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Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
Section IV:  Mental Factors
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Section IV: Mental Factors

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Closing the Gap: Applied Sport Psychology for High School

Closing the Gap: Applied Sport Psychology for High School

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  • 1. Closing the GapSection 4: Mental Factors<br />Chapter 17: The Power of Visualization<br />Chapter 18: The Power of Positive Attitude<br />Chapter 19: The Power of Relaxation<br />Chapter 20: The Power of Self Hypnosis<br />Chapter 21: The Power of Optimal Arousal<br />
  • 2. Closing the GapChapter 17: The Power of Visualization<br />Have you ever watched a movie that was a “real tear jerker?” You know the movie is not real, but, you FEEL it. Your brain produced a very real emotion.<br />Why?<br />Neural Programming: Your mind cannot tell the difference between a real experience or an imagined one. Visualization can aid in muscle memory acquisition as the movement is “practiced.”<br />
  • 3. Closing the GapChapter 17: The Power of Visualization<br />Visualization<br />Called imagery or mental rehearsal<br />It is the act of using your imagination to experience an event in your mind. It can either be a past, future, or an imagined event.<br />
  • 4. Closing the GapChapter 17: The Power of Visualization<br />Video Hyperlink<br />
  • 5. Closing the GapChapter 17: The Power of Visualization<br />Benefits of Visualization<br />Focus: Improves ones focus and will move you quicker toward the “Zone”<br />Learn Complex Movements: It allows you to break down complicated skill which may be more difficult to do physically. <br />Slow Motion: It allows you to experience your skill in slow motion or different speeds.<br />
  • 6. Closing the GapChapter 17: The Power of Visualization<br />Benefits of Visualization<br />More Practice Time: It improves performance because it is another form of practice. <br />Improves Confidence: It improves confidence because practice makes things more familiar and increases your feeling of preparation. “Been there, done that”<br />
  • 7. Closing the GapChapter 17: The Power of Visualization<br />When is a good time to visualize?<br /><ul><li> Anytime…except during the actual moment of performance!
  • 8. Night time or other quiet times seem useful due to free of distractions</li></ul>Visualize before going to sleep<br /><ul><li> Part of pre competition routine
  • 9. After a successful performance (practice or event)</li></ul>Still fresh in memory and can provide reinforcement<br />
  • 10. Closing the GapChapter 17: The Power of Visualization<br />Principles of Effective Imagery<br /> <br />Vividness: <br />Realistic and use other senses…feel, color, smell, hear, physical sensations<br />Controllability:<br />Control the visualize to include the correct execution of the skill<br />Stop visualize short of mistake. Start again with correct skill execution<br />Attitude: <br />Works best when in positive state. Trust<br />
  • 11. Closing the GapChapter 17: The Power of Visualization<br />Principles of Effective Imagery<br /> <br />Previous experience:<br />Helps because you have data to tap into.<br />Relaxed Attention:<br />Most effective with no mind clutter.<br />Internal Frame of Reference<br />Your point of view gives greatest benefit vs. watching yourself<br />
  • 12. Closing the GapChapter 17: The Power of Visualization<br />Principles of Effective Imagery<br /> Controlling Time:<br />Make your visualize sessions predominately in “real time”<br />Get out the stop watch<br />Physical Movement:<br />Integrate some body movement, if possible<br />Practice:<br />It will get easier and less awkward<br />Start Small:<br />A couple minutes a day 2-3 times per week<br />Add detail and time as you become comfortable <br />
  • 13. Closing the GapChapter 17: The Power of Visualization<br />Let’s Practice Visualization<br /><ul><li>Good Visualization takes relaxation.
  • 14. Use your deep breathing.
  • 15. Use many of your senses (blue sky: sight, gripping the bat: touch, freshly mowed grass: smell, crowd roaring: hearing, biting a lemon: taste)</li></ul>Your Journal Activity this week is to implement a mental rehearsal plan that includes visualization &amp; positive statements.<br />
  • 16. Closing the GapChapter 18: The Power of Positive Attitude<br />“You have to expect good things of yourself before you can do them”<br />Your attitude has a real impact on you perform. Keep it positive and you will consistently perform better.<br />We generally move toward what we are thinking….<br /> * Thinking about choking? Can you guess what happens?<br /> * Your belief will influence your behavior<br />
  • 17. Closing the GapChapter 18: The Power of Positive Attitude<br />What you say to yourself makes a difference!<br />Placebo Effect: <br />Your mind having expectations of something to be real. Taking a “sugar pill” for a head ache. Doctors use the placebo effect to help their patients.<br />Self Fulfilling Prophecy: <br />is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior.<br />
  • 18. Closing the GapChapter 18: The Power of Positive Attitude<br />Self Fulfilling Cycle: You can make it work for you…or…not<br />No beginning point…it can start any where in the cycle.<br />
  • 19. Closing the GapChapter 18: The Power of Positive Attitude<br />The Power of Words<br />Words influence thoughts...thoughts influence emotions...emotions influence behaviors...behaviors influence attitude....attitude is everything.<br />Hyperlink to Video<br />
  • 20. Closing the GapChapter 18: The Power of Positive Attitude<br />How to Attack the Cycle of Negative Attitude<br />Attack at Attitude Level<br />KNOW that your beliefs are the real enemy<br />Awareness of your attitude and expectations is important<br />Attack at the Action Level<br />Make conscious effort to ignore or replace negative self talk. Say “STOP”<br /> Improve focus<br />Attack at the Experience Level<br /> Change your perception<br />Find the good, positive<br />Don’t dwell on negative<br />
  • 21. Closing the GapChapter 18: The Power of Positive Attitude<br />Reframe Your Thinking: take another perspective<br />“I hate bad weather. It will mess me up”<br />“The weather is the same for everyone. It will upset my opponent, but, I am prepared to play in all conditions.”<br />“The crowd is rowdy and in our face and it is an unfair advantage.”<br />“All we have to do is focus on our plan and we can use the heckling as a reminder to stay calm and do our job.”<br />“I always choke”<br />“I have choked before, but, this is a new opportunity”<br />“I won the game because I was lucky”<br />“I won the game because I earned it. The harder I work, the luckier I get”<br />
  • 22. Closing the GapChapter 18: The Power of Positive Attitude<br />Reframe Your Thinking: take another perspective<br />“The teacher hates me because he is always scolding me about things in class.”<br />“The teacher cares a lot about me and wants me to do well.”<br />“The referee is cheating us and is really bad. He will make us lose this game.”<br />“I may not agree with his decision, but, he is doing the best that he can. We are good enough to overcome all obstacles.”<br />“They have a team of all stars. There is no way we can win this game.”<br />“The best team doesn’t win the game. It is the team that plays the best that will win. Today is our day.”<br />
  • 23. Closing the GapChapter 18: The Power of Positive Attitude<br /> Ten Perception Stretchers<br />A loss becomes a gain.<br />If you do what you’ve always done, you’ll get what you’ve always gotten.<br />The imagination is more powerful than the will. <br />Be creative and innovate.<br /> Bodies work perfectly, it is the mind that may get in the way. <br />Watch out for paralysis of analysis<br />Limitations are temporary.<br />Anyone can improve. <br />Events have no meaning except what you give them.<br />Getting better is more important than winning. <br />Focusing on just the result robs you of attaining your potential<br />You will play the way you practice.<br />The more you expect, the more you will achieve<br /> <br />
  • 24. Closing the GapChapter 19: The Power of Relaxation<br />“A calm mind gives the clearest focus just as a tranquil lake casts the clearest reflection.”<br /> ~ Ancient Chinese Proverb<br />Hyperlink to Video<br />
  • 25. Closing the GapChapter 19: The Power of Relaxation<br />Why does Relaxation Matter?<br />It Helps Performance.<br />Biathletes: <br />Combines endurance cross country skiing with rifle shooting. They can lower their heart rate and calm themselves in order to sight the target.<br />Knowing how to calm yourself at a moments notice will help you in the heat of battle and allow you to have better focus.<br />*** Research shows poor performance results MORE from being too tense, not too relaxed.<br />
  • 26. Closing the GapChapter 19: The Power of Relaxation<br />Fight or flight response: <br />pumps adrenaline into body causing HR and breathing to go up; can increase your tension.<br />Relaxation Response: <br />Opposite; causes your HR and breathing to go down, thus, allowing muscles to relax.<br />Knowing Relaxation techniques can help you to:<br />Fall asleep quickly at night<br />Conserve energy before competition<br />Rejuvenate your mind and body during time off (half time/breaks)<br />Rest while traveling in bus, van, etc.<br />Hasten recovery from workouts/competitions<br />Hasten recovery from injury<br />Allow you enjoy yourself<br />Stay relaxed during competition<br />
  • 27. Closing the GapChapter 19: The Power of Relaxation<br />There are different Relaxation Techniques<br />Find one that works for you…and use it! They will have elements of…<br />Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR)<br /> Progress through body to recognize the difference between tension &amp; relaxation.<br />Breath Control<br /> Slow, diaphragmatic breathing will trigger a relaxation response.<br />Imagery<br /> Creating a “resource room” or “safe place” in your imagination will give you a retreat to relax.<br />Autogenic <br /> Practice experiencing the power of the mind in relation to the body: heaviness of limbs, warmth of limbs, slow heart rate, slower &amp; deeper breathing, etc.<br />Awkward at first, but, practice will make it easier and more successful.<br />
  • 28. Closing the GapChapter 20: The Power of Self Hypnosis<br />Hypnosis: focused attention while in a deep, relaxed state. Some have referred to it as a guided meditation.<br />Misunderstood due to the stage shows. There is nothing mystical or supernatural about hypnosis.<br />American Psychological Association (APA) recognizes hypnosis as an effective tool to help people. <br /> Link to Brochure<br />
  • 29. Closing the GapChapter 20: The Power of Self Hypnosis<br />Hyper link to Video<br />
  • 30. Closing the GapChapter 20: The Power of Self Hypnosis<br />
  • 31. Closing the GapChapter 20: The Power of Self Hypnosis<br />Four Steps of Hypnosis:<br /> Fixation: requires attention and focus<br />Small object<br />Relaxation &amp; Receptivity: deeper relaxation<br />Implement Suggestions<br />Positive self statements<br />“I am strong and efficient.”<br />“Waking Up”: coming out of deep relaxation (or “trance-like” state)<br /> <br />
  • 32. Closing the GapChapter 21: The Power of Optimal Arousal<br />Link to Video<br />
  • 33. Closing the GapChapter 21: The Power of Optimal Arousal<br />What is “Arousal” in terms of performance?<br />It is how much you are “keyed up”, “pumped up”, excited for your activity.<br />
  • 34. Closing the GapChapter 21: The Power of Optimal Arousal<br />Different Performances require different arousal levels to perform optimally. Can you name several and explain?<br />
  • 35. Closing the GapChapter 21: The Power of Optimal Arousal<br />Explain this graph and how the concept relates to your performance.<br />
  • 36. Closing the GapChapter 21: The Power of Optimal Arousal<br />What factors determine the optimal level of arousal?<br />Fine Motor Movements<br />Lower arousal, very precise skills<br />Gross Motor Movements<br />Higher arousal, whole body/large muscle skills<br />Skill level of performer<br />Higher level players have automatic skills, without thought<br />
  • 37. Closing the GapChapter 21: The Power of Optimal Arousal<br />Strategies to ensure increasing Arousal level<br /> Breathing<br />Increaser breathing rhythm and use imagery<br />Stretch and Exercise<br />Pre-competition workout<br />5-10 hours before workout<br />To decrease anxiety and increase arousal<br />Music or videos<br />Watch or listening to inspirational music/videos<br />
  • 38. Closing the GapChapter 21: The Power of Optimal Arousal<br />Strategies to ensure increasing Arousal level<br /> Energizing verbal cues<br />Self talk<br />Powerful words: “Explode”<br />Getting energy from environment<br />The sun, national anthem, etc<br />Transferring energy<br />Reframe negatives in energizing positives.<br />“Butterflies mean I am ready!”<br />
  • 39. Closing the GapChapter 21: The Power of Optimal Arousal<br />Strategies to ensure increasing Arousal level<br /> Pep talks<br />Short and sweet<br />Bulletin Boards<br />Quotes, signs, reminders<br />Energizing Imagery<br />Mentally focus<br />

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