This annotated bibliography introduces the extension of the Knowledge Management
(KM) application. Regarding to the proliferation of information over the world,
individuals have been facing the problem on handling different information and this
problem happens to many organizations. With regards the increasing use of
Information Technology (IT) within corporations, problems in managing the
information, or in an organized sense, content are coming to the surface. The
consequence of this problem is serious. Originally, the use of IT aims to provide an
effective way to share knowledge. Yet, if the pipeline for the transfer is blocked or
created a bottleneck, the retrieval process complicated and eventually fails to
achieve the primary goal of the use of IT. With reference to this, a research is being
made to identify the possible ways to manage the problem and the topic is “To
facilitate knowledge transfer with content management by web 2.0 initiatives”.
The way to resolve the problem mentioned starts with the use of knowledge
management. From Collision and Parcell (2004), knowledge management is the
hybrid of three elements – People, Process and Technology. To maintain a better
alignment with the research topic, more specified scope is made among the three
elements that are – Communities of Practice (People), Content Management
(Process) and Technology (Knowledge Management Technology).
(Intersection area means knowledge management and the arrow represents the
development of new understanding towards KM in our research)
As a result, the search of subject will be focused on KM with new three elements
1. Communities of Practice; 2. Content Management; 3. KM-related Technology.
Database used for subject searching
ISI Web of knowledge
ISI Web of knowledge is a database that collects various information relate to
different area of interest. The database provides several areas of studies like science
(chemistry, physics, etc), social science (information science & library science,
history, etc), arts & humanities (language, art, music, etc). In addition to specific
academic area, there are specified information like conference proceedings, patent
information as well. Another feature of this database is the focus area – life-science-
related information (Journals about chemical reaction, biological, global health, food
science and technology, medicine, etc) that leads to higher and broader volume of
collection of this area. Last but not least, the database also contains a vast amount
of journal citation reports that allow users to compare and retrieve full text directly or
Information about Content Management, explicit knowledge management are
searched across this database.
ProQuest is a content provider or called as aggregator that provides information
across different subjects such as business, education, government, technology, etc
with the provision of different types of libraries to allow users to make development
based on their audiences such as corporate, government, higher education, hospital.
ProQuest has its own database that collects journals or reviews with the specific
area of interest such as ProQuest Computing that contains full text on technology
such as database design, software development, intranets and the Internet. In
addition, ProQuest aggregates databases that is from other content provider such as
ERIC® to give broader search results that facilitates the needs from user‟s query.
Emerald is the world‟s leading scholarly publisher in business and management
on the world stage, the collection of Emerald over 40,000 articles from over 100
of the most prestigious management journals. In addition, 14 online subject
collections combine e-Journals and e-Books to offer comprehensive research to
subscribers who only need access to specific content. The Emerald database
includes management disciplines, e.g. marketing, library and information
management, human resources management and quality to operations
management. During 2008, more than 20 million Emerald articles were
downloaded and read in research and study.
Key titles indexed in Emerald database include:
European Journal of Marketing
International Journal of Operations & Production Management
The TQM Magazine
Full list of journals Management Decision
EBSCOhost research database
Alike many academic information service platforms, EBSCOhost research database
offers a convenient way for students or researchers to retrieve useful information.
With its multi-discipline database collection, information is not limited in a narrow
scope and users can get abundant information. Indeed, it contains a huge number of
professional, academic and expensive periodicals that most libraries cannot afford
as well. Because of these advantages, it is selected to search the information in this
Tools other than database that used for subject searching
Other than use of aggregator as subject search, the use of Libraries catalogue is
included in our search strategy also. Libraries catalogue, Dragon, provides searches
on physical items, e-items that available in the University of Hong Kong library. The
use of the Dragon is to seek supplementary information on some definitional terms
like content management as well as the fundamental understanding of the concept.
These knowledge may not have mentioned in any journal articles that stored in the
Introduction of annotated bibliography
The findings of the annotated bibliography are collected with the use different
databases are shown below. The references are classified in three areas: 1.
Knowledge Management and Content Management; 2. Knowledge Management and
Communities of Practice (CoP) and 3. Knowledge Management and KM-related
technology; where appropriate, original abstracts have been included. The search
strategy used in the subject search can refer to our Appendix.
Knowledge Management and Content Management
1. (Definition of content management)
Yu, H. (2005). Library Web Content Management: Needs and Challenges, In Yu, H.
(Ed.), Content and workflow management for library web sites : case studies (pp 1 -
21). Hershey, PA, Information Science Pub.
Rising demands by library users for customizable Web function and by library
Web administrators for streamlined workflows call for better solutions to Web
content management. This chapter begins by defining the content and scope
of content Management.
2. (Definition of content management)
Pullman, G. and Gu, B. (2009). Analyze Before You Act: CMS and Knowledge
Transfer. In C. S. Johnson & S. Fowler (Eds.), Content management : bridging the
gap between theory and practice (pp.43-56). Amityville, N.Y., Baywood Pub.
In this chapter, foundations of content management will be introduced. In an
information economy, where knowledge is our product, it is necessary to
carefully analyze the existing knowledge flow in an environment before
implementing content management. Content Management is indeed very
much related to the knowledge management. With a better understanding the
relationship between them, it enables the development of system to help
facilitate knowledge transfer more efficiently.
3. (Problems without content management)
Earley, S. (2008). "Conquering chaos via smart content management -- Interview
with Seth Earley of Earley & Associates." Journal of Digital Asset Management 4(6):
Managing content - whether documents, transactional data or digital assets -
is about providing content in context. Users can't find what they need for three
reasons: 1. Information and systems evolve and tend toward a disordered
state. We need to expend energy to clean things up and organize them from
time to time. 2. In most organizations, governance processes around content
management , digital asset management, search, taxonomy and metadata
are immature. Therefore, there is no clear ownership of content and
repositories. 3. Content is not "selectively managed," that is, little
consideration is given to the continuum of content value.
4. (How to use explicit knowledge),
Desouza, K. C., Y. Awazu, et al. (2006). "Factors governing the consumption of
explicit knowledge." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and
Technology 57(1): 36-43.
While we have made progress in many areas of knowledge management, we
are yet to understand what factors contribute to employee usage of
knowledge artifacts. A field study of 175 employees in a software engineering
organization was conducted to understand factors that govern consumption of
explicit knowledge. Specifically, there are two sources of risk a consumer
must evaluate prior to knowledge consumption-risk from the knowledge
producer and risk from the knowledge product. We find support for the factors
of perceived complexity, perceived relative advantage, and perceived risk as
they relate to intentions to consuming knowledge.
5. (Content Management and organization performance)*
Keskin, H. (2005). "The Relationships Between Explicit and Tacit Oriented KM
Strategy, and Firm Performance." Journal of American Academy of Business,
Cambridge 7(1): 169.
In this study knowledge is considered as explicit and tacit; and in line with this,
KM strategies are classified into two categories: explicit oriented KM strategy
and tacit oriented KM strategy; and the relationships between these variables
,environmental factors and firm performance are investigated. According to
the regression analyses, explicit and tacit KM strategies have positive effects
on firm performance; and the impact (magnitude) of explicit oriented KM
strategy is higher than the tacit oriented one on firm performance. Also it was
found that greater environment hostility, the greater relationship between
explicit and tacit oriented KM strategies, and firm performance.
*See also Knowledge Management and Communities of Practice (CoP) #7
6. (Use of Content Management Model)
Hsu, T. Y., H. R. Ke, et al. (2006). "Unified knowledge-based content management
for digital archives in museums." Electronic Library 24(1): 38-50.
This paper sets out to present unified knowledge-based content management
(UKCM) model, which comprises the unified knowledge content processes,
multi-layer reusable knowledge content structures and an integrated
knowledge-based content management system to avoid the content silo trap,
satisfy the knowledge management requirement and support the long-term
perspective of developing academic, exhibition, and education applications
among various domains for museums.
7. Practice of managing content with various tools
Augustyniak, R. H., D. B. Aguero, et al. (2005). "The IP's guide to the galaxy of portal
planning: Part II. Content management." Online Information Review 29(6): 643-655.
This article is about planning a portal and creating a portal definition
document. Content management is the keystone of a portal. The components
of a portal CM (Content Management) strategy include the content inventory
and analysis, content acquisition, access structures, classifying content,
content life cycle, CM software, and metadata standards.
This will be useful to the information professional who is contemplating portal
development and may be used as a model in developing a blueprint - the
portal definition document.
Knowledge Management and Communities of Practice (CoP)
1. CoP in management organization
Hildreth, P., C. Kimble, et al. (2000). "Communities of practice in the distributed
international environment." Journal of Knowledge Management 4(1): 27 - 38.
Modern commercial organizations are facing pressures which have caused
them to lose personnel, and meanwhile they also lose their knowledge.
Organizations also have to cope with the internationalization of business
forcing collaboration and knowledge sharing across time and distance. The
focus in this paper is on communities of practice in commercial organizations.
This is done by exploring knowledge sharing in Lave and Wenger‟s (1991)
theory of communities of practice and investigating how communities of
practice may translate to a distributed international environment. The paper
reports on two case studies that explore the functioning of communities of
practice across international boundaries.
2. (Relations of CoP and workplace)
Lin, Y. and M. Beyerlein (2006). "Communities of Practice: A Critical Perspective on
An appropriate level of analysis for collaboration research would be social
interaction and the optimal unit of analysis would be communities of practice.
Principles of organization in traditional institutions and communities of practice
will be contrasted. The differences among coordination, cooperation, and
collaboration are presented, suggesting that the prototypical form of
collaboration locate in communities of practice. Finally, a new look at the
relationships between collaboration and learning, collaboration and innovation
is extended to describe the workspace created by communities of practice.
3. (Difference between knowledge sharing practice in China and US)
Chau, C. W., J. F. Deng, et al. (2000). "The openness of knowledge sharing within
organizations: a comparative study of the United States and the People's Republic of
China." Journal of Management Accounting Research 12: 65 - 95.
This journal restates the importance of knowledge sharing in modern
organizations and reviews related research to develop hypotheses on the
influence of national culture. An experiment on 104 US and 38 Chinese
managers shows that the Chinese more willing than the US group to reveal
their own errors in order to benefit the collective interest but less willing to
share information with co-workers outside their group. Analyses the
underlying reasons for these differences in detail, pointing out that the
complex interactions and trade-offs involved are unlikely to be fully captured
by quantitative data alone.
4. (Knowledge sharing practice in China)
Tong, J. and A. Mitra (2009). "Chinese cultural influences on knowledge
management practice." Journal of Knowledge Management 13(2): 49 - 62.
KM strategies proposed for a China enterprise should take revealed cultural
influences into account.The purpose of this study is to explore national
cultural influences on knowledge management (KM) practices within Chinese
enterprises. It was discovered that employees in Chinese manufacturing
enterprises like to keep their knowledge implicit and are willing to share it
informally. A series of factors derived from Chinese culture such as hierarchy
consciousness, fear of losing face, a sense of modesty, competitiveness and
a preference for face-to-face communication, can act as barriers to KM
initiatives within Chinese manufacturing organisations. Trust in intra-personal
relationships among employees can partly mitigate the impact of the above
cultural characteristics. However, at a macro organisational level there is still
need to share tacit knowledge using explicit/formal KM approaches.
5. (Roles of IT professional in explicit knowledge management)
Choo, C. W. (2000). "Working with knowledge: how information professionals help
organisations manage what they know." Library Management 21(8): 395.
In order to manage knowledge, the nature of knowledge in organizations must
be understood. It is helpful to distinguish between 3 categories of
organizational knowledge including explicit knowledge. This framework is
used to discuss the role of the information professional with respect to three
categories of knowledge. An analysis of these experiences in three
companies suggests many opportunities for information professionals to make
important contributions in managing an organization's knowledge for growth
6. (Use of P2P to create collaborative environment)
Kwok, J. S. H. and S. Gao (2004). "Knowledge sharing community in P2P network: a
study of motivational perspective." Journal of Knowledge Management 8(1): 94 -
How to effectively share knowledge within organizations has been given a
great deal of attention in practice as well as in research. Therefore, in this
study, the idea is proposed regarding a virtual knowledge sharing community
that is based on decentralized P2P technology. In the community, each
member plays an equal role of knowledge producing, receiving and
coordinating. After being applied, each of the features is believed to have
capability of motivating the members of community to share knowledge with
7. (Managing people to implement Knowledge Management)
Duffy, J. A. N. (2001). "Knowledge Management and Its Influence on the Records
and Information Manager." Information Management Journal 35(3): 62.
Knowledge management's (KM) applicability and utility are wide-ranging. As
the functionality of desktop technologies is enhanced to include content
management, collaboration, profiling, and so on. Although improved
technological features influence KM's growth and adoption rates, the notion
that it is neither a technology nor a function but a set of principles to which an
organization or group of people subscribe is still valid. Thinking of it in any
other way will, by default, limit knowledge management's potential. Whether
or not an organization has a formal KM program or designated individuals
responsible for the management of knowledge, these principles can (and
should) be adopted.
8. (Practice to balance explicit knowledge and implicit knowledge)
Elizabeth, A. S. (2001). "The role of tacit and explicit knowledge in the workplace."
Journal of Knowledge Management 5(4): 311.
Knowledge plays a key role in the information revolution. Major challenges are
to select the "right" information from numerous sources and transform it into
useful knowledge. Tacit knowledge based on common sense, and explicit
knowledge based on academic accomplishment are both underutilized. Ways
knowledge-enabled organizations acquire, measure, teach, share and apply
knowledge are discussed and illustrated. Methods to balance the use tacit
and explicit knowledge at work and practical, proven ways to improve the
understanding and use of knowledge are presented.
9. (How to facilitate explicit knowledge management using learning model)
Tsai, M.-T. and K.-W. Lee (2006). "A study of knowledge internalization: from the
perspective of learning cycle theory." Journal of Knowledge Management 10(3): 57.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework of knowledge
internalization based on learning cycle theory which firms can effectively
internalize explicit knowledge and direct it into the tacit knowledge of
employees, thereby enhancing the organization's competitiveness (knowledge
internalization). An exploratory research is adapted to discuss the issue of
knowledge internalization based on learning cycle theory. The results of this
study reveal that an "incomplete learning cycle" is one of the reasons why
explicit knowledge could not be successfully converted into tacit knowledge.
Hence, when a more complete learning cycle is followed, explicit knowledge is
more easily converted into tacit knowledge.
10. Facilitate CoP using workshop
Peile, E. B. and W. Briner (2001). "Team and organisational learning in a cross-
functional community of practice: the importance of privileging voices." Career
Development International 6(7): 396 - 402.
This study explores a workshop with community of practice which examined
facilitated case history discussions as a means whereby a team could share
and extend their learning around the common focus of interest. Discussion in
the community of practice focused on “how-to” aspects of small group
facilitation. A question stimulated subsequent enquiry about “privileging
voices”. Examines how the facilitation enabled interactive, inter-professional
education through an informal form of discourse analysis on the transcripts of
the case discussions.
11. Limitation of CoP
Roberts, J. (2006). "Limits to communities of practice." Journal of Management
Studies 43(3): 623 - 639.
The purpose of this paper is to critically explore the communities of practice
approach to managing knowledge and its use among management
academics and practitioners in recent years. In so doing, the aim is to identify
the limits of the approach in the field of knowledge management. The paper
begins with a brief description of the communities of practice approach. This
is followed by a review of critiques of the approach evident in the
management literature. A number of further challenges are then elaborated.
The limits of communities of practice are subsequently discussed and brief
12. (Problems of implementing CoP)
Ardichvili, A., V. Page, et al. (2003). "Motivation and barriers to participation in virtual
knowledge-sharing communities of practice." Journal of Knowledge Management
7(1): 64 - 77.
This paper reports the results of a qualitative study of motivation and barriers
to employee participation in virtual knowledge-sharing communities of practice
at Caterpillar Incorporation. The study indicates that knowledge flows easily
when employees view knowledge as a public good belonging to the whole
organization. However, individuals tend to shy away from contributing
knowledge for a variety of reasons. Specifically, employees hesitate to
contribute out of fear of criticism, as they are not sure that their contributions
are important or completely accurate. To remove the identified barriers, there
is a need for developing various types of trust, ranging from the knowledge-
based to the institution-based trust.
13. Case studies of CoP
Kortelainen, T. and P. Rasinkangas (2007). "Sharing Expertise and Innovation:
Communities of Practice in the Development of Small Libraries."
Communities of practice as a way to share expertise, information, best
practices and to create common practices, this way of sharing information as
part of the development and implementation of new evaluation methods were
studied in a project involving thirteen public libraries, one polytechnic library,
and one university library. Communities of practice, comprising of
representatives of the different libraries, had a focal role in the development
work, in which sharing of information was elemental. The study is based on
information gathered from participants using interviews and questionnaires as
well as project documentation, the contents of which have been analyzed
See also KM and KM-related Technology
#9 (Example of using KM-related technology)
#10-15 (Use of wiki as CoP)
Knowledge Management and KM-related Technology
1. The relationship between IT and KM
Hendriks, P. H. J. (2001). "Many rivers to cross: from ICT to knowledge management
systems." Journal of Information Technology (Routledge, Ltd.) 16(2): 57-72.
Several applications of information and communication technology (ICT) have
gained considerable popularity as instruments for knowledge management.
Some authors even seem to equate knowledge management with the
introduction of specific ICT applications (intranets, groupware, etc.). However,
the relationship between ICT and knowledge is no less problematic.
Organizational knowledge and ICT refer to distinct sets of conceptions and
establishing their relationship is far from trivial. The question then is how to
assess the relationship between ICT and knowledge management. Several
variables to be considered when answering this question have been identified
in the literature: the enabling role of ICT for knowledge processes, the state of
the ICT infrastructure, the level of knowledge required for using ICT, other
user considerations, etc.
2. How IT support organization learning
Kane, G. C. and M. Alavi (2007). "Information Technology and Organizational
Learning: An Investigation of Exploration and Exploitation Processes." Organization
Science 18(5): 796-812.
This study investigates the effects of information technology (IT) on
exploration and exploitation in organizational learning (OL). We find that each
of these IT-enabled learning mechanisms enable capabilities that have a
distinct effect on the exploration and exploitation learning dynamics in the
organization. We also find that this effect is dependent on organizational and
environmental conditions, as well as on the interaction effects between the
various mechanisms when used in combination with one another. We explore
the implications of our results for the use of IT to support organizational
3. Relationship between KM and KM-related technology*
Pan, S. L. and D. E. Leidner (2003). "Bridging communities of practice with
information technology in pursuit of global knowledge sharing." The Journal of
Strategic Information Systems 12(1): 71 - 88.
This paper explores the use of information technology to support knowledge
sharing within and between communities of practice. In so doing, it presents a
case of a multi-national organization's efforts to implement an organizational
knowledge management (KM) system. The case traces both the technological
solutions and the KM strategy of the organization as it met with various
challenges. The study highlights several lessons, including the possibility of a
flexible KM strategy, the necessity for multiple channels of knowledge sharing,
the desirability of expanding communities of practice by information
technology as KM strategies evolve.
* See also Knowledge Management and Communities of Practice (CoP) #6
4. Maintaining information system via virtual activities*
Muntean, M. I. (2009). "Collaborative Environments. Considerations Concerning
Some Collaborative Svstems." Informatica Economica 13(2): 5-11.
It is obvious, that all collaborative environments(workgroups, communities of
practice, collaborative enterprises) are based on knowledge and between
collaboration and knowledge management there is a strong interdependence.
The evolution of information systems in these collaborative environments led
to the sudden necessity to adopt, for maintaining the virtual activities and
processes, the latest technologies/systems, which are capable to support
integrated collaboration in business services. In these environments, portal-
based IT platforms will integrate multi-agent collaborative systems,
collaborative tools, different enterprise applications and other useful
* See also Knowledge Management and Communities of Practice (CoP) #1
5. Maintain virtual activities via information system
Davenport, E. (2001). "Knowledge management issues for online organisations:
„communities of practice‟ as an exploratory framework." Journal of Documentation
57(1): 61 - 75.
Communities of practice have been identified as sites where knowledge is
created in organizations. In this reviews, which studies of situated learning
and situated action and suggests that these two activities may characterize
the learning process in communities of practice where they are supported by
a distinctive „social‟ infrastructure. The author analyses recent fieldwork in
three online communities (a digital library reference service, a virtual
enterprise and an online shopping group) to discover to what extent they may
be described as communities of practice, and to establish how they support
6. Use of database to manage explicit knowledge
Kankanhalli, A., F. Tanudidjaja, et al. (2003). "The role of IT in successful knowledge
management initiatives." Commun. ACM 46(9): 69-73.
Executives must often confront the challenging task of deciding what type of
IT solutions to deploy in support of their knowledge management (KM)
initiatives. For IT solutions to explicit knowledge, codification can be
considered. With this approach, more explicit and structured knowledge is
codified and stored in knowledge bases. The main role of IT here is to help
people share knowledge through common storage so as to achieve economic
reuse of knowledge. This article offers some insights on the IT-KM match
through a study of 12 organizations with successful KM initiatives and found
to have distinct patterns in their approaches to KM.
7. The relationship between KM-related technology and working efficiency
McDermott, R. (1999). "Why Information Technology Inspired But Cannot Deliver
Knowledge Management." California Management Review 41(4): 103-117.
Recent developments in information technology have inspired many
companies to imagine a new way for staff to share knowledge and insights.
Instead of storing documents in personal files and sharing personal insights
with a small circle of colleagues, they can store documents in a common
information base and use electronic networks to share insights with their
whole community, even people scattered across the globe. However, most
companies soon discover that leveraging knowledge is actually very hard and
is more dependent on community building than information technology. It is
because they often need to share knowledge that is neither obvious nor easy
to document, knowledge that requires a human relationship to think about,
understand, share, and appropriately apply.
8. The impact of KM-related technology
Gottschalk, P. (2002). A stages of growth model for knowledge management
technology in law firms. 2002.
A law firm can be understood as a social community specializing in the speed
and efficiency in the creation and transfer of legal knowledge. Knowledge
management (KM) was introduced to law firms to help them to create, share,
and use knowledge more effectively, and information technology can play an
important role in successful KM initiatives. Describes how information
technology support for knowledge management is linked to stages of growth.
Proposes a stages-of-growth model comprising four stages. The first stage is
end user tools that are made available to knowledge workers; the second
stage is information about who knows information; the third stage is
information from knowledge workers; and the final stage is information
systems solving knowledge problems.
9. KM-related technology and CoP
Eric C, A. and C. Freeman (2000). "Communities of practice: bridging technology
and knowledge assessment." Journal of Knowledge Management 4(1): 38 - 44.
This article introduces an assessment model being developed around a
knowledge initiative in Pepperdine University‟s Educational Technology
Doctoral program. The knowledge initiative involves the implementation of
group memory technology, developed by Intraspect Software, in an attempt to
cultivate a community of practice in the program. The assessment model
looks for indicators of communities of practice and mines for usage patterns
called “knowledge transactions”, as forms of measures.
10. Introduction of Wikipedia on KM facilitation
Wagner, C. (2004). "WIKI: A TECHNOLOGY FOR CONVERSATIONAL
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND GROUP COLLABORATION." Communications
of AIS 2004(13): 265-289.
A Wiki is a collaboratively created and iteratively improved set of web pages,
together with the software that manages the web pages. Because of their
unique way of creating and managing knowledge, Wikis combine the best
elements of earlier conversational knowledge management technologies,
while avoiding many of their disadvantages. This article introduces Wiki
technology, the behavioral and organizational implications of Wiki use, and
Wiki applicability as groupware and help system software. The article
concludes that organizations willing to embrace the “Wiki way” with
collaborative, conversational knowledge management systems, may enjoy
better than linear knowledge growth while being able to satisfy ad-hoc,
distributed knowledge needs.
11. Definition of Wikipedia and the successful factors
Chawner, B. and P. H. Lewis (2006). "WikiWikiWebs: New Ways to Communicate in
a Web Environment." Information Technology & Libraries 25(1): 33-43.
This paper introduces WikiWikiWeb software, also known as Wiki, for use in
library and information management contexts. Wikis provide an environment
for Web-based collaboration and can also be used for Web site content
management. The article includes an overview of the history and development
of Wiki, as well as discussing basic and advanced Wiki features. It compares
three Wiki engines and describes seven case studies of real-world library and
library-related Wiki applications. The paper concludes with a discussion of
factors that can contribute to a successful Wiki project.
12. The impact of Wiki technlogy
Raman, M., T. Ryan, et al. (2005). "Designing Knowledge Management Systems for
Teaching and Learning with Wiki Technology." Journal of Information
Systems Education 16(3): 311-320.
A wiki is a group collaboration software tool based on Web server technology.
This paper examines the use of a wiki to facilitate knowledge management in
an academic setting. We present a case study about how a wiki was used to
support collaborative activities in a knowledge management class at a
graduate-level information systems and technology school. Our findings
suggest that wikis can support collaborative knowledge creation and sharing
in an academic environment. Success in attempts to provide such support
may depend on: familiarity with wiki technology, careful planning for
implementation and use, appropriate class size, and motivation of students to
engage in discovery learning.
13. Factors to motivate users contribute for Wikipedia
Oded, N. (2007). "What Motivates Wikipedians?" COMMUNICATIONS- ACM 50(11):
Contributors??? motivations are critical for sustaining Wikipedia and other
collaborative user-generated content outlets. In order to understand what
underlies user-generated content contribution for the creation of content in
return for no monetary reward, we would need to find out what motivates
volunteer content contributors. The results of a survey indicate that the top
motivations for contribution are Fun and Ideology. As expected, it was found
that the levels of each of the motivations - Fun, Values, Understanding,
Enhancement, Protective, Career Ideology and Social motivations were
positively correlated with contribution level.
14. Wikipedia helps knowledge creation
Prasarnphanich, P. and C. Wagner (2009). "THE ROLE OF WIKI TECHNOLOGY
AND ALTRUISM IN COLLABORATIVE KNOWLEDGE CREATION." Journal of
Computer Information Systems 49(4): 33-41.
Collaborative knowledge creation is presently being reshaped by the use of
Web 2.0 technologies such as wikis. Wikipedia demonstrates the feasibility
and success of this form of collaborative knowledge creation (in a broad
sense) within self-organizing, open access community. The study seeks to
understand the success of the public wiki model, with Wikipedia as the test
case, assessing both technology and participant motivations. The study finds
that altruism is a prevalent driver for participation, although mixed motives
clearly exist. In particular, while participants have both individualistic and
collaborative motives, collaborative (altruistic) motives dominate. The success
of the collaboration model embedded in Wikipedia thus appears to be related
to wiki technology and the "wiki way" (i.e., social norms) of collaboration.
15. A case of Wikipedia supports knowledge management
Raman, M. (2006). "WIKI TECHNOLOGY AS A "FREE" COLLABORATIVE TOOL
WITHIN AN ORGANIZATIONAL SETTING." Information Systems Management
This article provides a brief tutorial of Wiki technology as a collaborative tool.
A case example from a university administration context suggests that--like
many other end-user technologies--training and support needs should be
carefully considered before the potential value of using this "free" technology
to support knowledge management efforts can be satisfactorily realized.
Collison, C., & Parcell, G. (2004). Learning to fly: Practical knowledge management
from some of the world's leading learning organizations. Chichester, West
Appendix 1 : Search strategy
Step 1 - Define the search question
Since the searching of information tempts to seek relevant materials for the
research, the topic or research question should be carried first. In this case, the
The relationship of knowledge management and information technology
Step 2 – Design the main keywords
After the topic question is set, keywords and phrases regard to the topic will be work
out base on our understanding. For example, Information technology (IT) and
Knowledge management (KM) are the foundation phrases for the initial search.
Figure 1: Use “knowledge management” to have the initial search
Step 3 – Enlarge the scope of keywords
Using the foundation phrases identified in step 2 may not retrieve sufficient
information. Therefore enlarge the scope of keywords for further searching is
necessary. Broader terms, narrow terms, synonyms and related terms may be
derived to establish a more comprehensive query in step 4.
Figure 2: The related keywords may be seen by looking the keywords field of articles
Related keywords of KM: knowledge process, knowledge management system,
Related keywords of IT: information communication technology (ICT), information
Collaborative system, wiki technology
Step 4 – Form the search query
As all the keywords and related terms are ready, the search statement will be
created by searching techniques like Quotation Mark, Boolean logic and truncation
will be used to compound a search query, Quotation Mark e.g. “Knowledge
Management”, Boolean skill e.g. Knowledge Management AND Information
Technology, or truncation skill like Knowledge Manage*.
Figure 3: Compound search query with Boolean operation and Quotation Mark
Step 5 - Evaluate the search results
After retrieving the results, recall and precision of data may be the indicator for the
evaluation. In doing so, the search results should be evaluated and refined so as to
improve the results and narrow down the searching scope by using the filtering
features of the database. For examples, if the results are too many, specific phrase
will be adopted to narrow down the search, or search will be limited by setting
specific requirements in advanced search options, e.g. journal, keywords, abstract,
specific date or date range etc.
Figure 4: Options in the red circle are some advance options
Appendix 2: Subject search keywords & strategy
Content Management / Explicit knowledge Management
Communities of Practice (CoP)
ISI web of knowledge
Dragon Library Catalogue
Search term used
Primary Operator Primary Operator Primary Operator Primary Operator Primary
term term term term term
Knowledge AND Information OR Communities OR Content
Management technology of practice management
Synonyms Synonyms Synonyms Synonyms
Knowledge Information CoPs CM
Knowledge Collaborative Communities Explicit
transfer system management
Search strategy Database Hits
1 (knowledge management or KM) AND (information technology or IT ) AND (Information EBSCO 29
technology or ICT)
2 (content manage*) AND (knowledge transfer or knowledge manage*) ProQuest 28
3 (knowledge management or KM) AND (communities of practice or CoPs) Emerald 88
4 ABS(knowledge management or KM) AND ABS(explicit knowledge) ProQuest 84
5 (knowledge management or KM) AND collaborative system EBSCO 5
6 (Knowledge management or KM) and wiki EBSCO 16
7 (Knowledge sharing or knowledge mining) AND (communities of practice or CoPs) Emerald 19
Search strategy Database Hits
8 (knowledge sharing or knowledge management) AND (online communities of practice Emerald 48
9 Content management (title) Dragon Library 7
10 Title=(Content Management) ISI web of 85
Refined by: Subject Areas=( COMPUTER SCIENCE, INFORMATION SYSTEMS OR knowledge
COMPUTER SCIENCE, THEORY & METHODS OR INFORMATION SCIENCE &
LIBRARY SCIENCE ) AND Document Type=( ARTICLE )
Timespan=All Years. Databases=SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, A&HCI, CPCI-S, CPCI-SSH.