Bsim0004 Assignment1 Copy Part1


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Bsim0004 Assignment1 Copy Part1

  1. 1. Introduction This annotated bibliography introduces the extension of the Knowledge Management (KM) application. Regarding to the proliferation of information over the world, individuals have been facing the problem on handling different information and this problem happens to many organizations. With regards the increasing use of Information Technology (IT) within corporations, problems in managing the information, or in an organized sense, content are coming to the surface. The consequence of this problem is serious. Originally, the use of IT aims to provide an effective way to share knowledge. Yet, if the pipeline for the transfer is blocked or created a bottleneck, the retrieval process complicated and eventually fails to achieve the primary goal of the use of IT. With reference to this, a research is being made to identify the possible ways to manage the problem and the topic is “To facilitate knowledge transfer with content management by web 2.0 initiatives”. The way to resolve the problem mentioned starts with the use of knowledge management. From Collision and Parcell (2004), knowledge management is the hybrid of three elements – People, Process and Technology. To maintain a better alignment with the research topic, more specified scope is made among the three elements that are – Communities of Practice (People), Content Management (Process) and Technology (Knowledge Management Technology). (Intersection area means knowledge management and the arrow represents the development of new understanding towards KM in our research) As a result, the search of subject will be focused on KM with new three elements 1. Communities of Practice; 2. Content Management; 3. KM-related Technology. 2
  2. 2. Database used for subject searching ISI Web of knowledge ISI Web of knowledge is a database that collects various information relate to different area of interest. The database provides several areas of studies like science (chemistry, physics, etc), social science (information science & library science, history, etc), arts & humanities (language, art, music, etc). In addition to specific academic area, there are specified information like conference proceedings, patent information as well. Another feature of this database is the focus area – life-science- related information (Journals about chemical reaction, biological, global health, food science and technology, medicine, etc) that leads to higher and broader volume of collection of this area. Last but not least, the database also contains a vast amount of journal citation reports that allow users to compare and retrieve full text directly or via WebBridge. Information about Content Management, explicit knowledge management are searched across this database. ProQuest ProQuest is a content provider or called as aggregator that provides information across different subjects such as business, education, government, technology, etc with the provision of different types of libraries to allow users to make development based on their audiences such as corporate, government, higher education, hospital. ProQuest has its own database that collects journals or reviews with the specific area of interest such as ProQuest Computing that contains full text on technology such as database design, software development, intranets and the Internet. In addition, ProQuest aggregates databases that is from other content provider such as ERIC® to give broader search results that facilitates the needs from user‟s query. 3
  3. 3. Emerald Emerald is the world‟s leading scholarly publisher in business and management on the world stage, the collection of Emerald over 40,000 articles from over 100 of the most prestigious management journals. In addition, 14 online subject collections combine e-Journals and e-Books to offer comprehensive research to subscribers who only need access to specific content. The Emerald database includes management disciplines, e.g. marketing, library and information management, human resources management and quality to operations management. During 2008, more than 20 million Emerald articles were downloaded and read in research and study. Key titles indexed in Emerald database include:  Library Management  European Journal of Marketing  International Journal of Operations & Production Management  Personnel Review  The TQM Magazine  Full list of journals Management Decision EBSCOhost research database Alike many academic information service platforms, EBSCOhost research database offers a convenient way for students or researchers to retrieve useful information. With its multi-discipline database collection, information is not limited in a narrow scope and users can get abundant information. Indeed, it contains a huge number of professional, academic and expensive periodicals that most libraries cannot afford as well. Because of these advantages, it is selected to search the information in this assignment. 4
  4. 4. Tools other than database that used for subject searching Dragon ( Other than use of aggregator as subject search, the use of Libraries catalogue is included in our search strategy also. Libraries catalogue, Dragon, provides searches on physical items, e-items that available in the University of Hong Kong library. The use of the Dragon is to seek supplementary information on some definitional terms like content management as well as the fundamental understanding of the concept. These knowledge may not have mentioned in any journal articles that stored in the above database. Introduction of annotated bibliography The findings of the annotated bibliography are collected with the use different databases are shown below. The references are classified in three areas: 1. Knowledge Management and Content Management; 2. Knowledge Management and Communities of Practice (CoP) and 3. Knowledge Management and KM-related technology; where appropriate, original abstracts have been included. The search strategy used in the subject search can refer to our Appendix. Knowledge Management and Content Management 1. (Definition of content management) Yu, H. (2005). Library Web Content Management: Needs and Challenges, In Yu, H. (Ed.), Content and workflow management for library web sites : case studies (pp 1 - 21). Hershey, PA, Information Science Pub. Rising demands by library users for customizable Web function and by library Web administrators for streamlined workflows call for better solutions to Web 5
  5. 5. content management. This chapter begins by defining the content and scope of content Management. 2. (Definition of content management) Pullman, G. and Gu, B. (2009). Analyze Before You Act: CMS and Knowledge Transfer. In C. S. Johnson & S. Fowler (Eds.), Content management : bridging the gap between theory and practice (pp.43-56). Amityville, N.Y., Baywood Pub. Company. In this chapter, foundations of content management will be introduced. In an information economy, where knowledge is our product, it is necessary to carefully analyze the existing knowledge flow in an environment before implementing content management. Content Management is indeed very much related to the knowledge management. With a better understanding the relationship between them, it enables the development of system to help facilitate knowledge transfer more efficiently. 3. (Problems without content management) Earley, S. (2008). "Conquering chaos via smart content management -- Interview with Seth Earley of Earley & Associates." Journal of Digital Asset Management 4(6): 318. Managing content - whether documents, transactional data or digital assets - is about providing content in context. Users can't find what they need for three reasons: 1. Information and systems evolve and tend toward a disordered state. We need to expend energy to clean things up and organize them from time to time. 2. In most organizations, governance processes around content management , digital asset management, search, taxonomy and metadata are immature. Therefore, there is no clear ownership of content and repositories. 3. Content is not "selectively managed," that is, little consideration is given to the continuum of content value. 6
  6. 6. 4. (How to use explicit knowledge), Desouza, K. C., Y. Awazu, et al. (2006). "Factors governing the consumption of explicit knowledge." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 57(1): 36-43. While we have made progress in many areas of knowledge management, we are yet to understand what factors contribute to employee usage of knowledge artifacts. A field study of 175 employees in a software engineering organization was conducted to understand factors that govern consumption of explicit knowledge. Specifically, there are two sources of risk a consumer must evaluate prior to knowledge consumption-risk from the knowledge producer and risk from the knowledge product. We find support for the factors of perceived complexity, perceived relative advantage, and perceived risk as they relate to intentions to consuming knowledge. 5. (Content Management and organization performance)* Keskin, H. (2005). "The Relationships Between Explicit and Tacit Oriented KM Strategy, and Firm Performance." Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge 7(1): 169. In this study knowledge is considered as explicit and tacit; and in line with this, KM strategies are classified into two categories: explicit oriented KM strategy and tacit oriented KM strategy; and the relationships between these variables ,environmental factors and firm performance are investigated. According to the regression analyses, explicit and tacit KM strategies have positive effects on firm performance; and the impact (magnitude) of explicit oriented KM strategy is higher than the tacit oriented one on firm performance. Also it was found that greater environment hostility, the greater relationship between explicit and tacit oriented KM strategies, and firm performance. *See also Knowledge Management and Communities of Practice (CoP) #7 7
  7. 7. 6. (Use of Content Management Model) Hsu, T. Y., H. R. Ke, et al. (2006). "Unified knowledge-based content management for digital archives in museums." Electronic Library 24(1): 38-50. This paper sets out to present unified knowledge-based content management (UKCM) model, which comprises the unified knowledge content processes, multi-layer reusable knowledge content structures and an integrated knowledge-based content management system to avoid the content silo trap, satisfy the knowledge management requirement and support the long-term perspective of developing academic, exhibition, and education applications among various domains for museums. 7. Practice of managing content with various tools Augustyniak, R. H., D. B. Aguero, et al. (2005). "The IP's guide to the galaxy of portal planning: Part II. Content management." Online Information Review 29(6): 643-655. This article is about planning a portal and creating a portal definition document. Content management is the keystone of a portal. The components of a portal CM (Content Management) strategy include the content inventory and analysis, content acquisition, access structures, classifying content, content life cycle, CM software, and metadata standards. This will be useful to the information professional who is contemplating portal development and may be used as a model in developing a blueprint - the portal definition document. Knowledge Management and Communities of Practice (CoP) 1. CoP in management organization Hildreth, P., C. Kimble, et al. (2000). "Communities of practice in the distributed international environment." Journal of Knowledge Management 4(1): 27 - 38. Modern commercial organizations are facing pressures which have caused them to lose personnel, and meanwhile they also lose their knowledge. Organizations also have to cope with the internationalization of business forcing collaboration and knowledge sharing across time and distance. The focus in this paper is on communities of practice in commercial organizations. This is done by exploring knowledge sharing in Lave and Wenger‟s (1991) 8
  8. 8. theory of communities of practice and investigating how communities of practice may translate to a distributed international environment. The paper reports on two case studies that explore the functioning of communities of practice across international boundaries. 2. (Relations of CoP and workplace) Lin, Y. and M. Beyerlein (2006). "Communities of Practice: A Critical Perspective on Collaboration." An appropriate level of analysis for collaboration research would be social interaction and the optimal unit of analysis would be communities of practice. Principles of organization in traditional institutions and communities of practice will be contrasted. The differences among coordination, cooperation, and collaboration are presented, suggesting that the prototypical form of collaboration locate in communities of practice. Finally, a new look at the relationships between collaboration and learning, collaboration and innovation is extended to describe the workspace created by communities of practice. 3. (Difference between knowledge sharing practice in China and US) Chau, C. W., J. F. Deng, et al. (2000). "The openness of knowledge sharing within organizations: a comparative study of the United States and the People's Republic of China." Journal of Management Accounting Research 12: 65 - 95. This journal restates the importance of knowledge sharing in modern organizations and reviews related research to develop hypotheses on the influence of national culture. An experiment on 104 US and 38 Chinese managers shows that the Chinese more willing than the US group to reveal their own errors in order to benefit the collective interest but less willing to share information with co-workers outside their group. Analyses the underlying reasons for these differences in detail, pointing out that the complex interactions and trade-offs involved are unlikely to be fully captured by quantitative data alone. 9
  9. 9. 4. (Knowledge sharing practice in China) Tong, J. and A. Mitra (2009). "Chinese cultural influences on knowledge management practice." Journal of Knowledge Management 13(2): 49 - 62. KM strategies proposed for a China enterprise should take revealed cultural influences into account.The purpose of this study is to explore national cultural influences on knowledge management (KM) practices within Chinese enterprises. It was discovered that employees in Chinese manufacturing enterprises like to keep their knowledge implicit and are willing to share it informally. A series of factors derived from Chinese culture such as hierarchy consciousness, fear of losing face, a sense of modesty, competitiveness and a preference for face-to-face communication, can act as barriers to KM initiatives within Chinese manufacturing organisations. Trust in intra-personal relationships among employees can partly mitigate the impact of the above cultural characteristics. However, at a macro organisational level there is still need to share tacit knowledge using explicit/formal KM approaches. 5. (Roles of IT professional in explicit knowledge management) Choo, C. W. (2000). "Working with knowledge: how information professionals help organisations manage what they know." Library Management 21(8): 395. In order to manage knowledge, the nature of knowledge in organizations must be understood. It is helpful to distinguish between 3 categories of organizational knowledge including explicit knowledge. This framework is used to discuss the role of the information professional with respect to three categories of knowledge. An analysis of these experiences in three companies suggests many opportunities for information professionals to make important contributions in managing an organization's knowledge for growth and innovation. 10
  10. 10. 6. (Use of P2P to create collaborative environment) Kwok, J. S. H. and S. Gao (2004). "Knowledge sharing community in P2P network: a study of motivational perspective." Journal of Knowledge Management 8(1): 94 - 102. How to effectively share knowledge within organizations has been given a great deal of attention in practice as well as in research. Therefore, in this study, the idea is proposed regarding a virtual knowledge sharing community that is based on decentralized P2P technology. In the community, each member plays an equal role of knowledge producing, receiving and coordinating. After being applied, each of the features is believed to have capability of motivating the members of community to share knowledge with each other. 7. (Managing people to implement Knowledge Management) Duffy, J. A. N. (2001). "Knowledge Management and Its Influence on the Records and Information Manager." Information Management Journal 35(3): 62. Knowledge management's (KM) applicability and utility are wide-ranging. As the functionality of desktop technologies is enhanced to include content management, collaboration, profiling, and so on. Although improved technological features influence KM's growth and adoption rates, the notion that it is neither a technology nor a function but a set of principles to which an organization or group of people subscribe is still valid. Thinking of it in any other way will, by default, limit knowledge management's potential. Whether or not an organization has a formal KM program or designated individuals responsible for the management of knowledge, these principles can (and should) be adopted. 11
  11. 11. 8. (Practice to balance explicit knowledge and implicit knowledge) Elizabeth, A. S. (2001). "The role of tacit and explicit knowledge in the workplace." Journal of Knowledge Management 5(4): 311. Knowledge plays a key role in the information revolution. Major challenges are to select the "right" information from numerous sources and transform it into useful knowledge. Tacit knowledge based on common sense, and explicit knowledge based on academic accomplishment are both underutilized. Ways knowledge-enabled organizations acquire, measure, teach, share and apply knowledge are discussed and illustrated. Methods to balance the use tacit and explicit knowledge at work and practical, proven ways to improve the understanding and use of knowledge are presented. 9. (How to facilitate explicit knowledge management using learning model) Tsai, M.-T. and K.-W. Lee (2006). "A study of knowledge internalization: from the perspective of learning cycle theory." Journal of Knowledge Management 10(3): 57. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework of knowledge internalization based on learning cycle theory which firms can effectively internalize explicit knowledge and direct it into the tacit knowledge of employees, thereby enhancing the organization's competitiveness (knowledge internalization). An exploratory research is adapted to discuss the issue of knowledge internalization based on learning cycle theory. The results of this study reveal that an "incomplete learning cycle" is one of the reasons why explicit knowledge could not be successfully converted into tacit knowledge. Hence, when a more complete learning cycle is followed, explicit knowledge is more easily converted into tacit knowledge. 10. Facilitate CoP using workshop Peile, E. B. and W. Briner (2001). "Team and organisational learning in a cross- functional community of practice: the importance of privileging voices." Career Development International 6(7): 396 - 402. This study explores a workshop with community of practice which examined facilitated case history discussions as a means whereby a team could share and extend their learning around the common focus of interest. Discussion in 12
  12. 12. the community of practice focused on “how-to” aspects of small group facilitation. A question stimulated subsequent enquiry about “privileging voices”. Examines how the facilitation enabled interactive, inter-professional education through an informal form of discourse analysis on the transcripts of the case discussions. 11. Limitation of CoP Roberts, J. (2006). "Limits to communities of practice." Journal of Management Studies 43(3): 623 - 639. The purpose of this paper is to critically explore the communities of practice approach to managing knowledge and its use among management academics and practitioners in recent years. In so doing, the aim is to identify the limits of the approach in the field of knowledge management. The paper begins with a brief description of the communities of practice approach. This is followed by a review of critiques of the approach evident in the management literature. A number of further challenges are then elaborated. The limits of communities of practice are subsequently discussed and brief conclusions drawn. 12. (Problems of implementing CoP) Ardichvili, A., V. Page, et al. (2003). "Motivation and barriers to participation in virtual knowledge-sharing communities of practice." Journal of Knowledge Management 7(1): 64 - 77. This paper reports the results of a qualitative study of motivation and barriers to employee participation in virtual knowledge-sharing communities of practice at Caterpillar Incorporation. The study indicates that knowledge flows easily when employees view knowledge as a public good belonging to the whole organization. However, individuals tend to shy away from contributing knowledge for a variety of reasons. Specifically, employees hesitate to contribute out of fear of criticism, as they are not sure that their contributions are important or completely accurate. To remove the identified barriers, there is a need for developing various types of trust, ranging from the knowledge- based to the institution-based trust. 13
  13. 13. 13. Case studies of CoP Kortelainen, T. and P. Rasinkangas (2007). "Sharing Expertise and Innovation: Communities of Practice in the Development of Small Libraries." Communities of practice as a way to share expertise, information, best practices and to create common practices, this way of sharing information as part of the development and implementation of new evaluation methods were studied in a project involving thirteen public libraries, one polytechnic library, and one university library. Communities of practice, comprising of representatives of the different libraries, had a focal role in the development work, in which sharing of information was elemental. The study is based on information gathered from participants using interviews and questionnaires as well as project documentation, the contents of which have been analyzed qualitatively. See also KM and KM-related Technology #9 (Example of using KM-related technology) #10-15 (Use of wiki as CoP) Knowledge Management and KM-related Technology 1. The relationship between IT and KM Hendriks, P. H. J. (2001). "Many rivers to cross: from ICT to knowledge management systems." Journal of Information Technology (Routledge, Ltd.) 16(2): 57-72. Several applications of information and communication technology (ICT) have gained considerable popularity as instruments for knowledge management. Some authors even seem to equate knowledge management with the introduction of specific ICT applications (intranets, groupware, etc.). However, the relationship between ICT and knowledge is no less problematic. Organizational knowledge and ICT refer to distinct sets of conceptions and establishing their relationship is far from trivial. The question then is how to assess the relationship between ICT and knowledge management. Several variables to be considered when answering this question have been identified in the literature: the enabling role of ICT for knowledge processes, the state of 14
  14. 14. the ICT infrastructure, the level of knowledge required for using ICT, other user considerations, etc. 2. How IT support organization learning Kane, G. C. and M. Alavi (2007). "Information Technology and Organizational Learning: An Investigation of Exploration and Exploitation Processes." Organization Science 18(5): 796-812. This study investigates the effects of information technology (IT) on exploration and exploitation in organizational learning (OL). We find that each of these IT-enabled learning mechanisms enable capabilities that have a distinct effect on the exploration and exploitation learning dynamics in the organization. We also find that this effect is dependent on organizational and environmental conditions, as well as on the interaction effects between the various mechanisms when used in combination with one another. We explore the implications of our results for the use of IT to support organizational learning. 3. Relationship between KM and KM-related technology* Pan, S. L. and D. E. Leidner (2003). "Bridging communities of practice with information technology in pursuit of global knowledge sharing." The Journal of Strategic Information Systems 12(1): 71 - 88. This paper explores the use of information technology to support knowledge sharing within and between communities of practice. In so doing, it presents a case of a multi-national organization's efforts to implement an organizational knowledge management (KM) system. The case traces both the technological solutions and the KM strategy of the organization as it met with various challenges. The study highlights several lessons, including the possibility of a flexible KM strategy, the necessity for multiple channels of knowledge sharing, the desirability of expanding communities of practice by information technology as KM strategies evolve. * See also Knowledge Management and Communities of Practice (CoP) #6 15
  15. 15. 4. Maintaining information system via virtual activities* Muntean, M. I. (2009). "Collaborative Environments. Considerations Concerning Some Collaborative Svstems." Informatica Economica 13(2): 5-11. It is obvious, that all collaborative environments(workgroups, communities of practice, collaborative enterprises) are based on knowledge and between collaboration and knowledge management there is a strong interdependence. The evolution of information systems in these collaborative environments led to the sudden necessity to adopt, for maintaining the virtual activities and processes, the latest technologies/systems, which are capable to support integrated collaboration in business services. In these environments, portal- based IT platforms will integrate multi-agent collaborative systems, collaborative tools, different enterprise applications and other useful information systems. * See also Knowledge Management and Communities of Practice (CoP) #1 5. Maintain virtual activities via information system Davenport, E. (2001). "Knowledge management issues for online organisations: „communities of practice‟ as an exploratory framework." Journal of Documentation 57(1): 61 - 75. Communities of practice have been identified as sites where knowledge is created in organizations. In this reviews, which studies of situated learning and situated action and suggests that these two activities may characterize the learning process in communities of practice where they are supported by a distinctive „social‟ infrastructure. The author analyses recent fieldwork in three online communities (a digital library reference service, a virtual enterprise and an online shopping group) to discover to what extent they may be described as communities of practice, and to establish how they support participants‟ learning. 6. Use of database to manage explicit knowledge Kankanhalli, A., F. Tanudidjaja, et al. (2003). "The role of IT in successful knowledge management initiatives." Commun. ACM 46(9): 69-73. 16
  16. 16. Executives must often confront the challenging task of deciding what type of IT solutions to deploy in support of their knowledge management (KM) initiatives. For IT solutions to explicit knowledge, codification can be considered. With this approach, more explicit and structured knowledge is codified and stored in knowledge bases. The main role of IT here is to help people share knowledge through common storage so as to achieve economic reuse of knowledge. This article offers some insights on the IT-KM match through a study of 12 organizations with successful KM initiatives and found to have distinct patterns in their approaches to KM. 7. The relationship between KM-related technology and working efficiency McDermott, R. (1999). "Why Information Technology Inspired But Cannot Deliver Knowledge Management." California Management Review 41(4): 103-117. Recent developments in information technology have inspired many companies to imagine a new way for staff to share knowledge and insights. Instead of storing documents in personal files and sharing personal insights with a small circle of colleagues, they can store documents in a common information base and use electronic networks to share insights with their whole community, even people scattered across the globe. However, most companies soon discover that leveraging knowledge is actually very hard and is more dependent on community building than information technology. It is because they often need to share knowledge that is neither obvious nor easy to document, knowledge that requires a human relationship to think about, understand, share, and appropriately apply. 8. The impact of KM-related technology Gottschalk, P. (2002). A stages of growth model for knowledge management technology in law firms. 2002. A law firm can be understood as a social community specializing in the speed and efficiency in the creation and transfer of legal knowledge. Knowledge management (KM) was introduced to law firms to help them to create, share, and use knowledge more effectively, and information technology can play an important role in successful KM initiatives. Describes how information 17
  17. 17. technology support for knowledge management is linked to stages of growth. Proposes a stages-of-growth model comprising four stages. The first stage is end user tools that are made available to knowledge workers; the second stage is information about who knows information; the third stage is information from knowledge workers; and the final stage is information systems solving knowledge problems. 9. KM-related technology and CoP Eric C, A. and C. Freeman (2000). "Communities of practice: bridging technology and knowledge assessment." Journal of Knowledge Management 4(1): 38 - 44. This article introduces an assessment model being developed around a knowledge initiative in Pepperdine University‟s Educational Technology Doctoral program. The knowledge initiative involves the implementation of group memory technology, developed by Intraspect Software, in an attempt to cultivate a community of practice in the program. The assessment model looks for indicators of communities of practice and mines for usage patterns called “knowledge transactions”, as forms of measures. 10. Introduction of Wikipedia on KM facilitation Wagner, C. (2004). "WIKI: A TECHNOLOGY FOR CONVERSATIONAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND GROUP COLLABORATION." Communications of AIS 2004(13): 265-289. A Wiki is a collaboratively created and iteratively improved set of web pages, together with the software that manages the web pages. Because of their unique way of creating and managing knowledge, Wikis combine the best elements of earlier conversational knowledge management technologies, while avoiding many of their disadvantages. This article introduces Wiki technology, the behavioral and organizational implications of Wiki use, and Wiki applicability as groupware and help system software. The article concludes that organizations willing to embrace the “Wiki way” with collaborative, conversational knowledge management systems, may enjoy better than linear knowledge growth while being able to satisfy ad-hoc, distributed knowledge needs. 18
  18. 18. 11. Definition of Wikipedia and the successful factors Chawner, B. and P. H. Lewis (2006). "WikiWikiWebs: New Ways to Communicate in a Web Environment." Information Technology & Libraries 25(1): 33-43. This paper introduces WikiWikiWeb software, also known as Wiki, for use in library and information management contexts. Wikis provide an environment for Web-based collaboration and can also be used for Web site content management. The article includes an overview of the history and development of Wiki, as well as discussing basic and advanced Wiki features. It compares three Wiki engines and describes seven case studies of real-world library and library-related Wiki applications. The paper concludes with a discussion of factors that can contribute to a successful Wiki project. 12. The impact of Wiki technlogy Raman, M., T. Ryan, et al. (2005). "Designing Knowledge Management Systems for Teaching and Learning with Wiki Technology." Journal of Information Systems Education 16(3): 311-320. A wiki is a group collaboration software tool based on Web server technology. This paper examines the use of a wiki to facilitate knowledge management in an academic setting. We present a case study about how a wiki was used to support collaborative activities in a knowledge management class at a graduate-level information systems and technology school. Our findings suggest that wikis can support collaborative knowledge creation and sharing in an academic environment. Success in attempts to provide such support may depend on: familiarity with wiki technology, careful planning for implementation and use, appropriate class size, and motivation of students to engage in discovery learning. 19
  19. 19. 13. Factors to motivate users contribute for Wikipedia Oded, N. (2007). "What Motivates Wikipedians?" COMMUNICATIONS- ACM 50(11): 60-64. Contributors??? motivations are critical for sustaining Wikipedia and other collaborative user-generated content outlets. In order to understand what underlies user-generated content contribution for the creation of content in return for no monetary reward, we would need to find out what motivates volunteer content contributors. The results of a survey indicate that the top motivations for contribution are Fun and Ideology. As expected, it was found that the levels of each of the motivations - Fun, Values, Understanding, Enhancement, Protective, Career Ideology and Social motivations were positively correlated with contribution level. 14. Wikipedia helps knowledge creation Prasarnphanich, P. and C. Wagner (2009). "THE ROLE OF WIKI TECHNOLOGY AND ALTRUISM IN COLLABORATIVE KNOWLEDGE CREATION." Journal of Computer Information Systems 49(4): 33-41. Collaborative knowledge creation is presently being reshaped by the use of Web 2.0 technologies such as wikis. Wikipedia demonstrates the feasibility and success of this form of collaborative knowledge creation (in a broad sense) within self-organizing, open access community. The study seeks to understand the success of the public wiki model, with Wikipedia as the test case, assessing both technology and participant motivations. The study finds that altruism is a prevalent driver for participation, although mixed motives clearly exist. In particular, while participants have both individualistic and collaborative motives, collaborative (altruistic) motives dominate. The success of the collaboration model embedded in Wikipedia thus appears to be related to wiki technology and the "wiki way" (i.e., social norms) of collaboration. 20
  20. 20. 15. A case of Wikipedia supports knowledge management Raman, M. (2006). "WIKI TECHNOLOGY AS A "FREE" COLLABORATIVE TOOL WITHIN AN ORGANIZATIONAL SETTING." Information Systems Management 23(4): 59-66. This article provides a brief tutorial of Wiki technology as a collaborative tool. A case example from a university administration context suggests that--like many other end-user technologies--training and support needs should be carefully considered before the potential value of using this "free" technology to support knowledge management efforts can be satisfactorily realized. 21
  21. 21. References Collison, C., & Parcell, G. (2004). Learning to fly: Practical knowledge management from some of the world's leading learning organizations. Chichester, West Sussex: Capstone. 22
  22. 22. Appendix Appendix 1 : Search strategy Step 1 - Define the search question Since the searching of information tempts to seek relevant materials for the research, the topic or research question should be carried first. In this case, the question is: The relationship of knowledge management and information technology Step 2 – Design the main keywords After the topic question is set, keywords and phrases regard to the topic will be work out base on our understanding. For example, Information technology (IT) and Knowledge management (KM) are the foundation phrases for the initial search. Figure 1: Use “knowledge management” to have the initial search 23
  23. 23. Step 3 – Enlarge the scope of keywords Using the foundation phrases identified in step 2 may not retrieve sufficient information. Therefore enlarge the scope of keywords for further searching is necessary. Broader terms, narrow terms, synonyms and related terms may be derived to establish a more comprehensive query in step 4. Figure 2: The related keywords may be seen by looking the keywords field of articles Related keywords of KM: knowledge process, knowledge management system, knowledge repositories Related keywords of IT: information communication technology (ICT), information system (IS), Collaborative system, wiki technology 24
  24. 24. Step 4 – Form the search query As all the keywords and related terms are ready, the search statement will be created by searching techniques like Quotation Mark, Boolean logic and truncation will be used to compound a search query, Quotation Mark e.g. “Knowledge Management”, Boolean skill e.g. Knowledge Management AND Information Technology, or truncation skill like Knowledge Manage*. Figure 3: Compound search query with Boolean operation and Quotation Mark 25
  25. 25. Step 5 - Evaluate the search results After retrieving the results, recall and precision of data may be the indicator for the evaluation. In doing so, the search results should be evaluated and refined so as to improve the results and narrow down the searching scope by using the filtering features of the database. For examples, if the results are too many, specific phrase will be adopted to narrow down the search, or search will be limited by setting specific requirements in advanced search options, e.g. journal, keywords, abstract, specific date or date range etc. Figure 4: Options in the red circle are some advance options 26
  26. 26. Appendix 2: Subject search keywords & strategy Topic Content Management / Explicit knowledge Management Wiki technology Communities of Practice (CoP) Databases EBSCO ProQuest Emerald ISI web of knowledge Dragon Library Catalogue 27
  27. 27. Search term used Primary Operator Primary Operator Primary Operator Primary Operator Primary term term term term term Knowledge AND Information OR Communities OR Content Management technology of practice management Synonyms Synonyms Synonyms Synonyms Knowledge Information CoPs CM process system Knowledge Collaborative Communities Explicit transfer system management IT Knowledge sharing KM ICT Search strategy Search strategy Database Hits 1 (knowledge management or KM) AND (information technology or IT ) AND (Information EBSCO 29 technology or ICT) 2 (content manage*) AND (knowledge transfer or knowledge manage*) ProQuest 28 3 (knowledge management or KM) AND (communities of practice or CoPs) Emerald 88 4 ABS(knowledge management or KM) AND ABS(explicit knowledge) ProQuest 84 5 (knowledge management or KM) AND collaborative system EBSCO 5 6 (Knowledge management or KM) and wiki EBSCO 16 7 (Knowledge sharing or knowledge mining) AND (communities of practice or CoPs) Emerald 19 28
  28. 28. Search strategy Database Hits Emerald 8 (knowledge sharing or knowledge management) AND (online communities of practice Emerald 48 or CoPs) 9 Content management (title) Dragon Library 7 Catalogue 10 Title=(Content Management) ISI web of 85 Refined by: Subject Areas=( COMPUTER SCIENCE, INFORMATION SYSTEMS OR knowledge COMPUTER SCIENCE, THEORY & METHODS OR INFORMATION SCIENCE & LIBRARY SCIENCE ) AND Document Type=( ARTICLE ) Timespan=All Years. Databases=SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, A&HCI, CPCI-S, CPCI-SSH. 29