewater flows for the whole town; Weather conditions, including rainfall; Individual water meter readings for representative properties such as: Different categories of accommodation providers, Different categories of visitor related non-accommodation businesses, commercial and community activities; Waste production from the different sector sources. Information Centre door counts and any other obvious indicator of visitor numbers within the town; Quantities of solid waste collected – street bins, recycling bins, rubbish and/or recycling collection, and central transfer/landfill site quantities; Where possible, waste quantities from representative individual properties (this may be too difficult to do in some situations). The people implementing the snapshot studies and collecting the data will gain a very good understanding of how the town’s infrastructure operates. This knowledge and information should be documented and used to inform future planning and management of the town’s services and visitor industry aspirations. g) Private Sector Infrastructure Infrastructure is provided by both local authorities and the private sector. This toolkit focuses on public sector rather than private sector infrastructure. It is recognised that there is increasing interest in infrastructure services provided by public-private partnerships (PPPs) - refer to IPENZ Informatory Note Ten, December 2002. (http://www.ipenz.org.nz/ipenz/forms/pdfs/Info_Note_10.pdf) Visitor-related private sector infrastructure normally includes: Accommodation; Energy supply;810387 49
  • 50. Public transport – bus, rentals, rail, air, sea; Communication, including telecommunication, internet services; Entertainment, food and beverage, shopping and other visitor business activities. 3.5.4 Good Practice and Case Studies a) Tourism, Water and Waste in Akaroa: Implications of Tourism Demand on Infrastructure, TRREC Report 30, 2003. Lincoln University has been involved in a long term research programme on social, economic and environmental effects of tourism in New Zealand. Because it is small, Akaroa provides an ideal setting to obtain a precise understanding of the impact visitors have on water consumption, solid waste and wastewater production. The project had three major components. The first two included the quantitative analysis of the impact of tourist flows to Akaroa on the town’s water supply, wastewater management and solid waste management services. The project reviewed the present infrastructure in Akaroa and measured tourist flow effects. The third component was the investigation of the way in which water supply, wastewater and solid waste systems are funded. This analysis considered whether there are alternative funding systems that are more efficient and equitable than present funding systems. Water, sewerage and refuse services should be priced to reflect their true financial and environmental costs. Most consumers will not be aware of their water costs, as they are just one part of their rate payments. This will encourage the notion of water being a free resource and hence increases opposition to a more explicit charging system. The report recommends that costs should be allocated among different customers in a systematic manner, that avoids cross subsidies and allocates the full private and social costs to users. Revenue generation should be sufficient for the utility to meet all of the costs of providing its service and should be stable over time. The benefits of a more complex funding scheme should be traded off against higher administrative costs. b) Effects of Tourism Demand on Water and Sewerage Infrastructure in Four Local Authorities, Ministries of Economic Development and Tourism, 2003 The Ministry of Economic Development and Ministry of Tourism commissioned Market Economics to study the effect of tourism demand on infrastructure in Queenstown Lakes District, Kaikoura, Rotorua and Stewart Island. The study examined the operating and future capital costs of water and sewerage infrastructure for the 2002/3 year, drawing on Council data to identify the nature of costs and the contribution to funding from each sector. A variety of information sources (including tourism, business activity and Census statistics) and models were used to810387 50
  • 51. identify the shares of demand for water and sewerage arising from tourism, including current and projected average and peak season demand, in each area. Operating costs show the cost situation for existing infrastructure, while capital cost is critical in terms of future expenditure, especially to provide increased capacity for community and tourism growth. The report has: Given insight into current and future costs for infrastructure provision to meet tourism demand; Highlighted capacity issues for some councils in developing planning and funding policies for infrastructure; and Identified other infrastructure issues that councils face in meeting tourism demand. 3.5.5 Additional Information TRREC Report No. 27: Tourism, Water and Waste in Westland: Implications of Increasing Demand on Infrastructure; Cullen, R., Dakers, A., Fairweather, J.R., Simmons, D.G, 2001, http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm TRREC Report No. 38: Tourism: Waste and Water in Akaroa (Kaikoura, Hanmer); Cullen, R., Dakers, A., McNicol, J., Meyer-Hubbert, G. Fairweather, J.R., Simmons, D.G., 2003, http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm TRREC Report No. 57 : (Akaroa, Hanmer and Kaikoura) – TRREC Report 57, 2004 http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm Effects of Tourism Demand on Water and Sewerage Infrastructure in Four Local Authorities; Market Economics Limited, 2003 www.tourism.govt.nz810387 51
  • 52. 3.6 NATURAL ASSETS MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX 3.6.1 Introduction and Scope Many visitors are attracted to New Zealand by its clean green image and unspoilt natural environment. This trend is likely to continue. International and domestic visitor demand is increasingly focused on specific natural sites. Local authorities are responsible for managing many of these. This Toolbox will help you to: Identify local natural assets;10 Appreciate the significance of natural assets which may be used for tourism in your region; Plan for the sustainable management of these assets in a tourism context. A structured approach by local authorities to managing the impact of tourism on natural assets is essential to ensure sustainability and the continued enjoyment of those assets for both tourism and recreation. The Toolbox follows the standard format (see Tourism Planning Toolkit Structure, 1.2): 3.6.1 Introduction and Scope; 3.6.2 Why use this Toolbox? 3.6.3 Toolbox Resources; 3.6.4 Good Practice and Case Studies; 3.6.5 Additional Information. 3.6.2 Why use this Toolbox? To minimise the impacts of tourism on natural assets, local (and central) authorities need useful information on which to base decisions. Yet despite their importance, many of New Zealand’s natural assets do not have specific management guidelines for minimising visitor impacts.11 For local governments there are a number of benefits to managing natural assets sustainably, not all of which relate solely to tourism: Lead by example in working with the tourism sector; 10 Natural assets, meaning wildlife and their habitats, areas of native vegetation, remnant landscapes, caves, fossil deposits, beaches, rivers, wetlands and other water bodies, mountains. 11 TRREC Report 55 Sustainable Management of Natural Assets Used for Tourism in New Zealand – A Classification System, Management Guidelines and Indicators; Hughey and Ward 2003 http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm810387 52
  • 53. Sharpen a council’s focus in managing tourism and recreational activities in its region; Assist in meeting quadruple-bottom-line reporting objectives;12 Assist in meeting sustainable development requirements of the Local Government Act (2002); Reduce the likelihood of litigation and mediation, which tie up council resources. Sustainable management of natural assets has many broader advantages: helping New Zealand maintain its competitive clean, green image, fulfilling national strategies13, and helping the tourism industry remain profitable and effective. 3.6.3 Toolbox Resources The management of natural assets by local government is a complex issue, and there is little research on the subject to guide councils.14 A study carried out by Lincoln University over the past three years15 surveyed local authorities throughout New Zealand to ascertain how they managed natural assets over which they had jurisdiction. The survey received an effective response rate of 46 per cent and from the responses received it is clear that there is no magic bullet solution already at hand. Regional and territorial authorities are not yet at the stage of producing specific tourism impact management plans for natural assets. The survey results show that a number of other approaches are being used to meet this need. It could be useful to develop decision support tools (e.g. checklists, best practice databases) to build on these. It is also clear from survey responses that any future natural asset management plans need to include specific statements and/or policies relating to tourism and tourism impacts. Almost three-quarters of the respondents considered there was inadequate distinction between tourism and recreation in their plans and policy statements. The methods and approaches, especially the non-regulatory ones, adopted by local authorities are varied and at present there appears to be a horses for courses approach towards tourism impact management. More research on the management of natural assets in New Zealand, is required, along with the development of guidelines for such things as “outstanding landscapes” which visitors clearly associate with the quality of their tourism experience. 12 Environmental, social, economic and cultural. 13 Such as the New Zealand Tourism Strategy 2010 and the New Zealand Biodiversity Strategy. 14 Other aspects of natural asset tourism management are well-researched, in New Zealand and internationally, such as social aspects of visitor carrying capacity at specific sites, or tourism impacts on whales. 15 A Framework for Best Practice for Local Government Management of Natural Assets Developed for Tourists. Montgomery, Hughey and Lovell, 2004.810387 53
  • 54. In the interim, there are several options to develop practical decision making guidelines for local authorities. Montgomery, Hughey and Lovell (2004) recommend one or more of the following: a) Portfolio model Work from ground up within district or region to create portfolios of natural assets by type and manage them under these groupings e.g., caves, hot springs, outstanding landscapes. b) Case-by-case best practice cross-referencing approach Given the diversity of settings and circumstances of local authorities in New Zealand, in the short-term tourism impacts will have to be managed in an adaptive manner. To this extent best practice here means borrowing from what works. These are some options: (i) Existing methods most favoured by participating respondents- One of the key findings of the survey was that local authorities favoured different tools and mechanisms or combinations thereof without necessarily differentiating between types of natural assets. (ii) Local authority database- With rapid improvements in information technology over the past decade, and given the excellent networking system to be found in New Zealand by virtue of its small size, the opportunity to tap into best practice know-how is considerable. The Quality Planning website (www.qualityplanning.org.nz) is a useful resource that provides relevant best practice, case studies and a publication list of landscape planning. c) Stand-alone mixed-strategy checklist Another possibility is a more hybrid approach. The following checklist will help you identify options of managing tourism impacts on different natural assets in you region.16 Stand-Alone Mixed Strategy Checklist Attribute Yes No Uncl Options for action ear History of management for Review existing arrangements visitor impacts already Resource consent conditions exists Stand-alone management plan written National significance Central government agencies notified Regional significance Regional authorities notified Local significance Co-ordination of departments / units within the local authority Relevant local organisations involved Stand-alone management plan written 16 In many local authorities there may be no obvious person to undertake natural asset inventory surveys. It is suggested that an asset manager may be the appropriate position to take responsibility for the management of natural assets.810387 54
  • 55. Involves passive Minimal impact guidelines produced consumption and distributed Involves active Significant impact guidelines produced consumption and distributed (High active recreation component) Organised groups visiting Producer / operator guidelines produced and distributed Informal groups visiting Consumer / user guidelines produced and distributed Individuals visiting Consumer / user guidelines produced and distributed Similar type of asset already Adapt Department of Conservation, managed by Department of Regional Council methodology Conservation, Regional Council, etc. Occupational Safety and Mitigates impacts by default – no Health requirements apply visitors due to fear of prosecution, or severely restricted access Built structures, Volumes of visits, types of structures, engineering, track, materials specified to meet impact roadworks requiring minimisation targets resource consent District plan significant Restrictions/terms of covenants natural area listing/covenant Queen Elizabeth II Trust Restrictions/terms of covenants covenant possible Conservation Act (1987) Restrictions / penalties / guidelines provisions apply Other legislation (Wildlife Restrictions / penalties / guidelines Act [1953]; ICOMOS) Other plans apply: Regional Restrictions / penalties /guidelines Plans, Coastal Policy Statements, National Policy Statements Local authority monitoring Relevant section within local authority capacity exists identified and programme prepared Owner monitoring capacity Programme prepared with council exists assistance where appropriate Third party (e.g., NGO, Programme prepared with council community member) assistance where appropriate monitoring capacity Local authority education Advance visitor guidelines produced capacity with council assistance where appropriate810387 55
  • 56. Owner education capacity Advance visitor guidelines produced with council assistance where appropriate Other (please suggest) 3.6.4 Good Practice and Case Studies At the local authority level there is a lack of a coherent framework to guide tourism planning for the use of natural assets. There is no ‘best practice’ guide and many councils do not have staff that can be identified directly with tourism except they are in a marketing role. Examples of the variety of approaches being taken by local authorities in respect of specific assets in their areas include: a) Auckland City: Hauraki Gulf Tourism Auckland City Council (ACC) has developed a Memorandum of Understanding (2004) with the Department of Conservation (DoC). The Council sees the economic future of the Hauraki Gulf as an ecotourism destination. DoC holds about 68 per cent of the Gulf in public ownership, but DOC’s core business is the conservation of natural heritage, not the promotion of ecotourism. The purpose of the MoU between ACC and DoC is to identify joint opportunities to get better environmental and economic outcomes in the Gulf through supporting initiatives such as a marine reserve for Great Barrier Island and land rationalisation on Rakino and Great Barrier Island. The Memorandum will also assist in the integration of management functions in the Gulf with regard to weed and pest management, dog control, and the rural fire service. b) Ashburton District: Lord of the Rings Tourism A recent tourism/natural asset example is the Lord of the Rings filming that was undertaken at Mt Sunday Island near the Rangitata River. Lord of the Rings has become a worldwide phenomenon, and people want to visit the site. Mt Sunday Island is a prominent geographical feature in the Rangitata River bed approximately one hour’s drive from Ashburton. In the District Plan the site is zoned rural C (High Country) and there are relevant rules, objectives and policies for activities in the Rural C zone which address earthworks, vegetation removal and erection of buildings. The filming activity was not provided for specifically in the Plan. However, it was considered as a discretionary activity by virtue of falling within “other activities”. Strict monitoring conditions were placed on the resource consent as the site is within a “significant area” and therefore maintaining this environment was very important to the Council. Non-statutory methods have been employed via the Ashburton District Tourism Board and its move to create a “Tourism Trail” that used the Lord of the Rings site as a focus. This allowed organised groups to visit the site on buses with guides. According to Council this has worked well and has received the approval of several High Country landowners. What had been happening prior to this (and still does to a lesser degree) was that informal visitor groups were driving to the site with little idea of where they were810387 56
  • 57. heading. They would then walk to the site from the road. This led to some degradation of the very environment the visitors had come to see. b) Environment Bay of Plenty: Geothermal Protection In the proposed Environment Bay of Plenty Regional Water and Land Plan: Geothermal Management Group 1 (GMG1) areas are identified to protect outstanding and rare geothermal features. Any new or increased takes of geothermal fluid are prohibited. The areas are also identified in the operative regional policy statement, which requires their protection. Accordingly, natural assets of importance to the tourism sector which are under increasing threat are being protected through appropriate plan provisions. 3.6.5 Additional Information Relevant reports and resources for the New Zealand context are relatively scarce. Recent publications include: TRREC Report No. 55: Sustainable Management of Natural Assets used for Tourism in New Zealand – A Classification System, Management Guidelines and Indicators; Hughey & Ward 2002 TRREC Report No. 55 Chapter 4: Environmental Performance Indicators for Natural Assets used by Tourists; Urlich, Ward and Hughey 2002 The reports listed above are available through the Lincoln website http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm A Framework for Best Practice for Local Government Management of Natural Assets Developed for Tourists. Montgomery, Hughey and Lovell, 2004. The Environmental Impacts Searchable Bibliography enables easy identification of studies that have been undertaken in New Zealand and overseas on the biophysical impacts of tourism and recreation. See: http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/projects/envind/envirlit.htm The Quality Planning website: www.qualityplanning.org.nz810387 57
  • 58. 3.7 COMMUNITY TOURISM TOOLBOX 3.7.1 Introduction and Scope Tourism is a visible industry which often appears in the same places and uses the same services as the local community. Tourism in New Zealand is predicted to continue growing, so its associated advantages and disadvantages will become more visible. Destination management is the key to ensuring that tourism meets both community and visitor expectations, and local authorities are well placed to direct or contribute to this. This Toolbox provides checklists and survey methodologies to help you identify what information you need about your community’s attitudes to tourism in the region, and then to gather it. The Toolbox follows the standard format (see Tourism Planning Toolkit Structure, 1.2): 3.7.1 Introduction and Scope; 3.7.2 Why use this Toolbox? 3.7.3 Toolbox Resources; 3.7.4 Good Practice and Case Studies; 3.7.5 Additional Information. 3.7.2 Why use this Toolbox? Tourism’s visibility tends to encourage a high level of community interest, in contrast to agriculture or other industries which often take place out of sight of many New Zealanders. Negative impacts, whether real or perceived, can attract considerable attention. For local authorities, consultation is important to allow for community input into the planning, management and marketing of tourism. This will ensure maximum benefits and minimal problems for visitors, industry, community and the environment (see VICE model, 1.3). Consultation about a range of issues, including tourism, is also important in meeting the Long Term Council Community Plan (LTCCP) provisions of the Local Government Act (2002). For local authorities dealing with tourism, effective community consultation can: Assist tourism to support a community’s economic and social goals (community outcomes); Provide confirmation for the local authority that an initiative is appropriate; Provide support for new initiatives; Increase the awareness of tourism within the community; Increase the pride in the destination and what it has to offer the visitor; Create a welcoming attitude to visitors.810387 58
  • 59. 3.7.3 Toolbox Resources The diagrams below identify potential positive and negative impacts of tourism for a community.17 Potential Benefits of Tourism for Communities Encourages community Provides investment Improves public involvement opportunity facilities Boosts local businesses Enhances community pride Tourism in Your Community Preserves cultural heritage Promotes a focus Creates new jobs on the local environment Grows and expands local economy Potential Negative Impacts of Tourism for Communities Crowding and Congestion Adhoc development Degradation of environment Tourism in Your Community Higher costs Increased rates and taxes Increased traffic 17 See also Benefits and Challenges of Tourism for Local Government, 2.5.810387 59
  • 60. The checklist below will help you identify whether you have all the information you need about your community’s attitudes to tourism. (Some local authorities may already obtain this information through annual ratepayer surveys.) The rest of this Toolbox will help you address any information gaps you identify. Checklist: Community Attitudes to Tourism Key Criteria Yes No Unsure/ Partially 1. Community awareness of the economic benefits of tourism 2. The impact of tourism on the social structure of communities 3. Community views regarding the potential negative impacts of tourism on the environment 4. Community consulted regarding tourism developments and investments a) Community Views and Opinions Seeking out and understanding community views and opinions on tourism can be time consuming and potentially expensive. Community views can be obtained through a number of channels: Elected representatives – Community Board Members, City/District and Regional Councillors; Community groups – residents’ associations, youth and women’s groups; Interest groups – recreation, environmental, cultural, heritage groups; Industry – not just tourism, but other sectors which may be affected; Individuals – people interested in specific issues, but who do not belong to an organisation; Iwi – views specific to the local iwi. The range of issues that these groups and individuals might cover is detailed in the table below: Potential Community Tourism Issues Community of Interest Key Issues Elected representatives Views and opinions of constituents Issues related to public spending Community groups Mainly local issues – parking, congestion, developments, provision of services Interest groups Specific issues related to areas of interest – access to recreational areas, retention of heritage buildings, environment Industry Profitability of business Issues related to planning and development Accessible and trained labour force Individuals Issues related to individual circumstances – parking, congestion Iwi Issues related to land access and ownership, sacred sites, environment810387 60
  • 61. b) Surveying Community Views and Opinions The methods used to gather community views and opinions will depend on: The specific nature of the issue; The complexity of the issue; The size of the community to be consulted; How the information will be used; The available budget and timeframe. The table below lists the range of consultation techniques that may be appropriate for the different types of issues to be addressed. Consultation Techniques Techniques Appropriate Issues Telephone survey Focus on obtaining quantitative information from a large cross section of the community Broad based issues (eg support for new convention centre) Postal survey Similar to telephone survey, but with ability to include more detailed qualitative and quantitative responses Focus groups 6-12 people to discuss specific issues to seek a solution (eg options for improving traffic congestion) Workshops Similar to focus groups, but generally include more people, working in small groups (eg strategic plan development) Public meetings Often used to introduce and/or report back on issues to a larger group of people, limited participation by attendees (eg report back on information obtained from telephone or postal survey) Exhibition Used to provide information to interested people before the decision making process is completed. Generally includes extensive visual material (eg concept plans for a new museum) Hui Forum for Māori to share information and discuss views and opinions on specific issues Tourism Advisory Board Stakeholder group to manage the consultation and strategic plan development process c) Sample Sizes Sample sizes are driven mainly by statistical reasons. Typically there is a need to have 384 respondents to achieve a standard error of plus or minus five per cent in any estimate of a (large) population derived from a sample. There is no absolute size recommendation - it is just a matter of accepting a larger810387 61
  • 62. standard error if the sample is smaller. For smaller populations, like Akaroa, the size can be reduced, but as a rule of thumb reasonable accuracy still requires a sample of about 200 respondents for any small town. This means that for a town of 600 a large proportion of the residents have to be sampled.18 d) Statistical Analysis Comprehensive surveys generally require computer-assisted data analysis to obtain the information required. It is unlikely that comparisons between different variables can be completed successfully without specific programmes (or technical support). Excel, Access and SPSS are commonly used programmes. The surveys included here were designed for specific projects. They are provided as examples that can be used as is, or as a guide to designing your own surveys. To view a resident community survey on community attitudes to tourism click. To view a survey that seeks to obtain ratepayer views on tourism development click. XYZ Residents’ Tourism Survey Interviewer instructions appear in italics - please do not read these to the respondent. Introduction Hello. My name is _____________________, and I am working for ……….. We are trying to find out what the local community thinks of tourism and the visitor industry in ……………. To make sure that we have a random and balanced survey, I need to interview the person in your household (who is at home at the moment) who is 15 years or over and who has the next birthday. Is that you? If not: May I speak to that person please? (Repeat introduction if necessary) Is it convenient to ask you a few questions? This questionnaire takes about 10 minutes to complete and the answers are kept entirely confidential. We do not even need to know your name If not: Is there a more suitable time when I could arrange to call you back? Proceed . . . 18 The exact figures are: if the population is 500, a sample of 217 is equivalent to a standard error of + or - five per cent, if a population is 250 then a sample of 151 is adequate, if 100 then a sample of 79 is required.810387 62
  • 63. If you feel that this person just needs some encouragement to participate: [Your views are important. We are trying to get the views of many different types of people within the community, so it does not matter whether you feel that you have anything to do with visitors to the area or not. We would still like to hear what you think of tourism here in …………….] Please note that this questionnaire is for people who reside in ………… and not for bachowners or owners of holiday homes who do not live in the area Questionnaire number: Date: Time: This questionnaire is in 3 parts. You do not have to answer every question. THE FIRST SECTION: asks some general questions about living and working in …………….. 1) How long, in total, have you lived in …………..? Years/ months (delete one) 2) Were you born in …………….? 1. Yes 77. Unsure 2. No 88. Not stated 3) In which suburb or area do you live? 4) What do you like about living in the …………….? 1 2 3 4810387 63
  • 64. 5) In the last year, have you worked in any of the following jobs? – tell me as I read them out to you. Please ask the interviewee if they worked full-time (FT=1), part- time (PT=2), or casually (C=3) in any stated job. # Job Status 1. Accommodation (e.g., hotels, motels, backpackers, homestays) 2. Transport (e.g., bus/ coach/ taxi driver) 3. Restaurants/ cafes/ bars 4. Travel agency/ information centre 5. Tour guiding or visitor attractions 6. Souvenir shops/ arts and craft shops 7. None of the above 77. Unsure 88. Not stated 6) Does anyone else in you household or immediate family work in any of these tourism-related jobs that I just read out? If no, go to Question 7. 1. Yes 77. Unsure 2. No 88. Not stated b) If yes, Did they work full-time (FT=1), part-time (PT=2), or casually (C=3) in these jobs? Job Status Person1 Person2 Person3 Person4 7) In the last 12 months, have you had any out-of-town visitors stay at your home? If no, go to Question 8. 1. Yes 77. Unsure 2. No 88. Not stated b) If yes, Were they international visitors or domestic visitors? 1. International 77. Unsure 2. Domestic 88. Not stated 3. Both international and domestic THIS SECOND SECTION of the survey is designed to gauge your overall reactions to visitors and the tourism industry in ………….810387 64
  • 65. 8) In your opinion, what benefits (both for the community and/ or for yourself) are there from tourism and visitors in …………….? Record in order as spoken. Please ask interviewee if stated answer(s) represents a community benefit (C=1), a personal benefit (P=2), or both (B=3). Who benefits? Bene1 Bene2 Bene3 Bene4 9) In your opinion, what problems (both for the community and/ or for yourself) are caused by tourism and visitors in ……………? Record in order as spoken. Please ask interviewee if stated answer(s) represents a community problem (C=1), a personal problem (P=2), or both (B=3). Whose problem? Prob1 Prob2 Prob3 Prob4 10) Overall, do you think that the community, AS A WHOLE, benefits from tourism in ………………? 1. Yes 77. Unsure 2. No (specify below) 88. Not stated If no, please ask interviewee to specify who (if anyone) benefits from tourism in ………………….. Who1 Who2 Who3 Who4810387 65
  • 66. 11) What are your greatest concerns about tourism and visitors in …………..? You may have to use the following prompt: “Is there anything about tourism in …………… that you are particularly worried or concerned about?” If no concerns stated, go to Question 12. Con1 Con2 Con3 Con4 b) Have you ever been concerned enough about these things to do something like write to a newspaper, or contact the council or an MP? 1. Yes (specify below) 77. Unsure 2. No 88. Not stated Act1 Act2 Act3 Act4 12) Overall, on a scale from 1 to 4, how often do you meet or come into contact with tourists or visitors in …………….? 1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = sometimes, 4 = frequently. If never, go to Question 15. 1. Never 77. Unsure 2. Rarely 88. Not stated 3. Sometimes 4. Frequently 13) Using the same 4-point scale, how often do you meet or come into contact with tourists or visitors while you are doing your favourite leisure or recreation activity? Please ask interviewee to specify activity. If answer to this question is “never”, please go to Question 15. 1. Never 77. Unsure 2. Rarely 88. Not stated 3. Sometimes 4. Frequently Activity810387 66
  • 67. 14) In general, does this contact with visitors detract from, or enhance, your leisure or recreation experience? 1. Detract 77. Unsure 2. Neither detract nor enhance 88. Not stated 3. Enhance 15) Are there any places in ……………. where you enjoy seeing and meeting tourists or visitors? 1. Yes (specify below) 77. Unsure 2. No 88. Not stated 3. No opinion Enjoy1 Enjoy2 Enjoy3 Enjoy4 16) Are there any places in ……………. where you would prefer not to see and meet tourists or visitors? 1. Yes (specify below) 77. Unsure 2. No 88. Not stated 3. No opinion Dislike1 Dislike2 Dislike3 Dislike4 17) Are there any types of tourists or visitors that you particularly like or dislike? Like1 Like2 Dislike1810387 67
  • 68. Dislike2 18) On a scale from 1 to 5, how would you describe the current level of tourism in …………………? 1 = very low, 3 = moderate, 5 = very high. 1. Very low 77. Unsure 2. Low 88. Not stated 3. Moderate 4. High 5. Very high 19) Where would you place yourself on the following 5-point scale? One (1) means that “there is far too much tourism now”, 3 means that ‘there is about the right level of tourism now’, and 5 means that “we could do with a lot more tourism”. 1. There is far too much tourism now 77. Unsure 2. Less tourism 88. Not stated 3. There is about the right level of tourism now 4. More tourism 5. We could do with a lot more tourism 20) The next few questions use a 3-point scale: never, sometimes, or often. 1. Never 77. Unsure 2. Sometimes 88. Not stated 3. Often Have you ever…? a. Have you ever changed your shopping times to avoid tourists or visitors? b. Have you ever changed your local recreation patterns to avoid tourists or visitors? c. Have you ever gone away at busy times to avoid tourists or visitors in ……………? d. Do you ever take ‘out-of-town’ visitors to local …………… attractions? (If yes, please specify below) e. Do you ever go to local ……………….. attractions without visitors? Loc1 Loc2 Loc3 Loc4810387 68
  • 69. THE QUESTIONS IN THIS FINAL SECTION will allow us to check that we have a good cross-section of the community. Some of these questions are personal, but remember that your answers will be kept confidential and you will remain anonymous. 21) What is your gender? You should be able to answer this question yourself without having to ask the interviewee. 1. Male 77. Unsure 2. Female 88. Not stated 22) What age group are you in? – tell me when I reach your age group 1. 15-19 8. 50-54 2. 20-24 9. 55-59 3. 25-29 10. 60-64 4. 30-34 11. 65 and over 5. 35-39 6. 40-44 77. Unsure 7. 45-49 88. Not stated 23) What is your ethnicity? You may have to select the category that best describes the interviewee’s stated ethnicity. 1. European New Zealander 2. Māori (please state iwi) 3. Pacific Islander 4. Asian 5. Other (please state) 77. Unsure 88. Not stated 24) What is your employment status? You may have to prompt for response. 1. Employed full-time 77. Unsure 2. Employed part-time 88. Not stated 3. Self-employed 4. Unemployed and actively seeking work 5. Not in the labour force (incl. retired) 25) In the last year, what was your personal income group? – tell me when I reach your income group (Gross income) 1. Nil income or loss 9. $40,001-50,000 2. $1-5,000 10. $50,001-70,000 3. $5,001-10,000 11. $70,001-100,000 4. $10,001-15,000 12. $100,001 and over810387 69
  • 70. 5. $15,001-20,000 6. $20,001-25,000 77. Unsure 7. $25,001-30,000 88. Not stated 8. $30,001-40,000 26) Another part of this study is concerned with face-to-face interviews with …………. residents. Would you be willing to participate in a short follow-up interview at a later date? This would take 20-25 minutes to complete, and would based on the responses you have provided in this questionnaire. A random sample of people who agree to be interviewed will be selected and then contacted accordingly. This interview will take place within the next four weeks. 1. Yes 77. Unsure 2. No 88. Not stated If yes, What is you name and contact phone number? Name: Contact phone number(s): Thank you for your time and co-operation. Goodbye.810387 70
  • 71. XYZ COUNCIL XYZ DEVELOPMENT PLAN SURVEY How to fill in your response: 1. Who should fill out the survey form? The ratepayer. If you pay the rates on more than one property then you will receive a separate form for each property. 2. If you are not a ratepayer, then the representative of the organisation the survey is sent to should fill out the survey form. 3. You will not be personally identified from any of the information that you provide. 4. If you do give your name at the end of the survey form, you will be eligible to enter into a draw for a XXX. If you would like to enter into this draw then all you have to do is fill out the detachable slip at the end of this survey and post it along with the completed survey form in the envelope provided. The prize winner will be notified by telephone by (XXX – add date) 5. Please return your completed survey by ………………. 6. Results of the survey will be available by (………) from ………… at XYZ Council and will also be on the Council’s website www.xyz.govt.nz 7. The survey is divided into four parts. In most circumstances all you have to do is tick the relevant box. If you would like any further information please do not hesitate to contact …………810387 71
  • 72. BACKGROUND INFORMATION: 1. Do you live permanently in ………… ? Yes No (go to question 3) 2. If yes, how many other people live at your address with you ? ……………………….. 3. How many days per year do you spend at ……….. ? ………………………… 4. How long have you lived at …………. ? ………………………… 5. What do you use your property for? vacant site permanent residence bach/ holiday purposes industry commercial shop/offices other: Please state:………………………………… 6. Do you work in the ………… area ? Yes810387 72
  • 73. No 7. If so, what type of industry do you work in ? tourism/ hospitality conservation agriculture fishing forestry unemployed other: please state…………………………….. 8. Would you like the ………… area to experience further growth ? Yes No 9. If so, in your opinion what areas provide the best opportunities for future economic development in the ………….. area ? recreation tourism/ hospitality agriculture other: if so, please state…………………………….. OPINIONS ABOUT TOURISM: Could you please answer the following questions relating to tourism within the ……….. area: Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly No disagree Agree opinion 1. The tourism industry provides many worthwhile employment opportunities for community residents 2. Tourism encourages investment in our local economy810387 73
  • 74. 3. The environmental effects resulting from tourism are relatively minor 4. The overall benefits from tourism outweigh the negative impacts 5. A good way to manage development in the ……… area is through land use zoning 6. The ………. Council should introduce more controls and rules to control development in the ……….. area 7. The ……….. Council should take steps to restrict tourism development in the ………. area 8. The ……… area is becoming overcrowded because of too many visitors 9. Tourism is responsible for too fast a rate of growth and development in the ……….. area 10. Our household standard of living is higher because of money visitors spend here 11. The ……….. area is growing too fast. 12. It is important that the community be involved in decisions about tourism 13. Decisions about how much tourism and growth we should have are best left to the private sector 14. The ……….. Council should develop plans to manage the effects of the growth of tourism DISADVANTAGES OF TOURISM Please tick any of the following effects from tourism development within the ………… area: traffic congestion feeling of being overcrowded overdevelopment visual effects increase in real estate costs environmental effects no disadvantages other: please state……………………………..810387 74
  • 75. ADVANTAGES OF TOURISM Please tick any of the following effects from tourism development within the ……….. area: employment opportunities business opportunities increase in real estate value overall appearance of the community influx of new residents better recreational facilities no advantages other: please state…………………………….. If the …………. Council was to become more involved in the future development of ………….., what tasks would you want it to carry out ? What role can the ………… Council undertake in the ………… area ? Do you have any other concerns related to visitors or tourism development that were not addressed in this questionnaire? What is your vision of the Community’s future and what role should tourism have in that future? FUTURE CONSULTATION The Council is interested in ensuring that the community is actively involved in the future planning for tourism to ensure that proposals meet both economic and social objectives. Would you be interested in taking part in some in-depth discussions with other members of the community and other stakeholders regarding the future growth and development of ………… ? If so, could you please write your name, address, and contact details below:810387 75
  • 76. Thank you for taking the time to fill out the survey. Then all you need to do is to put this survey and the slip in the enclosed envelope and post it. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Name: ___________________________________ Address: ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Phone: _______________ Email: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3.7.4 Good Practice and Case studies a) Punakaiki Development Plan; Buller District Council, 2002 With visitor numbers to the West Coast increasing at a level well ahead of the national average, the Buller District Council considered that Punakaiki residents needed to take a proactive role in determining what facilities and services were required for the future and how tourism should be managed. For the Development Plan, the Council defined the community as including permanent residents, holiday home owners, and businesses (local and those using the area, but located elsewhere). All ratepayers were sent a questionnaire to identify major issues. This information was then collated and used as the basis for more in-depth workshops with the key community groups. With a large number of holiday home owners in the area, a workshop was held in Christchurch to ensure an equal opportunity was given for all community groups to be involved. The results of the consultation (which also included other service providers) were posted on the Buller District Council’s web site and the community was encouraged to respond to the findings. Following the development of a strategic plan, the community was again encouraged to make submissions on the recommendations proposed. For references, see 3.7.5. b) Community Perceptions of Tourism in Christchurch and Akaroa, 2003(Foundation of Research, Science and Technology-funded study) To determine community perceptions of tourism in Christchurch and Akaroa, a telephone survey was used with residents selected from the 2002 White Pages Telephone Directory. A process of systematic sampling in proportion to the relative population size of Christchurch and Akaroa was employed to select respondents. Specifically, pages and telephone numbers were divided between each researcher and they were asked to telephone every 25th number listed in the Christchurch section and every 4th number listed in the Akaroa section. All letters of the alphabet were covered adequately. Telephone surveyors asked to speak to the person in each household with the next birthday who was810387 76
  • 77. aged 15 years or over. The response from the two surveys is detailed in the table below.19 Telephone Survey Response Location Calls Made Calls Refusals Questionnaires Response Answered Completed Rate Christchurch 1,703 1,059 672 387 37% Akaroa 387 159 64 95 60% Total 2,090 1,218 736 482 100% In response to the question ‘What do you like about living in Christchurch/Akaroa?’ the following results were obtained. What do you like about living in Christchurch? Frequency % Size of city 161 42 Unhurried lifestyle 134 35 Access to ‘outdoors’ 113 29 Community facilities and services 98 25 Family and friends 85 22 Abundance of parks and reserves 80 21 Climate 52 13 Employment 19 5 Other 66 17 Note: Multiple response question. Percentages do not total 100% What do you like about living in Akaroa? Frequency % Natural setting (scenery, landscape) 85 91 Peace and quiet 39 42 Village atmosphere 31 33 Unhurried lifestyle 25 27 Climate 11 12 Close proximity to Christchurch 7 7 Family and friends 6 6 Other 5 5 Note: Multiple response question. Percentages do not total 100% c) Glenorchy – Head of the Lake Community Plan 19 TRREC Report 34 Community Perceptions of Tourism in Christchurch and Akaroa http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm810387 77
  • 78. The Glenorchy Community developed a plan to guide the future direction of the Head of the Lake. The primary purpose of the plan is to provide the community and its representative body (the Glenorchy Community Association) with a framework for decision making, planning and development consistent with the communitys vision. Tourism is a component of the Plan because of the natural attractions in the area. It is intended that the plan sit alongside the District Plan and be given appropriate consideration in decision making. It represents the consensus view of the majority of residents and ratepayers within the community. It is intended that the plan will be reviewed periodically (10 years, or earlier, should the need by shown) to confirm the direction of the community. It is envisaged that a similar consultation process would be followed. http://www.glenorchy.com/community/community_plan/community_plan.html 3.7.5 Additional Information TRREC Report No. 14: Evolving Community Response to Tourism and Change in Rotorua; Horn, C.; Fairweather, J.R.; Simmons, D.G., 2000. TRREC Report No. 24: Evolving Community Perceptions of Tourism in Westland Moran, D., Simmons, D.G., Fairweather, J.R., 2001. TRREC Report No. 34: Community Perceptions of Tourism in Christchurch and Akaroa Shone, M., Simmons, D.G., Fairweather, J.R, 2003. TRREC Report No. 13: Understanding Visitors and Locals Experience of Rotorua Using Photographs of Landscapes and Q Methods Fairweather, J.R.; Swaffield, S.R., Simmons, D.G., 2000. TRREC Report No. 7: The Impact of Tourism on the Māori Community in Kaikoura; Henley, M.; Poharama, A.; Smith, A.; Simmons, D.G.; Fairweather, J.R., 1998. TRREC Report No. 6: Evolution and Change in Kaikoura: Responses to Tourism Development Horn, C.M.; Simmons, D.G.; Fairweather, J.R., 1998. TRREC Report No. 23: Visitors’ and Locals’ Experiences of Westland, New Zealand Fairweather, J.R., Newton, B., Swaffield, S.R., Simmons, D.G., 2001. TRREC Report No. 35: The Values Associated with Māori-Centred Tourism in Canterbury Zygadlo, F.K., McIntosh, A., Matunga, H.P., Fairweather, J.R., Simmons, D.G., 2003. Reports are available through the Lincoln website : http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm810387 78
  • 79. 4 STRATEGIC PLANNING SECTION Local authority planning processes need to balance the needs of the tourism industry with those of other stakeholder groups. Recalling the VICE model (see 1.3), the requirements of visitors, the tourism industry, the local community and the environment must be taken into account. The Strategic Planning Section will help you use the information gathered in the Situation Analysis Section to develop a tourism strategy which addresses all stakeholder needs. The following diagram illustrates how your analysis of the current situation of tourism in your area can inform council planning processes. Tourism Strategic Plan Framework Tourism Industry Maori Tourism Input Input O B V J I E Situation Analysis C Outcomes Local Authority S Planning Framework I T O I N V E Community S Iwi Input Input This section consists of: 4.1 Local Authority Tourism Planning Toolbox; 4.2 Working with the Tourism Industry Toolbox; 4.3 Specific Infrastructure Planning Toolbox. 4.1 Local Authority Tourism Planning Toolbox 4.1.1 Introduction and Scope Once a local authority has a good understanding of the current tourism situation in its area, this information needs to be used to inform council planning processes and decision-making.810387 79
  • 80. A key issue for local authorities will be to determine how planning for tourism is, or should be, different from planning for other areas of council responsibility. This Toolbox identifies how tourism can fit into the local government planning framework set out in the Local Government Act (2002). The Toolbox also proposes a process and structure for developing a tourism strategy The Toolbox follows the standard format (see Tourism Planning Toolkit Structure, 1.2): 4.1.1 Introduction and Scope; 4.1.2 Why use this Toolbox? 4.1.3 Toolbox Resources; 4.1.4 Good Practice and Case Studies; 4.1.5 Additional Information. 4.1.2 Why use this Toolbox? An earlier section of the Toolkit included a diagram showing how a tourism strategy might fit into the planning framework under the Local Government Act 2002 (see 2.4 How the Tourism Toolkit can fit with Local Government Planning). This Toolbox includes mode detail about how to incorporate a tourism strategy into each component of the local authority planning process. 4.1.3 Toolbox Resources This Toolbox is divided into nine components in the development of a tourism strategy: a) The need for tourism planning b) Organising the tourism strategy process c) Developing the vision d) Goals for tourism e) Objectives for tourism f) Strategies for tourism g) Community outcomes h) What is consultation? i) The Long Term Council Community Plan (LTCCP) j) The Annual Plan k) The Annual Report a) The Need for Tourism Planning Why is your local authority developing a tourism strategy? Presumably because there is recognition of the potential benefits of tourism planning:810387 80
  • 81. i) Understanding the local tourism industry – The tourism industry is diverse, and it is important that local authorities understand the needs of the wide range of sectors that make up the tourism industry. ii) Tourism policy objectives can - – Recognise tourism as a social and economic force; – Foster and create community awareness of the benefits of tourism; – Guide and influence the development of sustainable tourism; – Provide the basic facilities and infrastructure to encourage tourism development; – Ensure facilities are adequate to cater for visitors; – Ensure tourism development is consistent with the character of the region. iii) Tourism policies are important because - - Councillors may be replaced every three years, but a policy document ensures continuity of commitment to tourism; - A tourism strategy enables a long-term focus, forward planning and budget allocations for an integrated and co-ordinated approach; - Industry sector representation in an area may change, altering emphasis; - Local authorities are often providers of substantial visitor infrastructure, but may not be identified as such; - A policy document ensures agencies work together to benefit the community. In addition local authorities may develop specific policies covering: – Budget allocation; – Representatives on an regional tourism organisation board (RTO); – Balanced development of tourism; – Protection of sensitive areas, heritage and cultural assets; – Local authority’s role in the provision of visitor information services; – Use of historic buildings for tourism purposes; – Proposals for specific areas of land; – Traffic flows resulting from tourism development; – Acceptable levels of environmental impact; – Regional and local tourism organisation input into policies. iv) Planning and development facilitation - As visitor numbers increase and demand for facilities (eg accommodation) grows, local authorities have a role to play in determining when new facilities may be required and where. This can stimulate the private sector to invest at the appropriate time and in areas where the development can complement other related services. v) Planning of infrastructure and amenity provision -810387 81
  • 82. Additional visitors and demand for new facilities also increases the need for improved infrastructure (e.g. water/wastewater, solid waste, roading, parking, and public toilets). vi) Improved marketing of the area - While many local authorities are not directly involved in visitor marketing, they can play a major role in supporting the RTO by recognising tourism as an important economic development tool and ensuring that their investments in infrastructure and services support the objectives of the tourism industry. Other council activities assist destination marketing, for example Sister City organisations, promotion of events, and providing a safe and visitor friendly environment. vii) Identification of financial requirements - Many local authorities directly fund RTO and district tourism organisation (DTOs) requirements which need to be incorporated into the local authority’s financial plan. In addition the tourism industry can also make recommendations regarding the provision of amenities and infrastructure improvements which can be essential elements in making a destination attractive to visitors (eg parks and gardens, streetscape). The need for local authorities to work with the tourism industry at the national and local level is paramount to making informed strategic decisions concerning the local authority’s role in the development of a local tourism industry. b) Organising the Tourism Strategy Planning Process The strategy planning process is best undertaken by a group of people representing the three key areas of industry, community and environment (see VICE model, 1.3). This will ensure buy-in by those groups at the time of determining project priorities and budgeting. To obtain representatives to work on the plan take the following into account: Representation from the stakeholder groups; Strategic thinkers; Corporate, community and small business representation. As well as strategic thinkers, local authorities need to provide support staff to ensure the planning process is managed efficiently. Staff will also be required to complete the writing of a strategic plan. It is unlikely that visitors will be able to take part directly in the strategic planning process. However, their views and opinions should have been canvassed and must be considered. Various measures for this have been described in the Situation Analysis Toolkit.810387 82
  • 83. The diagram below details a Tourism Strategy Planning Process that could be followed. Tourism Strategy Planning Process Key Stages Description Vision: The future state and achievements required for tourism Goals: Broad based targets for tourism (eg improve public transport for visitors) Objectives: Specific measured achievements required (eg 90% of visitors are very satisfied with the public transport in XYZ city) Strategies: The method by which objectives will be achieved (eg undertake a review of public transport needs – routes and timetables – for the tourism sector) c) Developing the Vision The vision for tourism is the guide that leads to a successful industry for all stakeholders – visitors, industry, communities and the environment. This ensures that the local authority does not solely focus on an internal vision, but includes an external vision. Examples of an internal vision include: XYZ city will provide the service and infrastructure requirements to meet the projected increase in visitor numbers over the next 10 years; XYZ city will support the tourism industry by actively working with key industry sectors to identify and resolve potential impediments to future growth. An example of an external vision is: XYZ city commits to providing an easily accessible, safe and exciting visitor destination that provides an economic benefit for the city, while respecting the needs of communities and the environment. d) Goals for Tourism810387 83
  • 84. Goals include general aspirations and directions for the business or organisation, and should encompass the four key areas identified in the Toolkit - visitors, industry, communities and the environment. Goals are not usually expressed in measurable terms, nor are they time-related. Following are some examples: Visitors: Increase the number of visitors to the region; Enhance the level of visitor satisfaction with the region. Industry: Encourage closer relationships between the public and private sectors of the tourism industry. Communities: Increase the support for tourism in the region from the local community. Environment: Maintain the quality of the environment. e) Objectives for Tourism The objectives for tourism should focus on the four key areas identified in the Toolkit - visitors, industry, communities and the environment. Following are some examples: Visitors: At least 80% of all visitors to XYZ city will recommend it to other visitors as a ‘must see’ destination; 95% of all visitors to XYZ city regard it as a safe place to visit. Industry: 75% of tourism operators recognise XYZ city as a user friendly place to initiate, develop and operate tourism businesses. Communities: At least 80% of residents are very supportive of XYZ’s initiatives for managing the growth of the tourism industry in the city. Environment:810387 84
  • 85. 75% of stakeholders (visitors, industry and communities) are supportive of how XYZ city manages and reports on the impact of tourism on the environment. f) Strategies for Tourism Strategies identify the range of alternative courses of action to achieve the objectives. Following are some examples: Visitors: Complete a visitor satisfaction survey tio better understand the needs of visitors to the region. Industry: Implement monthly meetings for operators and public officials to improve understanding of each other’s needs. Communities: Undertake an annual survey of residents to gauge their support for public investment in tourism infrastructure. Environment: Implement monitoring of the use by visitors of sensitive environmental areas. g) Community Outcomes The Long-Term Council Community Plan process requires the articulation of community outcomes. An outcome is a desired result or state of affairs, that is, the things the community considers are important for its wellbeing (eg a vibrant tourism industry). In promoting that outcome the local authority undertakes activities that contribute to the achievement of the outcome. Outcomes are the community’s judgements about what it needs to promote its wellbeing. Outcomes therefore belong to the community not the local authority. The local authority does not have to adopt the outcomes and may not even agree with the outcomes. It does however have to consider the consequences of not adopting the outcomes, which will depend upon the strength of community commitment to the outcome. What then is the role of the local authority in the outcomes process? In short the local authority must: Facilitate the process;810387 85
  • 86. Monitor progress towards the achievement of community outcomes in conjunction with other parties; Consider what it should do to promote the achievement of community outcomes as part of the preparation of its LTCCP. The local authority will be one of a range of agencies that is capable of promoting outcomes, and needs to consider its role alongside that of other agencies. The purpose of the community outcomes process is to: Stimulate debate about local needs and priorities (eg do we have/want a vibrant tourism industry); Inform and guide the planning of local authorities and other agencies (identify the benefits); Get local authorities working with other agencies (RTOs, DTOs, tourism businesses); Encourage people to take part in local affairs (promote the benefits of the process to the tourism sector); Provide a basis for communities to measure their progress (to what degree has the outcome been achieved). Local communities can design a process for identifying community outcomes that works best for them. For example, many local authorities recognise that some community outcomes may be best advanced by groups of local authorities working together to identify outcomes, and then working with other agencies to achieve them (e.g. tourism sector). Given the disparate nature of tourism, this could be a useful device for integrating various sectors and destination areas into the broad perspective often required for tourism planning. The only requirements for the community outcomes process are that local authorities must: Involve other organisations or groups that can assist in identifying and promoting community outcomes; Attempt to get the agreement of these groups to the process for identifying outcomes and for the relationship between these and any existing plans; Develop a process that encourages the public to participate; Get agreement of the groups to the processes for monitoring progress against community outcomes, if practicable. The diagram below identifies the relationships between tourism activities, outputs and outcomes that could form part of the local authority’s consideration of tourism.810387 86
  • 87. The Relationship Between Activities, Outputs and Outcomes Activities Outputs Outcomes C A Vibrant Infrastructure Attractions & Tourism o development amenities P Industry n Provision of t Visitor r Information r services o Indicators services i Accomm, d - satisfied Effective b transport etc u visitors marketing Publications, c u - prosperous Provide t web site etc e industry adequate e Visitor - benefits labour force services communities Tourism Range of - protects services businesses environment The outcomes process requires a very high level of community engagement. Local communities need only identify community outcomes once every six years. All communities must have identified a first set of outcomes in time to inform and guide the development of the 2006 LTCCP. That means that those outcomes should have been determined by mid-2005. h) What is consultation? The primary purpose of consultation is to enable the local authority and its community to exchange information on decisions and issues of concern. Consultation involves seeking counsel or advice: it is a two-way process of exchanging information. Consultation principles: Provision of information – a local authority should provide those who will be, or may be affected by, or interested in a decision, with information to help them present their views to the local authority (e.g. residents adjacent to a proposed new hotel, tourism businesses subjected to a proposed new tourism rate); Encourage parties to present views – a local authority should seek out and welcome the views of those who will or may be interested in a particular decision (e.g. hotel association, regional tourism organisation, residents); Explain the scope of consultation – potential submitters should be told the purpose and focus of the consultation (e.g. impact on the environment of a proposed new visitor activity); Give reasonable opportunities to present – anyone who wishes to put views before the local authority should be given a reasonable opportunity to present those views810387 87
  • 88. to the local authority in a way that is appropriate to the needs of the submitter (e.g. written, present in person, as part of a broader group); Keep an open mind – although local authorities may have working plans in mind, they must be prepared to listen to, and consider, all submissions with an open mind; Give reasons for decisions – local authorities should provide information to submitters on the decision taken, and the reasons for it (e.g. proposed tourism project declined); In addition to these six principles, every local authority must have specific policies in place to consult with Māori. The Quality Planning website (www.qualityplanning.org.nz ) provides resources for use by practitioners especially in respect of public consultation. “The purpose of the website and resources is to promote best practice by sharing knowledge about policy and plan development under the Resource Management Act (RMA). This has been done by making use of the lessons learnt in the first 10 years of preparing plans under the RMA, and by establishing links between practitioners.” i) The Long Term Council Community Plan (LTCCP) An LTCCP sets out local authority priorities over the medium to longer term. It outlines how a local authority intends to contribute to community wellbeing over the life of the plan. The LTCCP must be produced once every three years and must cover a period of at least ten years. The LTCCP provisions offer local authorities a good opportunity to develop a rigorous tourism planning process resulting in a tourism strategy for the area. The LTCCP will: Set out the community outcomes and how the local authority intends to contribute to them; Set out the things the local authority will be doing over the life of the plan; Co-ordinate the activities of the local authority; Provide a long-term focus for the local authority; Provide a means for communities to hold the local authority accountable; Provide an opportunity for the public to participate in local decision-making. j) The Annual Plan All local authorities must still prepare an Annual Plan, although the main planning document is now the LTCCP. The Annual Plan will link the LTCCP to the annual budgeting process (including the setting of rates). The Annual Plan must include: A proposed annual budget including estimated costs and revenues; A funding impact statement for the year;810387 88
  • 89. Forecast financial statements for the year; Statements setting out levels of service and performance measures; Details of any changes from the information in the LTCCP (including reasons for change). The plan will need to detail the local authority’s investment in tourism-related activities, levels of service and performance measures. k) The Annual Report This report focuses on reporting the progress of the community against community outcomes rather than against financial results. The Annual Report must include: The results of any monitoring of community outcomes done during the year; Any identified effects of any activity; Details of the financial and non-financial performance of the local authority; Reports on any significant acquisitions, replacements or disposal of assets; Reports on the performance of Council Controlled Organisations (CCOs); A report on the steps that the Council has taken to build Māori capacity; Details of remuneration payable to each elected member and to the Chief Executive. 4.1.4 Good Practice and Case Studies a) Wellington Tourism Action Plan 2004 - 2009: A Strategic Update The Wellington Tourism Action Plan aims to provide a framework for Positively Wellington Tourism, Wellington’s tourism industry and the people of Wellington to build on the success of the sector. It takes its lead from the Strategic Plan 2001-2006: Doubling Our Success through Strategic Partnerships. To stay competitive and achieve the doubling goal, Wellington must continue to develop a product offering that is appealing to both the international and domestic traveller. By 2009, Positively Wellington Tourism wants Wellington to be: One of the top three destinations in New Zealand for international visitors; Rated by 80% of New Zealanders as the ‘hottest city’ to visit in New Zealand; Known for its variety of new tourism related product and continued renewal and refreshment. See the strategy at: www.wellingtonnz.com/aboutus/tourismactionplan.htm810387 89
  • 90. b) Rodney District Council Tourism has been identified in the Living Vision for Rodney’s Economy (the District Economic Development Strategy) as a lead sector with significant growth potential. The goal of the tourism strategy is to: “Develop tourism in Rodney in a way that is environmentally, economically and socially sustainable” The six key objectives of the strategy are: 1) Develop a district wide tourism cluster encouraging networking and joint developments between individuals and organisations; 2) Develop a comprehensive understanding of visitation to the district; 3) Encourage service delivery that meets the goal of economically, environmentally and socially sustainable tourism development; 4) Promote sustainable visitation to the district, and ensure availability of high quality information about the district and its tourism amenities, products and services; 5) Ensure provision of appropriate policies, programmes and infrastructure to support sustainable tourism development; 6) Maintain strong relationships with strategic allies in the public and private sectors. A key feature of the strategy is that it goes beyond promotion to take a wider view of tourism development. While marketing is clearly important, destination management and business development are equally essential if tourism is to achieve its “triple bottom line” goal. The district strategy has been framed to ensure consistency with the national strategy set out in the New Zealand Tourism Strategy 2010 and with Postcards from Home: the Local Government Tourism Strategy. See the strategy at: www.rodney.govt.nz 4.1.5 Additional Information The Local Government Act 2002: An Overview; Local Government New Zealand, New Zealand Society of Local Government Managers, Department of Internal Affairs. http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Legislative-Reviews-Local- Government-Act-Review-Index?OpenDocument810387 90
  • 91. 4.2 Working with the Tourism Industry Toolbox 4.2.1 Introduction and Scope The tourism industry is diverse and consists of many sector groups. For a local authority, this can make communication and consultation a challenge, particularly when different tourism industry sectors have different perspectives. This Toolbox identifies the major tourism sector players at the national, regional and local levels, and the benefits of engaging with the industry as part of the local authority’s planning process. The Toolbox also discusses the growing importance of Māori tourism. The Toolbox follows the standard format (see Tourism Planning Toolkit Structure, 1.2) 4.2.1 Introduction and Scope; 4.2.2 Why use this Toolbox? 4.2.3 Toolbox Resources; 4.2.4 Good Practice and Case Studies; 4.2.5 Additional Information. 4.2.2 Why use this Toolbox? Using this Toolbox will help you identify key tourism industry organisations with which you need to build relationships. Good relationships are required, in order to: identify issues that might impede the sustainable growth of tourism; work with industry to develop solutions which meet the needs of all stakeholders. 4.2.3 Toolbox Resources With local authorities needing to consult with stakeholders as part of their planning process, an understanding of the complexity and relationships that exist within the tourism industry is essential. The diagram below indicates the fit between local authorities, national tourism organisations and the local industry. It also provides a means of identifying stakeholders with whom the local authority may need to consult.810387 91
  • 92. Local Authority Relationships - NZ Tourism Industry National Organisations Ministry of Tourism Tourism NZ Tourism Industry National Sector Te Puni Kokiri Association Groups Policy Marketing NZ Represent Represent Māori tourism development Qualmark tourism business specific tourism Tourism research interests sectors Other National Organisations Other Local DoC Organisations Min of Economic DoC Development Historic Places Trust Local Authorities Transit Transit Min of Environment Maori tourism groups NZ Trade & Enterprise Accommodation Transportation Information Attractions (often provided by a local authority) Activities Regional Tourism Events/Exhibitions Performing Organisations (RTOs) Arts/Convention Centres Local/Regional Organisations/Businesses At the national level, the Tourism Industry Association New Zealand (TIANZ) is a member-based and funded organisation representing the interests of over 3,000 businesses from throughout the tourism industry (www.tianz.org.nz). At the local level many tourism businesses will belong to, or be associated with the local RTO which can also have a role in representing the industry. Many national organisations (eg Major Accommodation Providers - MAP) also have local organisations representing members in their area. Another source of information about tourism businesses and organisations is the publication “New Zealand Contacts in Tourism” (www.contacts.co.nz or email office @contacts.co.nz). Tourism New Zealand’s “Getting Started in Tourism” also provides a list of key organisations (www.tourismnewzealand.com). A new guide book for visitors to New Zealand is The Rough Guide to Māori New Zealand (Rough Guides Ltd, 2004). This provides contacts for some Māori tourism operators. Qualmark™ is New Zealand tourisms official mark of quality. The Qualmark website (www.qualmark.co.nz) identifies all accredited accommodation and tourism businesses. All businesses listed have been independently assessed for quality.810387 92
  • 93. Many local authorities are themselves owners and possibly operators of attractions (eg museums and art galleries), visitor information services (eg i-SITE centres), events (eg festivals) and performing arts/convention centres. Collectively, local authorities are probably the largest owners and operators of tourism assets in New Zealand. From a destination management perspective, local authorities have a complex task in consulting with the broad range of national, regional, district and local tourism related organisations, while also being sensitive to the needs of their communities within which the business of tourism takes place. Māori Tourism Local authorities need to recognise Māori tourism as an important and growing component of the tourism industry. It is a challenge to define Māori tourism.20 This has contributed to a lack of information on Māori participation in the tourism industry. Statistics New Zealand through research commissioned by the Ministry of Tourism is endeavouring to quantify the extent of Māori involvement in the tourism industry. He Matai Tapoi Māori: A Study of Opportunities and Impediments for Māori in Tourism (2001) (www.tourism.govt.nz/) suggests there are a number of factors that constitute a definition of Māori tourism: A business where the owners and operators believe it to be so; A business that is more than 50% owned by Māori; Exists where Māori resources and land are used; Exists where the business employs Māori; Where the tourism product offered a focus on Māori history and/or culture; If there is some sense of family operation (perhaps reflected in the structure of the business); Where there is some attention to the precepts of Manaakitanga, Tohukataka, Kaitiakitanga, Kaikokiri and respect; Where there is a focus on Māori product and lifestyle. The Ministry of Tourism states: “For the purposes of our policy work here, we are taking a wide definition of Māori tourism that includes Māori involved in tourism at all levels, Māori tourism business ownership, Māori cultural performance, other tourism services provided by Māori and Māori involvement in tourism organisations such as Māori regional tourism groups.” Māori Regional Tourism Organisations (MRTOs) are collectives of operators who work together to improve Māori participation in tourism, including the development of quality tourism product and the development of working relationships with RTOs. Maori Tourism: Concepts, Characteristics and Definitions; Lincoln University, Christchurch 20 Case Study Report No 36/2003 http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm.810387 93
  • 94. While the role of MRTOs varies from region to region, key functions may include: Facilitating co-ordination and co-operation among members; Educating members about the tourism industry; Providing networking opportunities; Linking Māori operators with relevant assistance programmes; Providing RTOs with an avenue into Māori tourism product in their area; Working with RTOs to ensure Māori operators are represented well in the RTOs’ marketing and product development activities. 4.2.4 Good Practice and Case Studies Activate Northland The Activate Northland project is a major regional initiative (MRI) which aims to build the capability of Northland’s tourism industry as the most likely sector to lead future economic growth, development and employment in the region. Northland has been recognized nationally as an innovative, pioneering region in tourism marketing and development. This MRI will enable Northland to continue a leadership role, and will provide additional resources to implement many of the recommendations of the New Zealand Tourism Strategy 2010, Northland Economic Development Strategy 2001 and Northland Tourism Strategy 2003. New Zealand Trade and Enterprise (NZTE), through the Regional Partnership programme, is co-funding the Activate Northland project over the next three years, with support from the industry, local government and central government agencies. Activate Northland aims to build capacity and grow 400 small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) along the Twin Coast Discovery Highway in order to increase visitor numbers, length of stay and expenditure within the region. This will be done by: – Providing professional development and e-technology programmes focused at a management and leadership level; – Developing new and existing tourism products aligned to Tourism New Zealand’s “ideal traveler”; – Creating a positive climate to attract investment and assist business growth and development. For more information visit: www.nzte.govt.nz/section/11962.aspx#sou810387 94
  • 95. 4.2.5 Additional Information Industry Contacts www.tianz.org.nz www.tourismnewzealand.com www.doc.govt.nz www.qualmark.co.nz www.nzmotels.co.nz www.hanz.org.nz www.historic.org.nz www.aia.org.nz www.busandcoach.co.nz www.nzaa.co.nz www.museums-aotearoa.org.nz www.mfe.govt.nz www.med.govt.nz www.creativenz.govt.nz www.transit.govt.nz Regional Tourism Organisations A number of reports and list of Regional Tourism Organisations New Zealand (RTONZ) are available on the Ministry of Tourism’s website (www.tourism.govt.nz). These include: Recommended Good Practice for Governance of Regional Tourism Organisations; Local Government New Zealand (2004). RTONZ Strategic Plan (June 2003). Māori Tourism The Ministry of Tourism identifies potential assistance available for Māori Tourism businesses through its website (www.tourism.govt.nz) The He Matai Tapoi Māori: A Study of Opportunities and Impediments for Māori in Tourism (2001) (www.tourism.govt.nz) TRREC Report No. 7: The Impact of Tourism on the Māori Community in Kaikoura; Henley, M.; Poharama, A.; Smith, A.; Simmons, D.G.; Fairweather, J.R., 1998. TRREC Report No. 15: Tourism and Māori Development in Rotorua; Tahana, N.; Grant, K.T.O.K.; Simmons, D.G.; Fairweather, J.R., 2000.810387 95
  • 96. TRREC Report No. 25: Tourism and Māori Development in Westland: Zygadlo, F.K., Matunga, H.P., Simmons, D.G., Fairweather, J.R., 2001. All reports available on http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm 4.3 SPECIFIC INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNING TOOLBOX 4.3.1 Introduction and Scope The Public Sector Infrastructure Toolbox (3.5) focused on helping local authorities understand visitor usage of water supply, and visitor production of wastewater and solid waste. This Toolbox builds on the earlier material by providing a series of frameworks to enhance a local authority’s strategic planning process for infrastructure. The Toolbox follows the standard format (see Tourism Planning Toolkit Structure, 1.2): 4.3.1 Introduction and Scope; 4.3.2 Why use this Toolbox? 4.3.3 Toolbox Resources; 4.3.4 Good Practice and Case Studies; 4.3.5 Additional Information. 4.3.2 Why use this Toolbox? This Toolbox will help you use the information learned in Toolbox 3.5 to improve your infrastructure strategic planning for tourism, in the same key areas of water, waste water and solid waste services. The Toolbox covers five areas: Funding and Charging for Local Authority Infrastructure; Infrastructure Engineering and Management; Design of Charging and Funding Structures: Hanemann’s Criteria; Sustainable and Integrated Infrastructure Planning, Design and Management; Demand Management and End User Education. 4.3.3 Toolbox Resources a) Funding and Charging Structures for Local Authority Infrastructure Visitors use many facilities and services provided in towns and cities including reticulated water, wastewater and solid waste collection, roads, parking areas, art galleries, museums and parks. Visitor satisfaction will, in part, be influenced by the quality of some of these services. Key to providing quality services is the availability of810387 96
  • 97. adequate funding. Once an understanding has been gained of tourism’s use of these services, local authorities are in a much better position to determine if their funding systems accurately allocate costs of the services. Most importantly, local authorities are interested in knowing if visitors pay their share of the costs of these services. An important instrument in achieving sustainable infrastructure practices in communities is the structure of local authority funding and charging systems. Funding and charging structures are useful for sending desired signals and providing incentives to achieve wise resource use and appropriate demand management outcomes. If there is significant tourism demand on the town’s water, wastewater and waste services, there may be issues that the local authority, community and tourism industries wish to clarify with respect to agreed criteria for infrastructure funding. These criteria may include some or all of: Equity of cost allocation between sectors; Sufficient and stable revenue generation; Infrastructure durability, resilience and adaptability; Risk minimisation; Efficiency in resource use and conveying appropriate signals to consumers – maybe factoring in seasonal variability; Acceptable ecological, social and cultural impact – short and long-term; Economic vitality; Affordable, reliable and manageable infrastructure assets; Transparency; Provision for ongoing monitoring of demand for water, wastewater and waste services. The above list is based on Hanemann’s criteria (see c) which provide a useful check for the evaluation of the charging and cost allocation of services. Many deficiencies in rating systems can often be overcome by greater use of unit-pricing of the services provided. Unit-pricing of water occurs where water is metered and users pay a per cubic metre charge. Unit-prices allocate variable costs to users, and provide continuing incentives to economise on use of the service. Pan charges are an attempt to link charges for each ratepayer to their usage of wastewater systems. Research in Kaikoura has shown that there is weak or zero relationship between number of pans and the use of the wastewater system by commercial accommodation providers.21 Hence the charging system used for wastewater fails to allocate costs accurately to users. The use of pan charges also fails to provide ratepayers with incentives to reduce usage of the wastewater system. Wastewater is not able to be 21 TRREC Report No. 57/2004, Tourism, Water, Wastewater and Waste Services in Small Towns http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm810387 97
  • 98. monitored for each property, but unit-pricing can be introduced for this service by linking the charges for wastewater to each property’s water usage, an approach that is used in Auckland and in some Australian and United Kingdom cities. Seasonal charges for water can be introduced to provide additional incentives to conserve water usage during dry periods of the year and during periods of peak demand for water. In practice visitor numbers reach a peak in summer in many regions and having higher charges for water during the summer will correctly signal its increased scarcity value. For more details on options and structures for unit charging refer to TRREC Report No. 57/2004, Tourism, Water, Wastewater and Waste Services in Small Towns http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm. Also see Case Study section. c) Infrastructure Engineering and Management Infrastructure engineering and management is a highly specialised professional discipline. Many local authorities have engineers and asset managers specifically trained to take responsibility for the design and management of their infrastructure services. Smaller councils will contract this work out to specialist consultants. The physical design of the services is undertaken by engineers. Traditionally the professional engineer is required to design a town’s physical infrastructure so that it is functional, will last, is safe, is not a public health risk, is cost effective and satisfies legal and regulatory requirements. These criteria are still important and valid. However a systems approach22 (see also Sustainable and Integrated Infrastructure Planning, Design and Management) requires additional criteria, including long-term ecological, social and cultural considerations. Seven key design criteria for integrated water and wastewater systems (Source: Andrew Dakers) 1. Social Integration: Respect for key cultural attributes; Economic viability; Educational requirements; Recreational and leisure requirements; Social justice and equity. 22 There is a shift in thinking in New Zealand and other countries, towards the adoption of a more systems- based approach to planning and managing urban services. This is recognised in two significant reports. The first is the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment’s 2002 report Creating Our Future (http://www.pce.govt.nz/reports/allreports/1_877274_03_8.shtml). The second report is The Ministry of Economic and Development, Sustainable Development and Infrastructure, Nov 2003 (http://www.med.govt.nz/irdev/econ_dev/infrastructure/index.html). .810387 98
  • 99. 2. Ecosystem integration: Protection, mitigation or compensation of key ecosystem services; Closure of nutrient cycles; Preservation of natural hydrological processes; Non-polluting emissions; Protection, mitigation or compensation of habitat fragmentation and/or destruction; Protection, mitigation or compensation of biodiversity. 3. Sustainable use of natural resources: Use of renewable energy resources; Sustainable use of biological resources; Efficient use on non-renewable resources. 4. Integration of technical services. For example the integration of: Water supply system; Stormwater system; Sanitation system; Wetland restoration; Energy production; Food production. 5. Total system design approach. The extent to which the design deliberately considers: Industry and community sectors; Cross-sectoral interactions between different infrastructural services; for example the 3-water service (ie wastewater, water supply and stormwater), energy services and transport infrastructure; Spatial: Source technologies and processes (demand management), reticulation, storage, processing and environmental re-entry; Temporal: Community/client consultation, site investigation, design, commissioning and operation. 6. Self Organisation.. The design should build in opportunities and process for: Feedback and performance monitoring (indicators); Self learning; Adaptive management. 7. Legal criteria. The design must meet legal and regulatory requirements such as: Resource Management Act; Town planning legislation and regulations; Health legislation and regulations. There are a number of potential benefits for a local authority in adopting a rigorous systems-approach to the engineering design of physical infrastructures such as water, wastewater and waste services. For example, better and more sustainable urban services810387 99
  • 100. for present and future users, reduced long-term costs, more efficient resource use, better environmental, social and cultural outcomes and streamlined management requirements. Tourism has now reached a scale in New Zealand that in many urban areas, seasonal peak loadings or demands can be dominated by visitor requirements. As tourism is often a catalyst for upgrading public infrastructure (especially in peripheral areas that have undergone long periods of population stagnation or decline), the opportunities generated by tourism infrastructure upgrades can also provide the opportunity for upgrading overall environmental management systems and their integration. New government funding of $11 million was allocated in 2005 to develop a subsidy scheme for water and sewerage infrastructure affected by tourism demand. See www.tourism.govt.nz for more information. c)Design of Charging and Funding Structures: Hanemann’s Criteria Hanemann23 introduces evaluation criteria for the design of water rates and charges which also incorporate wastewater funding and can be applied to funding techniques to cover solid waste costs. Hanemann provides three main criteria for designing water rates, namely: Revenue generation; Cost allocation; Provision of incentives. This is important for tourism as in small towns in particular, tourism can be a major user of water. Revenue generation should be sufficient to meet all of the costs that a utility encounters when providing its service. Cost allocation should apportion the costs of the service among the different customers in a non-arbitrary manner. It should avoid cross subsidies and it should allocate the full private and social costs to users. Funding systems should provide incentives for efficient water use or disposal volumes. Finally the incentives should encourage water conservation, or reduced solid waste volumes, and the charging rate scheme should be transparent to users to ensure the correct interpretation occurs of incentives set by the service utility (Hanemann, p 139ff). Charging policies in use at present, and proposed charging polices, can be tested against the criteria outlined in the following table (Hanemann’s Criteria for Evaluating Funding Structures).. The breadth of questions posed by the criteria indicates that it will be very difficult for any one charging system to score highly against all criteria. Selection of a 23 Hanemann, W.M. (1998) Price and rate structures, chapter 5 in D.D. Baumann, J.J. Boland, W.M. Hanemann, 1998. Urban Water Demand Management and Planning. McGraw-Hill New York..810387 100
  • 101. preferred charging policy is likely to require trading off performance on one criterion against performance on one or more other criteria. Hanemann’s Criteria for Evaluating Funding Structures Criteria Sub-criteria Assessment Questions Sufficient − Are all annual costs covered by annual charges? − Are seasonal costs covered by seasonal charges? Stable over time − How much unpredictable variation does the charging scheme include? − Will the unpredictability reduce over time, for example by improving the database? Administration costs − How high are rate calculation and billing costs; for and complexity example value assessment, meter reading, pan Revenue monitoring? generation − How high are production and distribution costs for rubbish bags? − How many different rates exist for the same service; for example residential, undeveloped sections, commercial? − How complex are the rates; for example combination of Uniform Annual Charge (UAC), loan charges, infrastructure charges, non-linear pan charges, number of seasons, number of blocks? Non-arbitrary − Does charging scheme work towards achieving objectives? − Does charging scheme reflect cost structure? Cost allocation No cross subsidisation − Do rate payments reflect costs inflicted; for example does a unit utilising x% of a service pay ~x% of the costs? Static efficiency − Are resources efficiently allocated at any point in time; for example does the unit with the highest true water need have access to the resource and is a unit with high discretionary water use encouraged to reduce water demand? Incentive Dynamic efficiency − Are resources channelled towards efficient allocation provision over time? Encourage − Are units encouraged to change behaviour in order to conservation reduce pressure on the resource? Correct interpretation − Are the charging scheme and its underlying objectives understood, and carried out by managers and customers? For more specific details about funding and charging structures refer to TRREC Report No. 57/2004, Tourism, Water, Wastewater and Waste Services in Small Towns , 2004. http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm d) Sustainable and Integrated Infrastructure Planning, Design and Management810387 101
  • 102. Sustainability is ultimately about the interplay between people and ecologies. (Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment’s 2002 report Creating Our Future http://www.pce.govt.nz/reports/allreports/1_877274_03_8.shtml). One important outcome of this interplay is how well our engineered urban infrastructures integrate with the ecosystems within which they are embedded. e) Demand Management and End User Education Demand management is vital in all sectors, and has in the past often been the poor cousin to supplying more infrastructure. We should not give primacy to supply, and we should not ignore the demand side – integrated management of both sides is necessary to reach an ‘optimal’ solution. Ministry of Economic and Development, Sustainable Development and Infrastructure (Nov 2003) http://www.med.govt.nz/irdev/econ_dev/infrastructure/index.html Demand management is defined as: The active intervention in the market to influence the demand for services and the assets generated and/or used in the supply of these services in order to best match available resources to real needs and to ensure the services provided are delivered with the best value for money. Ref. Demand management guideline. 2001. DPWS Report Number 01052. NSW Department of Public Works and Services. Demand management is primarily achieved by end-user education and awareness raising. Incentives and regulations can be used to facilitate this. The concept of demand management is of particular relevance to water supply, wastewater, solid waste and energy services. Water and Wastewater There is a strong link between water use and wastewater production. Much of the water consumed by a property is discharged back into the wastewater system. Distortions to this relationship occur due to external water use (such as irrigation, car washing) which tends to be discharged to the stormwater system. Furthermore, wastewater volumes at a community wastewater treatment plant can often be inflated due to infiltration and inflow into the sewers from groundwater and stormwater. Demand management of water demand and wastewater production are therefore directly related. Water saving systems (e.g greywater recycling), technologies and management practices not only reduce the demand on the water resource but also reduce the volume of wastewater produced. Solid Waste There are a number of very good web-based resources for guidance on the demand management of solid wastes (see Additional Information, 4.3.5.)810387 102
  • 103. Energy The NZ Energy Strategy (2001) calls for energy efficiency, energy conservation and renewable energy within the context of a sustainable energy future. A valuable resource for guidance on energy demand management for government and businesses is the Energy Efficiency Conservation Authority (EECA) Energy Wise programme. See www.eeca.govt.nz 4.3.4 Good Practice and Case Studies Kaikoura – Zero Waste Kaikoura, a small town with a population of 3,500, is on the east coast of the South Island of New Zealand. A world famous feeding ground for giant sperm whales and home to dolphins and seals, Kaikouras marine life attracts over 1 million visitors every year, making tourism the backbone of its economy. But although Kaikoura is unique for its stunning environment, it is also rather special for another reason - its solid waste management policy. In November 1998 Kaikoura District Council formally adopted a Zero Waste policy, with the aim of achieving zero waste (or as near as possible) by 2015. Recycling facilities had been in existence within the district for 12 months prior to this. In accordance with the Zero Waste policy, in July 1999 Council withdrew the contract for the rubbish collection and contracted Wastebusters Trust Kaikoura to provide a domestic kerbside collection for recyclable materials. In October 1999, Wastebusters Trust embarked on a commercial pick up of recyclable materials. This has proved very popular and has made a significant dent on the waste stream. The pick up of recyclable materials has been extended to rural pick up points and visitor recycling bins have been placed around the district. In 2000 when the contract for running the landfill came up for renewal, Innovative Waste Kaikoura was awarded the contract to manage the landfill and recycling operations. IWK is a charitable company, started as a joint venture between Kaikoura District Council (which owns 49%) and Wastebusters Trust Kaikoura (which owns 51%). The district is enjoying the positive spin-offs of an integrated waste management strategy that focuses on the financial, social and environmental benefits. The most significant social benefit has been the creation of five full-time and four part-time jobs at the Resource Recovery Centre. A customer satisfaction survey conducted by the council showed that 90% of respondents were highly supportive of the Innovative Waste operation, while in a previous survey 60% of respondents wanted to see more money being spent on waste minimisation. A810387 103
  • 104. further and more in-depth survey showed that on average 91% of the Kaikoura community uses the recycling service. Other local authority case studies can be found at: www.zerowaste.co.nz/default,63.sm 4.3.5 Additional Information Hanemann, W.M., 1998. Price and rate structures, chapter 5 in D.D. Baumann, J.J. Boland, W.M. Hanemann, 1998. Urban water demand management and planning, McGraw-Hill New York Resources for guidance on demand management for water supply are available from a number of Council websites, including: Christchurch City Council http://www.ccc.govt.nz/Water/WaterWise/ Waitakere City Council http://www.waitakere.govt.nz/AbtCit/ec/bldsus/water.asp Metrowater, Auckland http://www.metrowater.co.nz/frame_savew.html Another useful site is the Sydney Water site, www.sydneywater.com.au http://www.sydneywater.com.au/html/your_water/yourwater_index.cfm Zero Waste website – encouraging all sectors in NZ to work towards zero wastes; an up- to-date website with innovative ideas and an extensive national network. www.zerowaste.co.nz Redesigning Resources website on waste management and sustainability. www.redesigningresources.org The Waste Management Institute of New Zealand (WasteMINZ) www.wasteminz.org.nz Auckland Regional Council Cleaner Production website http://www.arc.govt.nz/arc/?74628379-62E2-419B-AD53-921B5C4AFBCF Energy Wise http://www.eeca.govt.nz/default2.asp The Ministry of Economic Development, Sustainable Development and Infrastructure, Nov 2003 http://www.med.govt.nz/irdev/econ_dev/infrastructure/index.html http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/waste/waste-strategy-mar02/index.html http://www.pce.govt.nz/reports/allreports/1_877274_03_8.shtml http://www.med.govt.nz/irdev/econ_dev/infrastructure/index.html http://www.ipenz.org.nz/ipenz/forms/pdfs/Info_Note_10.pdf http://www.pce.govt.nz/reports/allreports/1_877274_03_8.shtml810387 104
  • 105. 5 IMPLEMENTATION SECTION To implement a tourism strategy, or make informed decisions about local authority involvement in major tourism projects and events, you need to have the right information and decision criteria. The Implementation Section builds on the vision and objectives, developed in the Strategic Planning Section (4.1-4.3). It includes the following Toolboxes, which provide a framework and resources to assist local authority decision-making: 5.1 Tourism Partnerships Toolbox; 5.2 Project Design, Appraisal and Development Toolbox; 5.3 Tourism Project Evaluation Toolbox; 5.4 Event Development, Funding and Evaluation Toolbox. This section focuses on the information required for decision-making on destination management issues. It does not deal with destination marketing, since in most areas this is the responsibility of regional tourism organisations (RTOs). Separate information has been prepared to assist in the function, structure, design, governance and operation of RTOs. The destination management section of the following diagram identifies the agencies responsible for implementation of core elements of a tourism strategy. The key outcome for destination management is to meet the requirements of visitors, industry, community and the environment (see VICE model, 1.3).810387 105
  • 106. Implementing the Tourism Strategy Tourism Industry Partnerships Regional Destination Marketing Tourism Org •Promotion/sales (RTO) •Information to industry Central Govt Strategy: Agencies (CGA) Vision Research & Analysis and Iwi Authorities Objectives Destination Management Territorial Local Authority (TLA) •Visitors welcome involve and satisfy Regional •Industry Council (RC) enhance business profitability •Communities Central Govt engage and benefit hosts Agencies (CGA) •Environment protect and enhance Iwi Authorities 5.1 Tourism Partnerships Toolbox 5.1.1 Introduction and Scope When travelling around New Zealand, visitors generally have little awareness of, or interest in, local authority boundaries. There is an increasing need for local authorities to take into account how visitors move around New Zealand and how the impact of decisions in one area could affect a neighbouring region. Visitor growth in the major tourism destinations of Auckland, Rotorua, Wellington, Christchurch, Queenstown and Dunedin is likely to have a major impact on smaller destinations within easy travelling distance (such as Akaroa, Hanmer Springs and Kaikoura, in the case of Christchurch). The Toolbox covers the use of partnerships as a destination management tool for tourism- related issues that are beyond the capacity of one organisation or area to address. The810387 106
  • 107. Toolbox provides information on establishing tourism partnerships, the likely stakeholders and factors that influence the success of partnerships. The Toolbox follows the standard format (see Tourism Planning Toolkit Structure, 1.2): 5.1.1 Introduction and Scope 5.1.2 Why use this Toolbox? 5.1.3 Toolbox Resources 5.1.4 Good Practice and Case Studies 5.1.5 Additional Information 5.1.2 Why use this Toolbox? The Toolbox identifies how local authorities can use partnerships to manage tourism- related issues that are beyond the capacity of one organisation, including: Resolving issues common to a number of local authorities in the same region – such as provision of amenities and infrastructure to meet visitor needs on a highway that traverses a number of council boundaries, or freedom camping for campervans; Developing a regional approach to identifying visitor attraction needs; Marketing a region that comprises a number of smaller visitor destinations. The benefits associated with tourism-related partnerships include: Encourages cooperation and coordination between agencies; Partners working towards shared strategic objectives; Reduced costs for the same level of services; Shared and more effective research. 5.1.3 Toolbox Resources This Toolbox provides information on setting up tourism partnerships, the likely stakeholders and factors that influence the success of partnerships. The Toolbox builds on information in section 4.2, on working with the tourism industry. a) The Key Stages in Developing a Successful Partnership Identify participants, invite participation and agree shared overall objectives; Devise a strategy and action plan; Obtain resources; Manage delivery of the action plan; Monitor developments and provide results to stakeholders; Keep the partnership alive.810387 107
  • 108. b) The Stakeholders The stakeholders in most cases need to represent visitors, industry, community and the environment (see VICE model, 1.3), although they will not all need to be involved in every partnership. Representation will be determined by need. Visitors are unlikely to be personally represented, but their views can be obtained through surveys and user group representatives (eg tour companies). Industry can be represented by major operators, industry organisation representatives and existing business forums. Community can be represented by elected members, community groups and interest groups. Environment can be represented by Department of the Conservation, conservation organisations, Ministry for the Environment and other environment agencies. c) Factors that Determine Success or Failure of Partnerships International research24 has identified the following factors as key to the success of tourism partnerships: Involve all stakeholders (VICE) early in the process – it is time-consuming to introduce a group later. With large partnerships it may be necessary to gather smaller, like-minded groupings, prior to bringing everyone together, so that each grouping feels it is relevant (eg attraction operators may initially meet separately from transport operators); Be open and honest. Use the partnership to identify and develop the ideas of others, not just rubber stamp your own; Commit to the partnership for the long-term. Be realistic about time resource requirements and do not be too ambitious in the number of groups established; Accept that it takes longer to reach decisions when working in a partnership – allow longer timescales; Communicate regularly and effectively both with partnership members and externally on the work and success of the partnership; Keep the partnership alive by investing time and effort into its management, maintaining activity, and demonstrating and reporting progress. For a copy of a draft partnership constitution see Partnership Constitution. Partnership Constitution – Key Elements Detailed below is an outline of a draft constitution for a Tourism Partnership. 24 www.unwto.org/pub/index.htm810387 108
  • 109. 1) Partnership name The name shall be: XYZ Tourism Partnership 2) Goals/objectives The objectives of the XYZ Partnership are to provide strategic support and guidance and to promote, deliver and advise on initiatives that will: Welcome, involve and satisfy Visitors Achieve a profitable and prosperous Industry Engage and benefit host Communities Protect and enhance the local Environment Its purpose will be to prepare and publicise a Regional Tourism Strategic Plan, to identify sources of funding and to coordinate and to establish small working groups to progress projects identified in the plan 3) Membership of the Partnership The Partners will be drawn from the public and private sector and represent: Visitors Industry Community Environment 4) Funding The objective will be to identify sources of funding from the public and private sectors to achieve the goals, or specific initiatives, of the Partnership. 5) Board membership and responsibilities The Board membership will comprise representation from the four stakeholders groups: Visitors Industry Community Environment It will elect its own officers (Chairperson etc) Key responsibilities include: Take decisions on policies, projects and initiatives810387 109
  • 110. Actively participate with other bodies Identify and secure sources of external funding Help facilitate cooperation between interest groups 6) Meetings The Partnership will meet at such intervals, time and place as shall be determined 7) Sub group representatives and responsibilities Sub groups will comprise representation from the four stakeholder groups, based on the needs of specific projects/initiatives 8) Administration The administration including secretariat will be undertaken by one of the public agencies in the first instance, with the potential for the partnership to manage its own administration if and when appropriate. 5.1.4 Good Practice and Case Studies a) West Coast Research undertaken by Lincoln University on the West Coast highlighted the need for a partnership approach at the regional planning level. Specific recommendations from the research included: Issues should be addressed within a strategic and integrated planning context, both within individual district councils and on an inter-organisational basis at the regional level; The need for a more collaborative approach to develop a sustainable regional tourism strategy for the West Coast and to build more effective partnerships between central and local government and between government and industry. The councils and RTO should assume the lead roles in this exercise. The Local Government Act 2002 clearly acknowledges the potential of partnership approaches, which are particularly appropriate for the tourism sector where the client groups are highly mobile across local authorities. Many RTOs already provide a regional focus for tourism marketing; the challenge is to provide a similar focus for tourism management. TRREC Report No. 29: Tourism in Westland: Challenges for Planning and Recommendations for Management, 2001. http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm810387 110
  • 111. b) Milford Road Transit New Zealand, Opus International Consultants, Works Infrastructure and the Department of Conservation developed a Partnering Charter with the overriding objective of: “Through our collective efforts we will ensure that users enjoy the Milford Road Experience” In addition to undertaking road improvements, the Partnership has been responsible for marketing the road through a ‘Travel Tips for Drivers’ brochure and the development of a website www.milfordroad.co.nz . The website provides information on road conditions, any avalanche updates and links to the Destination Fiordland website for visitor information on Milford Sound. c) Northland Tourism The Ministry for Environment (MfE) is working with the Northland tourism sector to develop a sustainability charter and to help implement sustainable business practices. It is partnering with the region’s lead economic development agency, Enterprise Northland, to reach and work with businesses interested in sustainability. Currently more than thirty tourism businesses are participating in the charter. http://www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/sustainable-industry/initiatives/ 5.1.5 Additional Information TRREC Report No. 28: Evolving Role of Local Government in Promoting Sustainable Tourism Development on the West Coast, 2001. http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm) Cooperation and Partnerships in Tourism: A Global Perspective; World Tourism Organisation (2003). www.unwto.org/pub/index.htm810387 111
  • 112. 5.2 Project Design, Appraisal & Development Toolbox 5.2.1 Introduction Local authorities play a critical role in shaping the way a project contributes to or detracts from the overall quality of a destination. A responsible local authority will undertake an independent design appraisal of every major project that is proposed, whether public or private, and engage creatively with the developer to ensure that it adds value to the overall destination. This Toolbox outlines the basic steps of project design appraisal and provides resources to enable you to undertake successful appraisals. The Toolbox follows the standard format (see Tourism Planning Toolkit Structure, 1.2): 5.2.1 Introduction and Scope 5.2.2 Why use this Toolbox? 5.2.3 Toolbox Resources 5.2.4 Good Practice and Case Studies 5.2.5 Additional Information 5.2.2 Why use this Toolbox? A successful project design appraisal will have benefits for the developer and operator, host community, visitors, and the local authority: Undertaking a robust appraisal at an early stage reduces the possibility of problems (like litigation or redesign) emerging later in the development process; Creates a positive environment for collaboration; Helps identify opportunities for synergy between previously unrelated projects (eg road improvement and site development); Promotes greater integration between different attractions within a destination (eg improved access); Can strengthen the distinctive identity and character of a destination (eg through selecting appropriate design styles, materials etc). 5.2.3 Toolbox Resources There are two related procedures that are combined in a project design appraisal: a) Assessment of Environmental Effects; b) Project Scoping.810387 112
  • 113. a) Assessment of Environmental Effects (AEE) The issue of a resource consent under the Resource Management Act (RMA) requires an AEE.25 An AEE analyses the way in which a proposed project is likely to change the environment in which it will be located. This is a systematic process, whose basic procedures are well documented. An AEE should cover all the environmental dimensions of a project, including effects upon soil, water, land, and other physical resources. Landscape Assessment is an integral part of an AEE for a tourism project, and focuses on two types of effect - the specific visual and sensory effects of the project (what it looks like, etc), and the effect these changes will have upon the character and identity of the overall landscape setting. It is particularly important to undertake a robust evaluation of the wider cumulative landscape effects of a project. The New Zealand Institute of Landscape Architects has identified a number of key elements that should be included in any landscape assessment.26. Part of an AEE process will include the identification of ways in which the effects of a project can be avoided, remedied or mitigated. The objective is to minimise the net effect of a project on the environment. This may include redesign of parts of a project to avoid adverse effects, for example by relocating an access road to preserve a wetland; actions to remedy a potential effect, such as revegetation of disturbed land to prevent erosion; or actions to mitigate effects that cannot be entirely avoided, such as the revegetation of an area of degraded land to compensate for unavoidable visual effects. The use of environmental compensation is highly contentious, as it involves balancing different aspects of ‘sustainable management’. In an AEE of a tourism project it is important to assess the effects of change and any proposed environmental compensation upon both the host community and the visitors. Whilst a revegetation programme may well enhance the long term indigenous biodiversity of an area, the immediate visual effects of a development may make an area appear less natural for visitors seeking an ‘unspoilt’ experience of rural New Zealand. Satisfactory resolution of these sorts of trade-offs requires appropriate experience and expertise that is frequently not available to small local authorities. It may be necessary to employ a consultant (see www.nzila.org.nz for a list of registered landscape architects and their areas of expertise). 25 The Tourism and RMA Guide currently under development is closely linked to this Toolkit and will be available on the Local Government New Zealand section of the Ministry of Tourism website. 26 Summary of NZILA key elements, and website address.810387 113
  • 114. The problems of evaluating environmental compensation highlight another contentious aspect of tourism development, which is the cumulative effect of a succession of projects. Whilst individually modest in scale, the aggregation of effects can cause significant changes in overall landscape character (eg the subdivision of the Wakitipu Basin in the Queenstown Lakes, or subdivision around Wanaka). Cumulative effects demonstrate one of the limitations of an approach based primarily upon AEE. Whilst it may be feasible to avoid, remedy or mitigate the effects of a single small project within a wider landscape, it is impossible to repeat this over and over again for a succession of projects. It is inevitable that the overall character of the setting will change. One of the dangers of an incremental use of AEE without a strategic planning framework is that it becomes harder to take effective mitigating actions, as the whole setting may be steadily degrading. Ideally, a robust strategic plan will help to address this risk, but even then, a total focus on reducing effects can become unhelpful. This is where more creative thinking is required in the appraisal process. Project Scoping Project scoping is normally undertaken by a developer as part of the project implementation process, but also has relevance for a local authority in implementing a tourism strategy. Whilst a developer will be focused entirely upon shaping a project to meet their own needs, a local authority will be interested in the connections between a project and its setting. Here we focus upon the landscape dimensions, but a local authority might also address functional connections such as car parking or water demand in the same way. The key feature of a ‘landscape’ approach to project implementation is that it looks across land titles and boundaries. Project scoping involves: An assessment of the basic project requirements; Analysis of potential and limitations (eg site analysis); and Identification of design opportunities. It is the identification of design opportunities that offers greatest potential for creative collaboration. Local authorities will have their own capital investment and asset management plans, which may include projects that could complement the developers proposals. A common example of this type of synergy is the Mainstreet programmes that have been implemented throughout New Zealand, in which local authorities have invested in public infrastructure in partnership with businesses and land owners upgrading their land and buildings. In other cases, the opportunity may lie in getting two developers to collaborate. This checklist will help you identify opportunities for collaboration between your council and developers on tourism project proposals.810387 114
  • 115. Checklist to Identify Collaboration Potential Area Yes No Redesign of stormwater and sewerage to create more sustainable systems (eg through stormwater retention ponds) Revitalisation of a stream Shared car parking facilities Improved public walkways and access Re located public parks and open space, for example through land swaps Complementary planting schemes, for example to carry revegetation seamlessly across property Boundaries, or extend street trees into hotel developments Complementary design styles and colour schemes In most cases, a creative engagement between a local authority and developer can identify win-win outcomes. If the project is large enough, it may provide a stimulus for regeneration of a neighbourhood, acting as an anchor for other public and private investment. Involvement of a local authority can also improve the chances of attracting other forms of support (such as from central government agencies). In order to realise these types of outcomes, it is essential for a local authority to nominate a well qualified and experienced coordinator, who can work with the developer and their consultants on an equal footing. This may be an existing planner or designer within the council, or for a major project it could be efficient to engage an external consultant. This has been successful on a number of inner city projects in recent years. The overall aim is to identify ways in which a developer’s initiative can add value to, and receive benefit from, the landscape setting for which it is proposed. 5.2.5 Additional Information Tourism & the RMA (to be completed) local government section of Ministry of Tourism website. www.tourism.govt.nz Relevant sources of good practice in Assessment of Environmental Effects, Landscape Assessment and Project Appraisal include: Quality Planning New Zealand: www.qualityplanning.org.nz Ministry for Environment www.mfe.govt.nz Standards NZ is www.standards.co.nz Ministry for the Environment Report: People+Places+Spaces: A Design Guide for Urban New Zealand. MfE March 2002 Ministry for Environment Report: Live+Work+Play: Liveable Urban Environments: Process, Strategy, Action. MfE June 2002810387 115
  • 116. Ministry for Environment Report: The Impact of Rural Subdivision and Development on Landscape Values. MfE July 2000 Standards New Zealand Handbook: Subdivision for People and the Environment. SNZ HB 44:2001 New Zealand Institute of Landscape Architects: Proceedings of 1999 Conference on Landscape Assessment (Landscape Review 5(1) Lincoln University) 5.3 TOURISM PROJECT EVALUATION TOOLBOX 5.3.1 Introduction and Scope As tourism continues to grow, local authorities in popular destinations are increasingly being approached by commercial developers seeking local authority investment in new or existing tourism projects. Developers argue that without such investment a project may no proceed, causing the area to become less competitive than its neighbours, and potentially losing opportunities to others. How should local authorities respond to these requests? This Toolbox provides guidance on the key areas to be assessed and the questions that a local authority should ask as part of its evaluation. The Toolbox could be provided to potential tourism developers to ensure that the essential information required to obtain local authority support is prepared. The Toolbox follows the standard format (see Tourism Planning Toolkit Structure, 1.2): 5.3.1 Introduction and Scope 5.3.2 Why use this Toolbox? 5.3.3 Toolbox Resources 5.3.4 Good Practice and Case Studies 5.3.5 Additional Information 5.3.2 Why use this Toolbox? Tourism is an important economic development tool for many local authorities. To obtain maximum community benefit, TLAs need good systems for assessing commercial tourism projects proposed by developers. For a local authority, there are a number of benefits from taking a systematic approach to evaluating projects:810387 116
  • 117. No resources wasted on projects which won’t achieve local authority economic and social objectives; Investment will be targeted to potentially successful projects, limiting the council’s exposure to risk; The local authority retains credibility with its community by implementing a robust evaluation methodology; Decision-making is based on sound information rather than emotional commitment; The process is transparent and fair for developers. 5.3.3 Toolbox Resources Complete the project evaluation checklist to identify your council’s existing approach to project evaluation, and to ascertain where you may need more information. Checklist: Project Evaluation Key Criteria Yes No Unsure/ Partially 1. Local authority has a specific policy for dealing with external projects seeking Council investment 2. Local authority has a specific process for evaluating the potential benefits of external projects 3. The majority of external projects supported by the local authority have been successful in meeting the local authority objectives The following model can be used to evaluate a range of tourism-related projects.810387 117
  • 118. Stages in Local Authority Assessment of the Feasibility of a Tourism Project Project Application Project application received Administrative and Evaluation Team appointed Objectives Review Consistency with local authority objectives (economic, tourism, social, environmental, cultural) Consistency with regional/national tourism strategy Project Favourable Unfavourable Terminated Concept Assessment Key elements Potential for success Project Favourable Unfavourable Terminated Market Analysis Key market users Competitive analysis Project Favourable Unfavourable Terminated Visitor and Financial Objectives Numbers Method and source of determining visitor projections Project Costs Project Favourable Unfavourable Terminated Project Costs Capital costs Operating projections Project Favourable Unfavourable Terminated Risk Assessment Project risk Local authority risk Project Favourable Unfavourable Terminated810387 118
  • 119. Conclusions Potential project viability Recommendation to Council Project Favourable Unfavourable Terminated Project Proceeds For a detailed checklist and specific information requirements for each of the feasibility stages described in the model. The extent to which commercially sensitive information is made available to the local authority will depend on the proposed role of the council in the project. Project Analysis Project Application No Tasks Completion Date 1.1 General description of project including details of the promoters. 1.2 Confirm that all required information to make a decision has been received. 1.3 Appoint a project team covering the key requirements to evaluate the project prior to presentation to Council. The local authority may consider it appropriate to appoint external expertise to the project team to assist it in specialist areas.810387 119
  • 120. Objectives Review No Tasks Completion Date 2.1 Confirmation that project meets local authority objectives (tourism, economic, social, environmental, cultural). 2.2 Confirmation that project meets local, regional and national tourism strategy objectives. Concept Assessment No Tasks Completion Date 3.1 What is the concept? (general outline of the project). 3.2 What are the key elements of the project. 3.3 Where will the project be located (provide a map and site plan). 3.5 Who are the likely users of the facility/service? (international, domestic, day visitors). 3.6 What is the capacity of the project? (eg number of visitors per day). 3.7 What potential constraints might prevent the project from occurring? 3.8 What is likely capital cost of developing the project?810387 120
  • 121. Site Analysis No Tasks Completion Date 4.1 Is the site located in an existing or potential visitor destination area, or is it en route to an existing established areas? (describe pros and cons of site in relation to markets). 4.2 Is the site well located in the area? (accessible, visible and close to complementary facilities and services). 4.3 Is the site accessible from the likely major markets? (number of kilometres, time, cost). 4.4 What form of transport will people use to reach the area? (bus, car, helicopter etc). 4.5 Is it travel time and cost effective in comparison with competing areas? (list competitors with time, costs etc). 4.6 What are the attributes of the site and are they sufficient to attract visitors? 4.7 Is the attraction base of the area sufficient to draw and hold visitors? (list other facilities/services). 4.8 Are there any new developments proposed for the area that are likely to impact on the site? (list developments and describe potential impacts). 4.9 Are there any apparent constraints to development on the site? (eg flooding). 4.10 What are the competitive advantages of the site and location over existing established facilities? (list). 4.11 What is the community response to the project/site?810387 121
  • 122. Market Analysis No Tasks Completion Date 5.1 What is the status of the local and regional economies? (list any issues likely to impact on the economies). 5.2 Is the area growing or declining? (eg population). 5.3 What is the level and structure of visitation to the area? (number of visitors from each market, growing or declining, accommodation used). 5.4 Are there any proposed developments in the area that could impact on the project? (list and state how). 5.5 What markets could potentially be attracted to the site and locality? (list with size and market trends). 5.6 Is there a seasonality issue? (describe with possible impacts). 5.7 Is there a strong existing market in the area or will the project need to create its own market? (analyse). 5.1 Where will the competition for the project come from? 5.2 What does the competition offer in terms of facilities, location and services? (list competitors and describe offers). 5.3 How are the competitors performing? (numbers, profitability, customer service etc). 5.4 What other visitor developments are proposed for the area that could provide competition for the proposed project? (list and describe). 5.5 What is the likely impact of the proposed project on existing businesses? Visitor and Financial Objectives810387 122
  • 123. No Tasks Completion Date 6.1 What is the capacity of the facility/service? (hourly, daily). 6.2 How many people will visit? (daily, monthly, annually). 6.3 What will visitors be charged? (list for each element, discounts). 6.4 What are the other revenue earning opportunities? (retail, catering etc). 6.5 What are the revenue projections for the first five years? 6.6 What are the projected operating costs for the first five years? 6.7 What is the projected financial performance for the first five years? Project Costs No Tasks Completion Date 7.1 What are the projected costs to complete the project and be ready for opening? Costs to include site acquisition, design and approval, construction, set up and pre opening. Risk Assessment No Tasks Completion Date 8.1 What are the potential risks for the developer (eg higher capital costs, lower visitor numbers and revenue, higher operating costs). How will these risks be addressed? 8.2 What are the potential risks for the local authority (eg up front investment with no guarantee that project will proceed). How will these risks be addressed?810387 123
  • 124. Conclusions No Tasks Completion Date 9.1 Will the project improve the range of tourism products available in the district/region? 9.2 Does the project have potential for financial success? 9.2 Will it potentially increase the number of visitors and/or length of stay to the district/region? 9.3 Will it support the local authority’s tourism and economic development strategies for the district/region? 9.4 Can the local authority’s investment be liquidated in the future? 9.5 Are there potential future costs that the local authority will be committed to? 9.6 What will be the local authority’s strategy to maximise the potential from the project? 9.7 What is the likely community response to the project? 9.8 What are the recommendations to Council? 5.3.4 Good Practice and Case Studies a) Christchurch Tram A case study example of a local authority and a commercial operator relationship is the Christchurch Tram. The Christchurch City Council, following a feasibility study, developed the infrastructure for the Christchurch Tram including tracks, overhead gear, tram shed, sub-station and tram refurbishment at a cost of almost $6 million. The Council then went through a public process (Registration of Interest and Request for Proposal) seeking offers from operators to secure a licence to run the tram operation for a period of 10 years with a Right of Renewal for a further 10 years. The Tramway Co. offered to pay the Council an annual licence fee plus a %turnover rent. The annual licence fee has been subsequently negotiated down over the last few years, when the passenger numbers failed to achieve the due diligence figures. The Tramway Co pays all operational costs including the sub-lease of trams from the Heritage Tramway Trust.810387 124
  • 125. The Christchurch Tram is an important attraction and in a survey of international and domestic visitors to the city in 2001, was used by 30% of those interviewed. b) TelstraClear Pacific Events Centre TelstraClear Pacific is a new events centre for arts, culture, business and leisure in Manukau City. It comprises an outdoor arena, an indoor arena, 700 seat theatre, a gallery, a large plaza and ancillary facilities which will allow the hosting of festivals, arts, performance, business and sports events. The Events Centre is owned and operated on behalf of the community by the Counties Manukau Pacific Trust. Manukau City Councils involvement in the project is by way of a grant. In 1983 Council purchased a site of approximately 26 hectares which had long been considered for the development of a civic facility. Several proposals for the site’s development were launched, without success. The concept of the Events Centre was supported by Council at a special meeting on 3 March 2000, which resolved, "That Council supports the concept of the Pacific project as a focal point for sports, arts, culture and business in Manukau, as it contributes to the strategic vision of the City." The independent Counties Manukau Pacific Trust to date has raised more than $30 million from grants, trusts, commercial sponsorship and land sales. This figure excludes Councils grant of $8,890,268 and an operating grant of $385,000 per annum. A Funding Deed outlines the terms and conditions on which Council committed funds to the Trust for the development. The Trust is required to satisfy the terms and conditions of the Funding Deed before any allocation of the grant is made. The development of the TelstraClear Pacific Events Centre is very closely aligned with a number of Council strategies, including a statement in “Tomorrow’s Manukau – A Plan to 2010” that Manakau is a progressive city of proud and prosperous people. The Economic Development Strategy also recommends that a cultural complex be investigated and notes that the Manukau Events and Tourism Strategies would benefit substantially from this type of infrastructure. To find out more got to: www.manukau.govt.nz 5.3.5 Additional Information It is difficult to list many reports in this section, due to the commercial sensitivity of most projects. Detailed below is a list of other projects already in place or at the planning stage. For further details contact the local authority involved. Projects involving public/private sector investment include: Tamaki Cultural Village – Christchurch City Council; Sovereign Sports Super Centre – North Harbour City Council; Wellington Waterfront – Wellington City Council.810387 125
  • 126. 5.4 EVENT DEVELOPMENT, FUNDING & EVALUATION TOOLBOX 5.4.1 Introduction and Scope Local authorities are actively involved in developing, managing and funding events. Events can be used as a specific marketing tool to promote awareness of a destination, and if events are successful they can generate significant economic benefits. This Toolbox outlines how to go about developing, managing and funding successful events. It provides resources for local authorities to prepare event development, management and funding policies, as well as evaluate the economic impact of events. (Other Toolboxes related to this include 3.2 Economic Impact and 5.3 Tourism Project Evaluation.) The Toolbox follows the standard format (see Tourism Planning Toolkit Structure, 1.2): 5.4.1 Introduction and Scope 5.4.2 Why use this Toolbox? 5.4.3 Toolbox Resources 5.4.4 Good Practice and Case Studies 5.4.5 Additional Information 5.4.2 Why use this Toolbox? The potential benefits for local authorities from this Toolbox include: The development of an events policy, including a strategic approach to the funding of events; Development and funding only of events that meet economic and social objectives; Effective use of ratepayer funds; Save council time by only considering events that meet agreed criteria; Focus on complementary, not competing, events. 5.4.3 Toolbox Resources The resources for this Toolbox have been developed from New Zealand and international sources. While the resources will meet the needs of many local authorities, others will want to adapt them to meet specific local requirements.810387 126
  • 127. a) Event Policies Because many events are organised by local groups, for local people, local authorities are often the first port of call for the funding required to deliver them. Local authorities are also becoming more involved with larger events, which require significant seed funding. Policies and objectives for events are therefore essential to ensure cost-effective use of ratepayer funds. To develop policies for the funding of events, a local authority first needs to confirm the objectives of its involvement. These could include: The need to determine local authority objectives in providing support to events; The need to establish funding criteria, predetermined maximum levels and effective measuring tools, which will primarily award funding on a combination of product quality, organisational merit, economic and social benefits; The need for funding mechanisms; The need to determine the role of local authority officers and Councillors; Investigating means of introducing incentives for the better management and development of events in general; Establishing a system whereby a regular analysis of local authority-funded events is undertaken to determine future direction. This has been developed as a generic model and can be changed to suit specific local authority needs. EVENTS FUNDING PROGRAMME – APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Application Requirements 1. Event Categories For the purpose of the Events Funding Programme, events have been divided into three categories: Category A Events considered under Category ‘A’ usually have one or more of the following characteristics: Are new Have a focus limited to a particular group within the town/city Have the potential for town/city/region appeal Report a total projected gross budget between $...... and $.......810387 127
  • 128. Category B Events considered under Category ‘B’ usually have one or more of the following characteristics: Possess definite town/city/region wide appeal Have potential visitor appeal Report a total projected gross budget between $...... and $...... Category C Events considered under Category ‘C’ usually have one or more of the following characteristics: Are a major event and have definite impact beyond the region Have established themselves as visitor attractions Have potential for alternative sources of revenue Report a total projected gross budget in excess of $...... 2. Required Documentation All applicants must include the following information in addition to completing and signing the Application Form. Copies of documents that identify the legal structure of the organisation An outline of the organisational structure (board and staff) A list of full time staff (if any) including names and their responsibilities within the organisation A brief history of the organisation and its involvement with the event The goals and objectives of the event – why is the event being organised? A description of the event for which the funds are being requested A planning document which outlines all the major steps involved in organising the event as well as deadlines for each of these steps A detailed promotional strategy which outlines what steps have or will be taken to promote the activity to the local community and/or to potential visitors A description of volunteer involvement including the total number of volunteers and their role(s) within the organisation Projected attendance figures including an explanation of how the projection is derived810387 128
  • 129. A brief description of future goals and objectives of the event (in what position does the event hope to find itself in three to five years) A list of those participating in the event (cultural/entertainment/sporting events and their level of prominence – local, national, international, specify confirmed or tentative bookings Detailed budget, including expenditure, confirmed and projected revenue and the amount of support requested Application for Category ‘B’ and ‘C’ events should also include: A brief biography of each member of the Executive Board A summary of job opportunities which will be provided including full time positions, part time positions, placements, as well as short term staff hired for implementation of the event If applicable detail any public consultation and the public reaction to the event 3. Post Event Report All applicants are required to submit a post event report which includes the following information on the completed event Event evaluation by organisers (including feedback from event attendees) Audited Financial Report Inventory of marketing/promotional achievements; list and include copies of newspaper ads or articles; approximate number of radio and television ads; all promotional material (brochures, posters, programmes); website use if appropriate and all other marketing material and achievements) Attendance figures (spectators and event participants) including a breakdown of confirmed figures and estimated totals The number of volunteers and volunteer hours Inventory of employment opportunities provided, list of full time and part time positions as well as staff hired for the implementation of the event An economic impact report identifying the amount of money spent locally by the organisation for goods and services; the number of out of town/city/region visitors; the spending by visitors on specific services 4. The Process810387 129
  • 130. a) Deadline for Application Applications for funding under the Event Funding Programme must be received by 1 March in the year preceeding the local authority’s financial year (July to June). b) Staff Review Staff will conduct a review of applications and prepare an interim report detailing the number and range of applications, in addition to the total funding requested. During this process applicants may be contacted for additional information, as well as clarification of certain items. Staff evaluations of previous events will be also be used in the preparation of the interim report. c) Festival Committee or Appropriate Local Authority Committee The staff interim report and recommended funding levels will be reviewed. Applicants may be asked to appear before the committee. d) Recommendations Report to Appropriate Local Authority Committee A report recommending funding levels will be submitted to the appropriate local authority committee for approval. e) Issuing of Funds Funds will be distributed to the event sponsors following final approval of the report. 5% of funding will be retained until the Post Event Report has been completed and accepted by the local authority. f) Maximum Funding Levels Category A: …% of gross budget or $..... whichever is the lesser amount Category B: …% of gross budget or $..... whichever is the lesser amount Category C: …% of gross budget or $..... whichever is the lesser amount b) Event Evaluation The Event Evaluation checklist will help you determine whether your council has a robust approach to the evaluation of events from organisations requesting financial support. Checklist: Event Evaluation Key Criteria Yes No Unsure/ Partially 1. Local authority has a specific policy for dealing with requests for funding from event organisers 2. Local authority has a specific process for evaluating the potential benefits of events 3. The majority of events supported by the local authority have been successful in meeting the objectives of the local authority810387 130
  • 131. In addition to determining the general objectives that a local authority may require for an event, the local authority may also demand more specific information on the economic benefit likely to be generated by the event. Questionnaires are one way of seeking this information. Following this section are two such questionnaires, one developed for visitors to a major food festival, and the other for convention attendees. The first focuses on visitor satisfaction; the second on economic impact. Both questionnaires can be adapted to meet specific event requirements. EVENT QUESTIONNAIRE FOR VISITORS Code No: ______________(For office use) Date: 8/ 3 /2003 Interviewer:………………………………….. Site: External Time: 1100-1300 -1 1301-1500 -2 1501-1730 -3 1501-1731 -4 Good morning/afternoon. I am from ……………….. We are conducting a survey of visitors to the ……… Event. It should only take a few minutes. Would you be willing to take part? Refusal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Are you a visitor to the ……. Event today? No Thank and close interview Yes Go to Q 1 __________________________________________________________________________ 1. Is this your first visit to the …….. Event? Yes -1 No -2 How many times have you been before ………. If Yes is it your first visit to the (insert region/city/town)? Yes -1 No -2 2. How many people have you come to the Event with? ………………..810387 131
  • 132. 3. Is your visit to the (region/city/town) specifically for the ……. Event? Yes -1 No -2 If No what is the reason for your visit to the (region/city/town)? ………………………………………………………… 4. Where do you normally live? Home town/city (NZ)…........................................… Province (NZ)………………………………………… Country (Int)………………………………………….. 5. Are you staying overnight in (region/city/town)? Yes -1 How many nights………. (Go to Q 6) No -2 Specify Live in ……….. -1 Travelling home -2 Staying elsewhere -3 (go to Q 7) 6. What type of accommodation are you staying in while in (region/city/town)? Hotel -1 Motel -2 Farm/home stay -3 Rented home -4 Luxury lodge -5 Caravan park -6 Camping ground (formal) -7 Camping (informal) -8 Private home of friend/relative -9 Motor home -10 Other (specify) -11 …………………………………………………………. 7. How did you find out about the Event? Brochure/flyer -1 Poster -2 Radio advertising -3 TV advertising -4 Newspaper advertising -5 Newspaper/magazine articles -6 Through friends -7 Other (specify) -8 ………………………………………………………810387 132
  • 133. 8. We are interested in your opinions of various aspects of the Event. On this scale how would you rate the following: Poor -1 Very good -4 Average -2 Don’t know -5 Good -3 Location of the Event Site -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 Ease of Finding Way Around -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 Variety of Stalls -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 Value for Money of the Stalls -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 Uniqueness of the Stalls -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 Quality of the Food and Beverage -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 Availability of Unique Food at the Stalls -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 Variety of Entertainment -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 Quality of Entertainment -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 Availability of Toilets -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 Cleanliness of Toilets -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 Value for Money (Ticket Price) -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 9. How would you rate your overall enjoyment of your visit to the ……… Event? Low -1 Very high -4 Average -2 Don’t know -5 High -3 10. What do you like most about the ………. Event? …………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………..810387 133
  • 134. 11. What, if anything, spoilt your visit to the ……… Event? …………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………….. 12. What improvements or changes, if any, would you like to see at the ……… Event? ……………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………. 13. Did you pre purchase your ……….. Event tickets? Yes -1 No -2 14. Which age and gender group do you fit into? Age Male Female A 0-15 B 16-24 C 25-34 D 35-44 E 45-54 F 55-64 G 65+ Undisclosed -1 THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME810387 134
  • 135. CONVENTION DELEGATE QUESTIONNAIRE Please complete the survey form and place in the boxes provided in the …………... Please try to be as accurate as possible with your estimate of costs. All expenditure should be stated in New Zealand dollars. 1. Gender (please circle the appropriate number) Male -1 Female -2 2. Please state country of residence ………………………………………….. If from New Zealand please state where you live (specify town or city) ………………………………….. 3. Are you attending this convention Alone -1 With children -3 With other adults -2 With children & adults -4 4. Where are you staying ……………? At home -1 Motel -4 With friends/relatives -2 Apartment -5 Hotel -3 Other -6 If Other: please specify………………………………………… 5. How many nights will you spend in ………………? …………… Nights 6. How much will you and your party spend on accommodation per night in ……………….? $NZ ……………. 7. How much will you and your party spend in ………….. on the following (exclude congress registration fee and any dinners/entertainment included as part of the congress cost) Food and Drink (including cafes, bars, restaurants, hotels etc) $NZ………… Entertainment (including admissions to attractions, theatre/cinema tickets, tours etc) $NZ…………810387 135
  • 136. Local Travel (including fuel, fares, car parking charges) $NZ………… Shopping (including guidebooks, clothes, sweets, drinks, other purchases) $NZ………… Any other expenditure $NZ………… 8. How much have you and your party budgeted to spend in total during your stay in ……………? $NZ…………. 8b Does this include expenditure on others? Yes -1 No -2 If YES: How many others is the expenditure for? ………….. 9. Is the convention the main reason for you being in ………….? Yes -1 No -2 10. Are you combining your attendance at the congress with a holiday in NZ? Yes -1 No -2 If YES: Where are you going in New Zealand (places you intend to visit)? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… For how long ……………Days Can you provide us with an approximate idea of your total budget for this part of your trip? $NZ………….. 11. Having spent a number of days in ………. we would value your opinion on the City and its facilities for major conventions. For questions 11 to 15 we would appreciate your rating using the scale below. Very poor -1 Good -4 Poor -2 Very Good -5 Average -3 Don’t know -6 Suitability of …………….. as a convention destination810387 136
  • 137. -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 Comment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12. Suitability of the ………….. Centre for your convention -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 Comment ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 13. Suitability of supporting facilities for conventions in ………… (accommodation, transport etc) -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 Comment ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 14. How did the information you received regarding the congress prior to registering meet your requirements/expectations? -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 Comment ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 15. Were the pre/post tours and partners’ programme information appropriate to your interests? -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 Comment ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Thank you for your time in completing the questionnaire.810387 137
  • 138. 5.4.4 Good Practice and Case Studies Hokitika Wildfoods Festival The Hokitika Wildfoods Festival had been very successful in terms of increasing visitor numbers. So successful (over 22,000 in 2003) that the event was creating problems for local residents through excessive litter and freedom camping. There were numerous health and safety risks caused by people sleeping on the beach and in other potentially dangerous areas. Lincoln University, The Tourism & Leisure Group and Via Training were engaged by the Westland District Council to develop a strategic plan for the Festival. In the first instance this required the gathering of information from consumers, organisers and residents. The surveys clearly showed that some changes were needed. Recommendations were made to reduce the number of tickets sold, increase shade and seating areas, redesign the site, increase security, ban camping in certain areas, make areas of the town accessible only to pedestrians, and ban the sale of alcohol in bottles. The new structure for the Festival was a great success. The extensive surveys and community consultation provided the essential information to develop the strategic plan. For more information go to: www.westland.govt.nz/wildfoods/foodfest/ 5.4.5 Reports and Resources Whangarei District Council – Arts Promotion Trust www.apt.org.nz/html/aboutasphp http://www.wdc.govt.nz/agendas_online/CFL_7082003/A571016.html Auckland City Council – V8 Supercar Street Race http://www.aucklandcity.govt.nz/council/documents/v8/why.asp Comparison of America’s Cup Economic Impacts 2000 – 2003; Market Economics http://www.tourism.govt.nz/policy/pol-reports/res-ac-2000-2003-comparison/res-ac- 2000-2003-comparison.pdf Sparc – Event Management Model http://www.sparc.org.nz/sports_admin/pdfs/rs1/event_management.pdf Waikato – Economic Impact of Events (2003), Bridget Daldy, Senior Lecturer in Economics, Waikato Uniersity http://www.waikatohockey.org.nz/economicreport/bridgetreport.html V8 Supercars Street Race (Proposed), Wellington April 2006: Projection of Economic Impacts. McDermott Miller Limited, 28 February 2005.810387 138
  • 139. 6 MONITORING PERFORMANCE SECTION Once you have developed a strategic plan and decided how to implement it, the last step is setting up monitoring mechanisms. Monitoring is important to enable the local authority to refine planning processes and identify priorities for action. This Section includes the Performance Indicators Toolbox (6.1), which identifies indicators you could use to assess your area’s performance in relation to tourism objectives. Monitoring Performance Overview Key Areas Performance Agencies Indicators Responsible Visitors Purpose Local authority Industry Design Regional Communities Key indicators Council Environment Interpreting RTO Performance Iwi Indicators CGA (PIs) Monitor against goals As shown above, the areas covered by a tourism strategy need to flow through to the use of performance indicators, which will be the responsibility of a range of agencies. 6.1 PERFORMANCE INDICATORS TOOLBOX 6.1.1 Introduction and Scope The Performance Indicators Toolbox identifies the purpose of performance indicators, considers their design and includes a list of core indicators that should be considered in monitoring performance. Monitoring the performance of a tourism strategy or individual projects must focus on the impact on the four key areas of visitors, industry, community and the environment. The Performance Indicators Toolbox identifies indicators that relate to all of these areas, and fit with the content of the toolboxes in the previous three sections.810387 139
  • 140. Although the local authority may not have sole responsibility for monitoring performance, it should receive all monitoring information so it can be applied in the planning cycle. The Toolbox follows the standard format (see Tourism Planning Toolkit Structure, 1.2): 6.1.1 Introduction and Scope 6.1.2 Why use this Toolbox? 6.1.3 Toolbox Resources 6.1.4 Good Practice and Case Studies 6.1.5 Additional Information 6.1.2 Why use this Toolbox? The use of performance indicators can bring a range of benefits: Provide data by which an organisation or project can be evaluated; Develop standards which inform people what to expect (eg environmental); Be used as a management tool to identify potential poor performance and take early corrective action; Enable benchmarking for comparisons between different organisations undertaking similar functions; Develop targets that motivate staff in the organisation, give them a sense of purpose and an independent means of recognising their achievements. 6.1.3 Toolbox Resources a) Designing Indicators The diagram below provides a format for designing performance indicators that reflect the requirement for: Reliability: how accurate do you want the information to be for the purpose to which it will be put? Timeliness: how soon do you want the information to be available following actual events? Participation: how will you involve those who will provide as well as those who will use the information? Cost: what is affordable, including the internal staff and other resources you will need to support this work? Comparability: is part of your requirement to make comparisons with other local areas, or at the regional or national levels?810387 140
  • 141. Frequency: is the information required continuously – every month, every year? Utility: are the indicators going to be used to inform the decision-making process? Will they be suitable for use by a wide range of audiences? Will they measure change? Can they be sustained over a period of time? If the answer to any of the above questions is “no”, think carefully as to the suitability of the indicators you are proposing. Design of Performance Indicators Goals for the monitoring programme Monitor performance against goals Visitors Industry Identify what needs to be Communities measured Devise systems for Environment interpreting PIs Identify possible performance indicators (PIs) As illustrated in the diagram on designing performance indicators, the local authority needs to be measuring the range and quality of services it provides and the investment it makes in the four key areas of visitors, industry, community and the environment (see VICE model, 1.3). b) Performance Indicators The performance indicators below are linked to Toolboxes detailed in the four Sections (particularly the Situation Analysis Section), and are based on the VICE model. Not all performance indicators will be appropriate to every situation; use those suitable for your specific requirements.810387 141
  • 142. Visitor Demand Toolbox Visitors (to the local authority) Number of international and domestic Visitor country (international) and region visitors (domestic) of origin Purpose of visit Number of visitors using different transport types to reach area Length of stay Number of visitors using different types of accommodation Average number of visitors per day Seasonality profile for area (overnight) Average number of visitors per day (day Visitor projections and forecasts trips) Economic Impact Toolbox Visitors Number of overnight visitors Daily visitor expenditure on accommodation, transport, attractions, shopping, food and beverage Number of day trips Industry Number of tourism businesses Number of people employed directly in different types of tourism businesses Number of day trips Community Amount of money spent by visitors that stays in the area Tourism Industry Inventory Toolbox Industry Number of tourism businesses Number and type of attractions Number and type of accommodation Number and type of activities businesses Trends in accommodation provision Number and range of transport providers Number of Qualmark registered businesses Quality of Council services Trends in Qualmark registrations810387 142
  • 143. Visitor Satisfaction (with the destination) Toolbox Visitors Quality, range, value for money of Overall impression accommodation Range/choice, quality of visitor attractions Popularity of attractions and activities to do Range/choice, quality of the shopping Feeling of safety in terms of crime and environment traffic Range/choice, quality of service, value for Ease of finding, quality of service, money of places to eat and drink usefulness of information received from I Site /information centre Ease and cost of parking Overall enjoyment Ease of finding way around – road signs, Things liked most about the destination pedestrian signs, display maps and information boards Availability and cleanliness of public toilets Things that spoilt the visit Cleanliness of the streets Likelihood of recommending destination to others Range and quality of evening entertainment Improvements like to see Upkeep of parks and open spaces Public Sector Infrastructure Toolbox Visitors Number of overnight visitors Type of accommodation used Number of day trips Visitor projections and forecasts Seasonality profile for area Industry Number of tourism businesses Volume of water usage Number and type of accommodation units Volume of waste water generated Volume of solid waste generated Percentage of businesses that use environmental management systems Community Community views on investment in public infrastructure for tourism Environment Impact of infrastructure requirements on the Capacity of the environment to meet environment infrastructure needs810387 143
  • 144. Natural Assets Toolbox Environment Impact of tourism on environmentally Capacity of the environment to cope with sensitive areas projected visitor numbers Percentage of businesses that use Green Globe or similar environmental environmental management systems certification programme in place Community Tourism Toolbox Community Level of community support for investment The impact of tourism on the social structure in the tourism industry of communities Views on the impact of tourism on the Degree of community consultation on community tourism issues/developments Project Design, Appraisal & Development Environment Guidelines in place to integrate new Local authority has a landscape dimension development into the existing urban and in its asset management plan, to promote rural character of the destination and ensure integration between different environmental systems, and between the local authority assets and new development eg a green space strategy: a planting design & management strategy; wetlands and waterways strategy? All tourism development proposals Development proposals include design include a landscape plan that shows how the specifications for buildings and project will integrate with infrastructure that show how the the surrounding landscape environmental effects will be minimised and how the facilities will respect and enhance the destination identity Local authority has a system to monitor the cumulative effect of developments upon the character of the destination (eg a GIS based 3D visualisation, A 3D model of urban form)810387 144
  • 145. Tourism Project Evaluation Toolbox Visitors Number of local, domestic and Accommodation utilised international visitors generated by project Origin of domestic and international Length of stay of visitors visitors Level of visitor satisfaction with project Industry Number of project proposals received Amount invested annually in approved projects Number of projects approved and declined Degree to which approved projects achieved objectives (return on investment) Types of projects received and supported Community Impact of new projects on the community Environment Impact of new projects on the environment Event Development, Funding and Evaluation Toolbox Visitors Number of local, domestic and Accommodation utilised international visitors at each event Origin of domestic and international Length of stay of visitors visitors Level of visitor satisfaction with events Level of visitor satisfaction with event venues Industry Number of event project proposals received Amount invested annually in approved events Number of event projects approved and Degree to which approved projects achieved declined objectives (return on investment) Types of projects received and supported Community Number of events targeted at the local Level of community support for investment community in events810387 145
  • 146. Level of satisfaction with the quantity and Social impact of events on the community quality of local authority funded events Environment Impact of events on the environment Infrastructure capability of destination to hold events Local Authority In addition to specific indicators for specific Toolboxes, the local authority must monitor its tourism strategy, if such a strategy has been developed. Additional Indicators for Local Authorities Has current tourism strategy Monitoring arrangements in place for action plan Tourism strategy prepared in consultation Input updated tourism data to plan annually with stakeholders Tourism strategy includes action plan and implementation schedule System for Interpreting Performance Indicators Interpretation of performance indicators can be undertaken in a number of ways: Use scales to indicate the performance against the goals (eg 1 = poor performance, 5 = excellent performance); Evaluate by assessing impact at low, medium or high; Assess performance against existing standards (eg Qualmark, Green Globe); Assess performance against budget to identify variance. In many respects these functions raise the question of the structure and location of ongoing tourism planning input within local authorities. Monitor Performance against Goals Devise timetable for assessment (daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, annually); Review achievement and refine goals if appropriate.810387 146
  • 147. 6.1.4 Good Practice and Case Studies Green Globe 21 Kaikoura Community Benchmarking Pilot Study Summary Project One of the four objectives of the New Zealand Tourism Strategy 2010 is to ‘secure and conserve a long-term future’. A key recommendation under this objective is to continue to implement Green Globe or similar systems of environmental certification. The processes involved in Green Globe 21 (GG21) Community Benchmarking for the New Zealand setting were assessed in the Kaikoura District by Landcare Research and Tourism, Recreation, Research and Education Centre (TRREC) in 2001/2, as one of three pilot studies. The other two are Redland Shire (2000) and Port Douglas (2000) in Australia. Objectives Establish methodology behind each environmental indicator. Prepare a set of indicators to measure social performance. Collect data for each indicator. Assess appropriateness of each indicator in terms of effectiveness to benchmark performance and resources needed to collect data. Compare results with two Australian pilot studies. Recommend a set of indicators for communities for use in the Green Globe 21 Standard. Main Findings Benchmarking Kaikoura District as a tourism destination has provided the basis for improving its environmental performance. Kaikoura’s experience in developing a sustainability policy owes much to its association with TRREC and the tourism strategy already in place. It may not therefore accurately reflect issues associated with the development of this benchmarking indicator in other areas. Gathering data for the Energy Consumption indicator proved problematic. Determining Kaikoura’s share of the Marlborough Districts’ petrol tax was difficult but necessary because oil companies did not divulge sales figures for Kaikoura District. Electricity companies differed in the detail of records kept, and private organisations were distrustful of the process and preferred to give ‘rough estimates’.810387 147
  • 148. Greenhouse gas production figures are also problematic – energy consumed in the District is not the same as that purchased, and the mix of electricity sources varies rather than being 100 per cent ‘renewable’ (hydro-electricity). Fuel consumption data are also required for accurate benchmarking of air quality indicators. In rural areas water consumption is not metered and estimated use is an impediment to accurate figures. Likewise rural waste that does not go to the District landfill cannot be measured. Chemical biodegradability is difficult to ascertain in the absence of a comprehensive database, and use of spray contractors prevents the Council from estimating the amount of pesticides used. Waterways Quality benchmarking does not accommodate special cases such as chemical spills or effluent surges, even though these are a concern. The Kaikoura District has chosen to measure the accidents that involve chemical spills as a Community-Specified Environmental Indicator. Benchmarking of travel and tourism operators is impossible at this early stage in the uptake of GG21 in New Zealand, because appropriate accreditation schemes have not been identified. The diverse nature of regional geographies makes it extremely difficult to arrive at any means by which to accurately compare the environmental and social ‘performance’ of any given community over another. This apparent inability to contextualise destination communities indicates that Green Globe 21 may be best served by benchmarking communities against themselves (based on the central tenant of continuous improvement) rather than on the performance of distant and dissimilar communities. Proposed Recommendations for Kaikoura The Kaikoura District Council involvement in the Energy Efficiency Conservation Authority (EECA) Energy- Wise Councils project will lead to the consideration of energy alternatives within the District. This project has the potential to support the Council in any future initiatives to reduce energy consumption. The accuracy of the solid waste data collected would be improved by the introduction of a weighbridge at the landfill. The Kaikoura District Council should actively promote its rating relief policy for biodiversity areas and draw attention to voluntary protection covenants available under the Queen Elizabeth II National Trust. As the lead agency in the District, Kaikoura District Council is best placed to promote the goals and objectives of Green Globe 21 to the business community. This could be facilitated through the establishment (or consolidation) of business networks within the District.810387 148
  • 149. Information is not readily available on renewable consumption and production for local authorities, but this may change through Kaikoura District’s current association with the Energy-Wise Council scheme. Kaikoura should work in conjunction with relevant government agencies and authorities to reduce the number of accidents (especially those involving chemical spills) on the Kaikoura highway. Kaikoura District Council should also seek to ensure that effective communication between itself and the wider community is achieved. This would involve promoting the Green Globe 21 goals of sustainability. The installation of a water meter(s) by Kaikoura District Council would increase the accuracy of the water consumption data for areas outside of the township. 6.1.5 Additional Information http://www.greenglobe21.com/ www.greenglobe21.com/conference.aspx TRREC Report 53: Green Globe 21 Kaikoura Community Benchmarking Pilot Study; McNicol, J., Shone, M. Horn, C. 2001. http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/trrec/trrecpub.htm www.Qualmark.co.nz Research and Monitoring Review; RTONZ section (www.tourism.govt.nz/rtonz/research)810387 149