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  • 1. › Used to reduce or expand metal pipe into tapers,joints or sealed. › Two techniques of swaging:  Hammering  Pressing
  • 2.  Hammering techniques › Is the manipulation of metal tube,rod or wire in a die. › Is a rotaring operation known as rotary swanging and tube tapering › Ideal angel of taper is no more than 30’ › Possible to swage up to 45’ where necessary › Smaller angle is simpler,quicker and more cost effective to produce.  Pressing techniques › Is a hydraulic operation. › Often referred to as ‘end forming’. › Pressing action is applied from multiple angles simultineously . › Use to expand or reduce the diameter of pipe.
  • 3.  TYPICAL APPLACATION › Application for swaging is deverse. › Use to form a large part such as cylindrical lampposts,connectors and joints for load bearing cables, and piping for gas and water. › Widely employed for small and precise product such as ammunition casing,electrodes for welding torches and thermometer probes.
  • 4.  RELATED PROCESS › Arc welding › Tube and section bending › Hydroforming is a recently develop process that is capable of forming complex hollow parts from tube. › More expensive and specialized.  QUALITY › High precision › Surface finish is very good › Can be improved with polishing
  • 5.  DESIGN OPPORTUNITY › Possible to rotary swage tapers along the entire length of pipe.  Exp:  If the length of swage on a particular machine is 350mm,the longer tapers are made in 2 or more stage. › Precision parts,nozzles for MIG welding are formed in a rotary swage die over an internal die.
  • 6.  DESIGN CONSIDERATION › Swaging tends to draw out metal into longer lengths. › Material thickness is determined by the capabilities of the swager. › The benefits of thicker wall sections is that there is more meterial to manipulate.  COMPATIBLE MATERIALS › Almost all metal can be used  Include steel,aluminium,copper,brass and titanium
  • 7.  COST › Tolling is expensive. But depends on the length and complexity of swage. › Labour costs are hight for manual operation  ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS › Very little waste made by swaging process › Rotary swaging is manually process. The vibration can cause ‘white finger’ especially in large parts
  • 8.  Is a continous operation that operates at speed up to 1.25m per second.  Capable to produce 4500m of rolled steel per hour.  Sheet and strip metal can be former into ribbed panels,channels,angle or polygons with progressive rollrs.
  • 9.  TYPICAL APPLICATION › Automotive and transportation › Construction › Enclosures of white goods.  RELATED PROCESS › Forging and extrusion; use to produce similar continous profiles to roll forming › Metal stamping › Press braking
  • 10.  DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES › Used to make standard and costume-made products. › Can be used to produce a range of profiles, from ribbed panels to channels and box sections. › The profiles is cut to length as it is rolled and it is possible to reduce lengths as short as 0.02m at full speed.
  • 11.  COMPATIBLE MATERIALS › Most commonly used for matel that are not feasible to extrude  Stainless steel,carbon steel and galvanized steel.  COST › Tooling cost are generally equal to progressive tooling for metal stamping  ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT › No scrap is produced in roll forming
  • 12.  The forming of metal by heating and hammering or pressing was traditionally performed by blackmiths on anvils.  Now ,forgings are made by hammering,pressing or rolling hot metal with sophisticated dies and extreme pressure.  Roll forging forms continous metal rollers  Use to forge stright profiles and rings(washers),which can up to 8.5m in diameter and 3m high.
  • 13.  TYPICAL APPLICATION › Automotive and aerospace › Hand tolls and metal implements › Heavy duty machinery  RELATED PROCESS › Casting › Machining › Tube bending ( ring rolling ) › Suitable for one-offs and low volume product as well as mass production runs.
  • 14.  QUATITY › Excellent grain structure › Metal billets go through plastic deformation as they are forge and as result the metal grains align in the direction of flow.  DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES › Suitable for one-off › Its froduces parts with superior properties that cannot be manufactured in any other way. › Undercuts are not posibble in forging › Wall thickness should be 5mm-250mm › Forge can be used to make a huge range of components size and geometric
  • 15.  COMPATIBLE MATERIALS › Most ferrous metals,including carbon,alloy and stainless steels can be forge. › Non-ferrous metal including titanium,copper and aluminium are also suitable.  COST › Tooling cost are moderate to hight depending to the size and geometric of the parts. › Labour cost are moderate to high due to the level of skill and experience required
  • 16.  ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT › A great deal of energy is required to heat metal billets to working temperature and hammer or press them into shape. › No metal is waste because all scrap and off cuts can be recyeled.
  • 17.  Manual process to shaped molten ferrous metals and non- ferrous alloys.  Use regular sand to make molds  Molten metel is here cast in expendable sand molds, which are broken apart to remove the solidified part. TYPICAL APPLICATION  use in : - architectural fittings - automotive - furniture and lighting
  • 18.  RELATED PROCESS. - centrifugal casting - die casting -( produce part more accurately and rapidly ) -( generally reserved for high volume production ) - forging  All this process are altenatives to sand casting metals.  Sand casting is often combined with forging or CNC machining and arc weldingnto create more complex parts.
  • 19.  QUALITY › Poor surface finish ang high level of porosity. › Depend largely on the quality of the foundry. › Varying grits are used to produce the highest quality finish.  DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES › This process is less expensive than die casting and investment casting for low volume production. › Sand casting cab ne used to produce much larger casting methods ( up to several tonnes )
  • 20.  COMPATIBLE MATERIALS › Can be used to cast ferrous metal and non-ferrous alloys. › Most commonlt materials include iron,steel,copper alloy ( brass,bronze )  COST › Low tooling cost › Moderate tooling cost  ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT › This meterial can directly recycled in most case. › The mold sand can be reused by mixing it with vergin meterial. › Energy requirements for sand casting are quite high because the metal has to be raised to several hundred degrees above its melting temperature.
  • 21.  die casting is a precise method of forming parts from metal.  Techniques in die casting is high pressure, low pressure and gravity. > the high pressure mean that small parts, thin wall sections, intrecate details and fine surface finishes can be achieved. > low pressure is very little turbulence as the the materials flows in and so the parts have good mechanical properties. > gravity is also known as permeant mold casting. The mold can be use manually operated or outomated.
  • 22.  TYPICAL APPLICATIONS >Automotive > Furniture > Kitchenware > high pressure used to produce outomotive industry, white goods, consumer electronics packaging, furniture lighting, jelwelry and toys. > low pressure widely utilized in the outomotive industry to make wheel and engine parts.
  • 23.  RELATED PROCESSES >Forging > invesment casting > sand casting o Die casting is process for large volume productions of metal parts due to its versatility, speed quality, minimum wall section, high strength to weight and repetability.
  • 24.  QUALITY > Very high Surface finish > Variables mechanical properties o DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES >advantages * economic * strength * reduced weight o DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS > has technical considerations similar to injection molding > MORE SUITABLE FOR SMALL PART
  • 25. o COMPETABLE MATERIALS >particular propetis to be exploited. > suitable for non ferrous metals. * aluminium, magnesium, zinc, copper, lead and tin. o COST > high because tool have to be made in steel > depending on size of casting o INVIRONMENT IMPACTS > can be directly recyled. > use a great deal of energy to melt the alloys and maintaint them at high temperature for casting.
  • 26.  Liquid metal are formed into complex and intricate shapes  More expensive from die casting.  Made up of 3 element. > expandable pattern > non permanent ceramic mold > metal casting
  • 27. o TYPICAL APPLICATIONS > aerospace > construction > consumer electronics and appliances > furniture > outomotive > jewelry industries o RELATED PROCESSES > die casting > metal injections molding > sand casting
  • 28. o QUALITY > very high > Complex shapes with high integrity o DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES > not have the same shape limitations as other casting techniques. > complex internal shapes are feasible in the injections molding of the wax pattern > injections molded wax is still the most commonly used pattern material.
  • 29. o DESIGN CONSEDERATIONS > wall section do not have unifform thickness > possible to feed metals to the cavity through multiple gates, ensuring good distributions around even complex parts. > thicknes depend on the alloys. * aluminium and zinc = 2mm 3mm * stell and copper = grater than 3mm o COMPETIBLE MATERIALS > ferrous and non ferrous metal alloys can be investment cast. > the most commonly cast materials are carbon and low alloys steels, stainless steels, aluminium, titanium, zinc, copper alloys and percius metal.
  • 30. o COST > low to moderate cost wax injections tooling > non-permanent molds > moderate to high unit cost o ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS > very little metal is wasted in operation and any scrap and offcuts can be directly recycled in the furnances.
  • 31.  Combaines powder metallury with injections molding technology.  Suitable for small parts in steel, stainless steel, magnetic alloys, bronze, nikel alloys, cobalt alloys.  TYPICAL APPLICATIONS > caplable of producing a wide range of geometric > the accuracy and speed of the process make it ideal for manufacturing components for the aerospace, outomotive and consumer electronics industries
  • 32. o RELATED PROCES * die casting * forging * investment casting > can be use to produce similar geometries > investment casting and MIM are often interchangeable, depending on tolerances and intrcacy of features. > MIM reduces or eliminates, the need for secondary operations sush as machining. o QUALITY > very high quality surface > high level of density
  • 33. o DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES > can reduce the number of component > can produce complex and intricate geometries in a single operations. > complex tooling, because it comperises moving parts, may increase tool cost significantly. o COMPATIBLE MATERIALS > common metalic materials for MIM are ferrous metals including low alloys steels, tool steels, stainless steels, magnatic alloys and bronze.
  • 34.  COST > high tooling cost > moderate to low units cost o INVIRONMENTAL IMPACT > Scrap matrerial in the injections molding cyle, including feeders, can be directly recycled.
  • 35.  Same as electroplating but it is carried out on non- conductive or non-adherent metal surface (such as stainless steel)  Builds up the matel layer in a gradual and precise manner. o TYPICAL APPLICATIONS > architecture and interiors > biomadecal > jelwelry, silversmithing and sculpture
  • 36. o RELATED PROCESSES > CNC maching > investment casting > laser cutting and engrawing o QUALITY > very high: exact replica of the mold with relatively uniform wall thickness o DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES > mandrels can be made from semi-flexible rubber, intricate shapes and re-entrant angles can be produced with a single manderals. > electroformed products can be manufactured in a relatively inexpensive material
  • 37. o COMPATIBLE MATERIALS > almost any materials * wood * ceramics * plastic o COST > low tooling costs generally > high unit cost, partly dependent on electroforming material o ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS > additive rather than reductive process > plenty of hazardous chemicals are used in the process.
  • 38.  Cavers a range of spining processes used to shape materials in their liquid state.  Suitable for metals plastic, composites and glass. o TYPICAL APPLICAIONS > bathroom fitting > jewelry > prototyping and model making
  • 39. o RELATED PROCESSES > die casting > investment casting > sand casting o QUALITY > very good reproduction of fine detail and surface texture o DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES > can produce from 1 to 100 parts in a single cycle. > large part are cast around the central core. > using semi-rigid silicons means complex details and re- entrant angles that are not suitable in hard tooling can be cast.
  • 40.  COMPITABLE MATERIALS > silicone molds can be used to cast > metal molds are used to shape most other metals powders and metal matrix composites. o ENVIRONMENTS IMPACTS > all scrap metal thermoplastic and glass can be directly recycled .
  • 41. o simple and versatile technique is utlized to bend sheet metal profile for prototypes and batch productions. o A range of geometries can be formed including bend, continuous and sheet.  TYPICAL APPLICATIONS > consumer electronics and appliances > packaging > transport and outomotive
  • 42.  RELATED PROCESSES > extrusion > metal stamping > roll forming o QUALITY > high quality and accurate bends to within 0.1 mm o DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES > using an air bending die, it is posible to bend a range of angles very quickly by depressing the ram only as much as necessary. > press brakes have the capability of producing long, tapered and segment profile.
  • 43.  COMPATIBLE MATERIALS > almost all metals can be formed using press braking, including steel, aluminium, copper and titanium. o COSTS > no cost for standard tooling > low to moderate unit cost o ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS > bending is an efficient use of materials and energy > no scrap in the bending operations.