• Like
Impact of Climate Change on Forests
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Impact of Climate Change on Forests


my presentation on the impact of climate change on forests during the Barangay Orientation/Seminar of the Climate Change Adaptation...

my presentation on the impact of climate change on forests during the Barangay Orientation/Seminar of the Climate Change Adaptation...

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. Department of Environment and Natural Resources ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT BUREAU 5IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ONFORESTS RUDOLPH F. LITA Chief, Envt’l. Educ. and Information Section EMB 5, Legazpi City
  • 2. What is climate change? “A change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over a comparable period of time” - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) “Any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity.” - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
  • 3. Climate Weather Average weather over  Daily a long period conditions, including Influenced by slow temperature and changes in the rainfall ocean, the land, the  Can change very orbit of the Earth rapidly from day to about the sun, and the day, and from year to energy output of the year. sun  Changes involve shifts Fundamentally in controlled by the temperatures, precipi balance of energy of tation, winds, and the Earth and its clouds. atmosphere
  • 4.  Global warming refers to the increase in the earth’s mean temperature due to the so-called enhanced greenhouse effect.
  • 5. Source: flickoff.org This is what is causing climate change. Climate change, therefore, is caused by both natural events and human (anthropogenic) activities. Scientist now agree that most of the global warming today have been caused by human activities.
  • 6. The GHGs/ The AnthropogenicSources of GHGs Basically, there are three main human sources of greenhouse gases. These are from energy generation and industrial processes, transportation and land-use- agriculture and forestry.
  • 7. The GHGs/ The Anthropogenic Sources of GHGs Human activities that lead to the increase in concentration of greenhouse gases include worldwide deforestation, increasing industrial activity, motor vehicle emission, waste management practices and intensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
  • 8. The GHGs/ The Anthropogenic Sources of GHGs Burning of fossil fuels like oil, coal, gas and others in transportation, manufacturing processes and industry including steel, cement and lime production, land-use and land-use changes contribute to the increase of carbon dioxide emissions.
  • 9. Waste as a source of GHG emissionsDecaying solid waste in landfills emits methane KLIMA
  • 10. Waste as a source of GHG emissions Decomposing waste in water can also emit methane KLIMA
  • 11. FORESTS A forest, also referred to as a wood or the woods, is an area with a high density of trees. These plant communities cover approximately 9.4 percent of the Earths surface (or 30 percent of total land area), though they once covered much more (about 50 percent of total land area), in many different regions and function as habitats for organisms, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the biosphere. Although forests are classified primarily by trees, the concept of a forest ecosystem includes additional species (such as smaller plants, fungi, bacteria, and animals) as well as physical and chemical processes such as energy flow and nutrient cycling.
  • 12. EFFECTS ON FORESTS The effects of climate change on forests on other parts of the world will depend not only on climatic factors but also on stresses from pollution (e.g., acid rain); future trends in forest management practices, including fire control and demand for timber; and land-use change. It is difficult to separate the influence of climate change from these other pressures. * caused by emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids
  • 13. EFFECTS ON FORESTS Climate change effects on forests are likely to include changes in forest health and productivity and changes in the geographic range of certain tree species. These effects can in turn alter timber production, outdoor recreational activities, water quality, wildlife and rates of carbon storage.
  • 14. Climate Factors In general, forests are sensitive to climatic variability and change. Climatic factors that influence forest health -temperature, rainfall, atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases and extreme weather and fire events — are changing and are expected to continue changing due to human activities. The following climate factors are likely to play an important role in determining future forest conditions: Air temperature Precipitation amount and seasonal distribution Atmospheric CO2 concentrations Frequency and severity of wildfire events Climatic variability and the frequency and severity of extreme events Indirect effects on pollution levels such as tropospheric ozone* troposphere is the lowest portion of Earths atmosphere. It contains approximately 80% ofthe atmospheres mass and 99% of its water vapor and aerosols.
  • 15. Temperature andPrecipitationChanges in temperature and precipitation are expected to change forest location, composition, and productivity. Climate change is likely to drive the migration of tree species, resulting in changes in the geographic distribution of forest types and new combinations of species within forests. * occurs when a local portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapour and the water condenses
  • 16. Tree Growth andCO2 sequestration Climate change effects that influence tree growth will also alter rates of carbon storage (or sequestration) in trees and soils. Increased carbon sequestration would remove more CO2 from the atmosphere (a negative feedback that lessens climate change), whereas carbon losses through forest disturbances would result in more CO2 entering the atmosphere (a positive feedback that strengthens climate change). The IPCC (2007) concludes that “net carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems is likely to peak before mid-century and then weaken or even reverse, thus amplifying climate change.” * the process of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
  • 17. Fire and Disease Changes in forest disturbance regimes, such as fire or disease, could also affect the future of forests and the market for forest products, such as timber. Increased temperatures could increase fire risk in areas that become drier due to climate change. These changes could compound existing fire risks (IPCC, 2007). Climate change could also promote the rapid increase of diseases and pests that attack tree species. Such disturbances may be detrimental to forests themselves, but may have a lesser impact at the market level due to salvage operations that harvest timber from dying forests.
  • 18. Fire and Disease Forests are strongly affected by a number of disturbances, including fire, drought, insects, diseases, and severe storms. Under the global warming scenarios used in the national assessment, insect and pathogen outbreaks will likely increase in severity. As forest ecosystems change and move in response to climate changes, they will become more vulnerable to disturbances. Fires, for example, may become more frequent. The amount of forest area burned might increase by 25 to 50%, as projected.
  • 19. Fire and Disease Many factors, including the pace at which different species colonize new areas, determine the future composition of forestlands. Where species move into new areas more slowly than other tree species migrate out, the species previously common will still grow, but likely at a different density. In addition, cities, highways, agricultural fields and other human activities limit available habitat and create barriers to the migration of plants and animals. Forests in protected areas like national parks and forestlands were established without considering the possibility of changing climates. Rapid climate shifts may reduce appropriate native habitats within protected areas while development outside the boundaries of the protected areas makes adjacent new habitat unavailable and limits the creation of migration corridors.
  • 20. Impacts of Climate ChangeForests and WildlifeEcosystems sustain the earth’s entire storehouse of species and genetic diversity. Plants and animals are very sensitive to changes in climate hence, the most affected are those ecosystems in the higher latitudes, the tundra forests. Polar regions will feel the impact of warming more than others.
  • 21. Impacts of Climate Change Forests and Wildlife Species migration; shift in feeding point and disruption in flight patterns for migratory birds. Extinction of some mountain plants and animals
  • 22. CONCLUSIONS Although climate change is not necessarily a pleasant prospect to consider, its impact on individual forests could be substantial as they adapted to new climate conditions. New forests might rise up in the tundra. Others might wane in places where moisture levels declined. Overall, the impacts would likely be greatest in the higher latitudes, where more warming is expected. The effect of climate change on the industrial wood supply would probably be positive. The major negative impact would likely be on biodiversity, particularly on endemic species that would have difficulty migrating. Mitigating the negative impacts of climate change on forests will depend on enhancing the capacity for adaptation. * tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons
  • 23. What can we do? Increase the resilience and coping capacity of the sector with the current and future changes (Adaptation) Limit the cause of climate change through measures that could slow down the build up of atmospheric GHGs concentrations by reducing current and future emissions and by increasing GHG sinks (Mitigation)
  • 24. We can make a difference . . . Read and share what we have learned about climate change Save electricity  turn off lights and electric appliance when not in use  use more energy efficient electric appliances  use compact fluorescent bulbs (CFLs) that last 4 times longer and use just 1/4 of the electricity compared to incandescent bulbs Plant trees in your neighborhood and look after them. Trees absorb carbon dioxide from the air.
  • 25. We can make a difference. . . Take the bus, ride a bike or walk; maximize the use of public transport systems. Recycle cans, bottles, plastic bags and newspapers. When you recycle, you help save natural resources. Generate as little trash as possible, because trash in landfill sites emit large quantities of methane, and if burned, carbon dioxide is released. Reduce on the use of non-renewable sources of energy and increase in the use of renewable energy sources such as solar, hydro, and wind energy.
  • 26. We can make a difference. . . Review on your institution’s current policies and programs that may work as either mitigation or adaptation strategies and measures in addressing climate change Encourage cooperation and partnerships among other institutions in programs and activities that would help fight global warming. Strengthen environmental awareness and action among your colleagues by initiating innovative and creative information and education campaigns. Consume less, share more, live simply.
  • 27. “Climate change will not be effectivelymanaged until individuals and communitiesrecognize that their behaviour can make adifference.” NO ONE IS TOO YOUNG TO PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT…