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HRBA to Local Water Governance
 

HRBA to Local Water Governance

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This presentation was presented by Dr. Lenny Rose Mucho in the Human Rights-based approach to Local Water Governance in Iloilo Grand Hotel last September 18-20, 2013. ...

This presentation was presented by Dr. Lenny Rose Mucho in the Human Rights-based approach to Local Water Governance in Iloilo Grand Hotel last September 18-20, 2013.
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    HRBA to Local Water Governance HRBA to Local Water Governance Presentation Transcript

    • HUMAN RIGHTS BASED APPROACH TO LOCAL WATER GOVERNANCE By: LENNY ROSE P. MUCHO, Ed.D
    • PARTICIPANTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO ARRIVE AT A COMMON UNDERSTANDING OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN GENERAL, AND THE RIGHT TO WATER, IN PARTICULAR, AS THESE RELATE TO LOCAL WATER GOVERNANCE . Learning Objective
    • Outline  The Basics of Human Rights  HRBA to Local Water Governance HRBA Framework Actors Premises Principles and Practice
    • What are Human Rights?  Freedoms and entitlements  Legally enforceable claims  Norms, rules, limits and checks on state action and action of others  Ends and means to achieve human life with dignity
    • Where do Human Rights Come From?  Inherent dignity of every person  1987 Philippine Constitution  International bill of human rights (UDHR, ICCPR, ICESCR)  Major human rights instruments (DecHRD, CERD, CEDAW, CRC, CAT, CMW, CPD)
    • What are Characteristics of Human Rights? • Universal – belong to everyone, everywhere • Interdependent and Indivisible • Inalienable • Nondiscriminatory and Equal • Some rights are absolute; others may be suspended under strict conditions and for limited times
    • Actors in Human Rights Based Local Water Governance  Claimholders  Responsible exercise of right to water and sanitation  Vulnerability  Non-homogeneity  Duty Bearers  Obligations of Conduct and Result
    • Water and Dignity  Permeate every aspect of human life  Water can determine whether or not we live in dignity:  Impact of water and sanitation , its impact on hunger, poverty, health, education, culture and environment  Impact of water and sanitation on women and children
    • Different Approaches to Water  Water as Economic Good  Value of water to user (maximum amount user willing to pay)  Cost of water (use cost and opportunity cost)  Balance value and cost  Water as Social Good  Water to benefit largest number of people in largest possible way  Water is “free”
    • Different Approaches to Water  Water as Natural Resource  Water no longer renewable resource (predicted to be scarce)  Country’s water resources extremely vulnerable to climactic events  Changes in rainfall and temperature  Affects water availability (projected insufficiency to meet present and future demands for water)
    • Power and Water  Those who have power determine who benefits and who is excluded from water and sanitation services and facilities  Those who have power decide how water and sanitation services and facilities are allocated  Tariffs  Service Levels and Modalities  Disconnections  Quality
    • Focus on Human Person  Claimholders as central subjects, active participants, owners or local water governance  Full respect for human rights without discrimination  Humane treatment, individualized assistance, best interest of the child, FPIC for indigenous peoples  Attention to most vulnerable: women, children, indigenous peoples, persons with disabilities, older persons, persons living with HIV, persons living in poverty
    • Legal Basis  Water recognized as human right in international human rights instruments and Philippine laws  Recognition either IMPLICIT or EXPLICIT
    • Legal Basis- Explicit Recognition  CRC- Convention on the Rights of the Child  CEDAW-Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women  CPD- Convention of Persons with Disabilities  Mar de Plata Declaration, 1977  Programme of Action of International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 1994  Agenda 21, 1992
    • Legal Basis- Implicit Recognition  UDHR  ICCPR  ICESCR  CERD  Stockholm Declaration, 1972  Alma-Ata Declaration, 1978  UN GA Resolution 35/1980  UN Principles for Older Persons, 1991  Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 1992  Habitat Agenda, 1996  Rome Declaration on World Food Security, 1996  Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, 2002
    • Legal Basis – Philippine Law  1987 Constitution - NO explicit recognition; Guarantees right to human dignity; Places ownership, full control and supervision of water resources in the State  Magna Carta of Women - Guarantees right to enjoy, use and manage water resources within communities or ancestral domains  Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 - Promotes public health and improved quality of life  Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 - Protects public health and environment
    • Legal Basis – Philippine Law  National Water Crisis Act of 1995 - Protects health and wellbeing; guarantees rights to adequate food and work  Code on Sanitation in the Philippines - Protects and promotes health; guarantees rights to adequate food, education, work, rest and recreation and healthy environment  Philippine Environment Code - Protects public health; Guarantees right to healthy environment  Local Water District Law - Protects public health and wellbeing; recognizes lack of access to water as critical measure of poor wellbeing; Allows socialized water pricing
    • Normative Elements  Availability  Physical Accessibility  Economic Accessibility  Information Accessibility  Quality  Sanitation Acceptability
    • AVAILABILITY Sufficient and continuous supply of water for personal and domestic use Sufficient number of sanitation facilities and associated services within or in immediate vicinity of each household, health or educational institution, public place and workplace
    • Availability  Philippines – abundant water supply (groundwater reservoirs, major river basins, major lakes, accumulated runoffs from rains)  Only 36 % of river systems suitable sources of water supply  Annual renewable water resources rank the Philippines second lowest in per capita water availability in Asia  Water resources unevenly distributed  Water availability deficits projected  Water availability risked by climate change
    • Physical Accessibility  Water, water services and facilities within safe physical reach, in immediate vicinity of homes, schools, workplaces and health centers, and physical security guaranteed  Reliable sanitation facilities and services within or immediate vicinity of home, health center, school, public places, workplaces, accessible at all times of day and night, with minimal risks to physical safety; includes special facilities to address differential needs of children, pregnant women, older persons, persons with disabilities and those chronically ill
    • PHYSICAL ACCESSIBILITY 3 Levels of Service I – Shallow/deep well or developed sprinc II – Communal faucet system III – Piped water directly to household Different volumes of water collected depending on level of service Sewer coverage generally limited to urban or urbanized areas Families responsible for own/individual septic tanks No information on incidence of violence while accessing water and sanitation
    • Affordability  Affordable water, water and sanitation facilities and services  Water tariffs and sanitation costs do not threaten or compromise realization of other human rights
    • Information Accessibility  Information on water and sanitation issues open to everyone  Information in relevant and easily understandable forms and media
    • Information Accessibility  Functional literacy rate  Women : 86.3%  Men : 81.9 %  Basic literacy rate  Women : 94.3 %  Men : 92.6 %  Awareness of right to safe and clean water – 98.1 %  Women : 97.5 %  Men : 98.4 %  Filipinos get information from TV and RADIO
    • Quality  Safe Water  Water of acceptable color, odor and taste  Water free from microorganisms and other hazards that threaten health  Sanitation facilities hygienically safe to use  Sanitation facilities effective in preventing contact with human excreta
    • Quality  58 % of groundwater contaminated with coliform  3 main sources of water pollution (domestic, industrial, agricultural)  Air and water pollution and unhygienic practices contribute to 22 % of diseases and 6 % of deaths  Diarrhea leading cause of death
    • Sanitation Acceptability  Sanitation facilities must be culturally acceptable  Shared or public sanitation facilities  Flush or pour-flush to street, yard, open sewer, ditch etc.  Open pit (no slab)  Hanging toilet  Open defecation
    • Two Fold State Obligations  Obligations of CONDUCT  What states should and should not do  Specific course of conduct through action or omission  Obligations of RESULT  Bring about specific situation, social practice or result  But means to achieve result not prescribed
    • Obligation of Progressive Realization Take steps to maximize available resources towards achieving progressively full realization of human rights by all appropriate means •Steps must be deliberate, concrete and targeted •Steps must be taken expeditiously and effectively •Retrogressive measures prohibited •Progressively extend safe sanitation services, particularly to rural and deprived urban areas, taking into account needs of women and children
    • Core Obligations • Non-derogable • Ensure access to minimum essential amount of sufficient and safe water for personal and domestic use • Ensure non-discriminatory access to water and sanitation • Ensure physical access to water and sanitation facilities and services
    • Obligation of Equality • Non-derogable, primary, mandatory and immediate • De jure or formal equality • De facto or substantive equality • Notion of gender • Does not mean equal treatment at all times; temporary special measures • Include and actively involve women • Alleviate disproportionate burden women bear in collecting water
    • Obligation of Non Discrimination • Immediate and cross cutting • Discrimination – distinction, exclusion, restriction, preference • Prohibited grounds (race, color, sex, language, religion, political/other opinion, national/social origin, property, birth, disability, age, nationality, marital/family status, sexual orientation, gender identity, health status, residency, economic/social situation, membership in group)
    • Obligation of Non Discrimination • Ensure equitable allocation of water resources and investments in water • Provide adequate water in educational institutions • Address child’s burden of collecting water • Protect access to traditional water sources in rural areas from unlawful encroachment and pollution
    • Obligation of Non Discrimination • Protect indigenous peoples’ access to water resources on ancestral lands from encroachment and unlawful pollution • Ensure access to adequate water in evacuation centers, prisons and detention facilities • Provide older persons, persons with disabilities, victims of natural disasters, persons living in disaster-prone areas, and those living in arid and semi-arid areas, or on small islands with safe and sufficient water
    • Obligations of International Cooperation and Assistance  Conduct activities with due regard for human rights of peoples of other states  Respect right to water in other countries  Refrain at all times from using water as instrument of political and economic pressure  Take steps to prevent own citizens and companies from violating right to water  Provide adequate water in disaster relief and emergency assistance
    • Obligation to Respect  Abstain from doing anything that interferes directly or indirectly with right to water  Immediate and Unconditional  Refrain from engaging in any practice or activity that denies or limits equal access to adequate water  Refrain from arbitrarily interfering with customary or traditional arrangements for water allocation  Refrain from unlawfully diminishing or polluting water
    • Obligation to Respect  Refrain from limiting access to, or destroying, water services and infrastructure as a punitive measure  During armed conflicts, emergency situations and natural disasters, protect objects indispensable for survival of the civilian population, including drinking water installations and supplies and irrigation works, protect the natural environment against widespread, long-term and severe damage and ensure that civilians, internees and prisoners have access to adequate water
    • Obligation to Protect  Take steps to prohibit others from violating right to water  Prevent third parties from interfering in any way with enjoyment of right to water  Adopt necessary and effective legislative and other measures to restrain third parties from denying equal access to adequate water, polluting and inequitably extracting from water resources, including natural sources, wells and other water distribution systems
    • Obligation to Protect  Where water services are operated or controlled by third parties, prevent third parties from compromising equal, affordable, and physical access to sufficient, safe and acceptable water  Establish effective regulatory system including independent monitoring with genuine public participation and impose penalties for non- compliance.
    • Obligation to Fulfill  Actively create conditions to fully realize all human rights, including the right to water  Dimensions Facilitate Promote Provide
    • Obligation to Fulfill (Facilitate) • Accord sufficient legal and political recognition of right to water • Ensure water is affordable for everyone • Facilitate improved and sustainable access to water, particularly in rural and deprived urban areas • Adopt comprehensive and integrated strategies and programmes to ensure sufficient and safe water for present and future generations
    • Obligation to Fulfill (Promote) • Ensure appropriate education concerning hygiene, hygienic use of water, protection of water sources, methods to minimize water wastage and proper sanitation Obligation to Fulfill (Provide) • Provide water and sanitation whenever individuals or groups are unable to realize their right to water by the means at their disposal for reasons beyond their control
    • Human Rights Duties of Other Actors  Based on Ruggie Framework and Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights  Respect  Protect  Remedy
    • Human Rights Duties of Other Actors: Respect  Avoid infringing on human rights of others  Address adverse human rights impacts of water and sanitation service supply  Prevent or mitigate adverse human rights impacts directly linked to operations, products or services  Adopt policy commitment to respect human rights  Conduct human rights due diligence
    • Human Rights Duties of Other Actors: Protect  Support policy instruments that require companies to respect human rights and foster a corporate culture respectful of human rights, prevent corporate abuse  Exercise adequate oversight, regulation and monitoring (LGU-run WSPs)  Promote respect for human rights by business enterprises with which they conduct commercial transactions (LGU)
    • Human Rights Duties of Other Actors: Remedy  Establish judicial, quasi-judicial and non- judicial grievance mechanisms and appropriate remedies against human rights abuse  Non-judicial grievance mechanisms must be: legitimate, accessible, predictable, equitable, tr ansparent, rights-compatible, a source of continuous learning, and based on engagement and dialogue
    • Definition and Scope of Violations  Limburg Principles on the Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights  Violation = Failure to comply with obligations in Covenant  Failure to take step it is required to take  Failure to promptly remove obstacles  Failure to implement right without delay it is required to implement immediately
    • Definition and Scope of Violations  Not all acts are violations  Need to distinguish INABILITY from UNWILLINGNESS
    • Acts of Commission and Omission  Acts of Commission (Direct actions)  Adoption of retrogressive measures incompatible with core obligations  Formal repeal or suspension of laws, ordinances or policies necessary to continuously enjoy the right to water  Acts of Omission (Failure or omission to take all necessary measures it is required to take)  Failure to enforce relevant water and sanitation laws
    • Violations of Obligation to Respect  Arbitrary or unjustified disconnection or exclusion from water services or facilities  Discriminatory or unaffordable increases in the price of water  Pollution and diminution of water resources affecting human health
    • Violations of Obligation to Protect  Failure to enact or enforce laws preventing contamination and inequitable extraction of water  Failure to effectively regulate and control water services providers  Failure to protect water distribution systems from interference, damage and destruction
    • Violations of Obligation to Fulfill  Insufficient expenditure or misallocation of public resources resulting in non-enjoyment of the right to water by individuals or groups  Failure to monitor realization of right to water (e.g., failing to identify right to water indicators and benchmarks)  Failure to take measures to reduce inequitable distribution of water facilities and services
    • Local Water Governance Consistent with Human Rights  General Guidelines: PANTHER Principles  Specific Guidelines:  Policy Development and Reform  Planning  Investment Programming  Service Delivery  Information Dissemination  Regulation and Monitoring  Capacity Development
    • PANTHER Principles FAO Mnemonic  Participation  Accountability  Nondiscrimination  Transparency  Human Dignity  Empowerment  Rule of Law
    • Participation 1. Is consultation the same as participation? 2. What is desired level of participation? 3. What could possibly prevent people from participating? How can you address this?
    • Accountability 1. What do you mean by “exercising right to water responsibly?” 2. How can you promote accountability? Give concrete examples 3. What could prevent the exercise of accountability? How can you address this?
    • Nondiscrimination 1. What inherent disadvantages do claimholders experience? 2. What prejudices, customary or other practices should be addressed? 3. What temporary special measures can be applied? 4. How can you avoid discrimination?
    • Transparency 1 What information needed? 2 In what form, language, media? 3 When should information be released? 4 How to remove the “veil of secrecy?” 5 How to avoid corruption?
    • Human Dignity 1 What do we mean by human dignity? 2 How should you treat your participants? 3 How can you promote human rights? 4 Safeguards or safety nets?
    • Empowerment 1 Describe the nature of power relations. 2 What will motivate people to act? What will facilitate informed decisions? 3 What will prevent people from acting? How to address this?
    • Empowerment • Power as RELATIONAL Construct • Two Models of Power • Zero Sum • Non-Zero Sum • Forms of Power • Covert or Hidden • Overt or Visible • Invisible • General Approaches to Empowerment • Agency • Structural
    • Rule of Law 1. What is right of reparation? 2. How to comply with obligations arising from right of reparation? 3. What are barriers or obstacles? 4. How to overcome barriers or obstacles?
    • Right of Reparation
    • Right of Reparation
    • Applying HRBA to Local Water Governance • Policy Development • Policy Reform • Planning • Investment Programming • Service Delivery • Information Dissemination • Regulation and Monitoring • Capacity Development
    • Specific Guidelines: Policy Development • Review and harmonize Philippine minimum policy standards for local water governance with right to water and sanitation • Adopt uniform service delivery standards aligned with right to water and sanitation • Conform disconnection policy with following human rights standard: No one may be deprived of the minimum essential amount of water or of minimum access to basic sanitation services.
    • Specific Guidelines: Policy Development • Integrate ability to pay or distinguish between inability and unwillingness to pay in disconnection policy • Provide procedural protections (notice, reminder, hearing, consultation, etc.) in disconnection policy • Consider setting grace periods for payment, including accepting late payments without additional penalties • Adopt fair and affordable tariffs • Integrate to pay and direct and indirect costs of
    • Specific Guidelines: Policy Development • Price water to discourage wasteful consumption • Introduce reduced and more flexible tariffs and payment options • Consider and adopt other forms of payment (e.g., payment-in-kind in labor or skills provision, phasing-in of connection charges over time) or remove requirements for deposits for connection • Avoid profiteering and price-fixing • Consider and introduce quota allocation on credit schemes for women to assist them in toilet construction and water point management
    • Specific Guidelines: Policy Development Provide incentives for claimholders’ responsible water and sanitation practices Grant incentives to WSPs to expand coverage Incorporate mechanisms to retain trained water and sanitation professionals Consider granting subsidies for health and educational institutions to reduce possibility of passing onto patients and students the burden of paying for water and sanitation • Establish cross-subsidies among industry, agricultural and domestic use, whenever practicable
    • Specific Guidelines: Policy Reform • Formally recognize right to water and sanitation • Address and remedy discrimination in ordinances, regulations, policies and operating procedures • Pay attention to each normative element, comply with all obligations and abide by human rights duties and responsibilities • Immediately repeal or amend ordinances, regulations or policies inconsistent with right to water and sanitation
    • Specific Guidelines: Policy Reform • Reform laws and policies relating to water resources, water supply and sanitation to protect and maintain indigenous peoples’ right to water and sanitation • Harmonize contradictory laws, ordinances, regulations and policies • Remedy overlapping responsibilities and activities
    • Specific Guidelines: Planning • Develop plans in accord with PANTHER Principles; include participatory gender assessment • Plans must promote the realization of the right to water and sanitation by • Address all normative elements and highlight corresponding obligations, duties and responsibilities
    • Specific Guidelines: Planning  Recognize and address challenges to right to water and sanitation (lack of middle or high-income residents able to cross-subsidize extension of water and sanitation services to those living in poverty, loss of economies of scale, mismatch between industrial, agricultural and domestic characters of the municipality, confusion of institutional national and local roles, etc.)  Clarify division of responsibilities between and among duty bearers, claimholders and other actors and establish effective coordination
    • Specific Guidelines: Planning  Define specific, measurable, attainable and realistic objectives consistent with right to water including accountability mechanisms  Adopt specific, measurable, time-bound, short, medium and long-term targets to address each normative element  Use incremental continuum to target claimholders  Base plans on disaggregated and up-to- date indicators  Address impact of climate change and incorporate disaster risk reduction measures
    • Specific Guidelines: Investment Programming  Investments in water and sanitation should not disproportionately favor expensive water supply services and facilities accessible only to a small, privileged group  Prioritize water and sanitation in budgeting  Carefully consider allocations of resources to ensure that sanitation receives as much priority as water  Set budget priorities in compliance with principle of non-retrogression
    • Specific Guidelines: Investment Programming  Allocate available resources wisely and efficiently according to institutional responsibility  Prioritize allocations to provide and expand access to those without or with limited access to water and sanitation  Prioritize allocations towards construction and maintenance of water and sanitation infrastructure and facilities for families living in poverty
    • Specific Guidelines: Investment Programming  Support construction and start-up costs of small-scale water and sanitation facilities Identify areas at greatest risk of contracting water related diseases and direct resources to those areas  Dedicate an adequate proportion of public resources and capacity to maintain and improve water and sanitation facilities  Incorporate cost and feasibility of repairing damaged water and sanitation infrastructure in budget
    • Specific Guidelines: Investment Programming  Review and analyze public water and sanitation budgets to ensure equality and nondiscrimination  Determine inequitable resource allocations within municipality by looking into approximate public spending per person among different barangays  Conduct right to water and sanitation impact assessments prior to entering into any trade, debt or investment agreement  Design, adopt and implement measures to prevent corruption
    • Specific Guidelines: Service Delivery  Progressively ensure that everyone has access to water and sanitation services equitably distributed  Pay special attention to those most vulnerable  Prioritize provision of water and sanitation services to schools, hospitals, prisons and refugee camps  Supply at least 20 liters of water per person per day at an affordable cost, but incorporate provisions to increase daily minimum per capita quantity of water to between 50 to 100 liters per person per day at an affordable cost, and consider providing minimum essential quantity of water free of charge
    • Specific Guidelines: Service Delivery  Introduce wider range of available water and sanitation service levels  Establish community based water capture and storage facilities, especially in water-scarce areas  Design water and sanitation facilities, taking into account women’s uses of water and maximizing privacy  Design water and sanitation facilities, taking into consideration differential requirements of children, older persons, those chronically ill, and persons with disabilities
    • Specific Guidelines: Service Delivery  Design water and sanitation facilities at a height reachable by younger children and that do not require great strength or effort to operate  Design water and sanitation facilities at a suitable distance from water sources to prevent leeching into groundwater  Design sanitation facilities no farther than 50 meters from the home to serve a maximum of 20 persons, used according to family group or segregated by sex  Reduce distance to water points and toilets
    • Specific Guidelines: Service Delivery  Provide lighting and electricity along the paths to and fro water supply and sanitation facilities  Consider security and safety concerns when selecting locations for water supply and sanitation facilities  Where incidence of crime is high, increase police/tanod visibility  Control pollution of water resources  Consider, adopt and implement wastewater treatment options and low-cost technology
    • Specific Guidelines: Service Delivery  Include drainage channels or sewerage pipes to transport wastewater away from the community to places where it can be treated or disposed to avoid threats to health and damage to the ecosystem  Upgrade water supply facilities  Immediately repair any damage to water and sanitation facilities
    • Specific Guidelines: Information Dissemination  Provide full and timely information in the language known to and used by claimholders on:  Level and modalities of water and sanitation services and facilities  Nature, eligibility and scope of subsidies  Nature and scope of incentives  Water quality issues  Means to address water pollution  Water conservation techniques  Safe handling of water for domestic uses
    • Specific Guidelines: Information Dissemination  Provide full and timely information in the language known to and used by claimholders on:  Adequate sewerage, drainage and hygiene promotion  Stress benefits derived from water from high- quality sources and from adequate sanitation facilities  Require all public and private WSPs to widely disseminate accurate, complete and timely information (including financial information) about their operations, services and facilities
    • Specific Guidelines: Regulation and Monitoring  Effective and functional regulatory system for private and public water and sanitation service providers  Refrain, and ensure that private persons and organizations refrain, from interfering with right to water and sanitation  Require private and cooperative water and sanitation service providers to:  Operate in a manner consistent with the right to water and sanitation;
    • Specific Guidelines: Regulation and Monitoring  Require private and cooperative water and sanitation service providers to:  Undertake human rights due diligence;  Act in a socially responsible manner;  Immediately inform government and the public of any significant risks to the water supply;  Comply with service delivery standards and follow all applicable water and sanitation policies, regulations, targets and benchmarks;
    • Specific Guidelines: Regulation and Monitoring  Require private and cooperative water and sanitation service providers to:  Ensure environmentally sound waste disposal by providing proper connections for the disposal of solid waste and transporting wastewater and solid waste to locations away from where the communities live.  Regulate and monitor  Service delivery performance and efficiency,
    • Specific Guidelines: Regulation and Monitoring  Regulate and monitor  Charges and tariffs by water and sanitation utilities and small-scale service facilities, water extraction activities,  Water quality,  Wastewater and solid waste treatment and disposal,  Water wastage,  Water pollution
    • Specific Guidelines: Regulation and Monitoring  Regulatory and monitoring activities:  Conduct full background check on private WSPs  Ensure “no one whose access to water and sanitation may be legally curtailed after the appropriate procedures have been followed [is] deprived of the minimum essential amount of water or of minimum access to basic sanitation services”  Implement mechanisms if private WSP reneges on or abandons water service provision contract
    • Specific Guidelines: Regulation and Monitoring  Regulatory and monitoring activities:  Establish transparent licensing (permitting) systems to avoid excess water withdrawals  Ensure that private sector enterprises responsibly dispose of, and where necessary, treat wastewater and other industrial by- products  Require owners and operators of health and educational institutions and other business establishments to ensure accessible, continuous and reliable water and sanitation facilities at their institutions
    • Specific Guidelines: Regulation and Monitoring  Regulatory and monitoring activities:  Support intra-household and intra- community water re-use or recycling  Support sustainable agricultural practices around water catchment areas  Conduct periodic water sampling and tests from water collected in households randomly selected  Minimize contamination of water resources  Reduce water wastage  Resolve all water-related conflicts with fairness and justice
    • Specific Guidelines: Regulation and Monitoring  Require private and cooperative water and sanitation service providers to:  Ensure environmentally sound waste disposal by providing proper connections for the disposal of solid waste and transporting wastewater and solid waste to locations away from where the communities live.  Regulate and monitor  Service delivery performance and efficiency,
    • Specific Guidelines: Regulation and Monitoring  Regulatory and monitoring activities:  Establish transparent licensing (permitting) systems to avoid excess water withdrawals  Ensure that private sector enterprises responsibly dispose of, and where necessary, treat wastewater and other industrial by- products  Require owners and operators of health and educational institutions and other business establishments to ensure accessible, continuous and reliable water and sanitation facilities at their institutions
    • Specific Guidelines: Capacity Development  Conduct human rights training and education, particularly on the right to water and sanitation for claimholders, duty bearers and other actors  Enhance capabilities of local water governance actors to: focus on human person; recognize, understand and address critical water and sanitation issues; and pursue rules, systems, processes and social arrangements that guarantee right to water and sanitation  Integrate PANTHER principles in all capacity
    • LENNY ROSE P. MUCHO