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Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
Types of Communication
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Types of Communication

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Business Communication

Business Communication

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  • 1. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION By Bonala Kondal
  • 2. What is communication ?  Derived from the Greek word “communicare” or “communico” which means “to share”.  Community implies a group of people living in one place.  Languages are the codes of communications.
  • 3. Types of communication. communication verbal Formal Non-verbal Informal Kinesic Downward Lateral Upward Diagonal Grapevine
  • 4. Non-verbal communication  Through signs & symbols.  Non-verbal can go without verbal communication.  Verbal can’t go without non-verbal communication.
  • 5. Verbal communication.  Two types of verbal communication.  (1) formal communication. (2) informal communication.
  • 6. Formal communication  We use this type of communication in offices and social gathering.  Two types of formal communication.  (1) Downward (2) Upward
  • 7. (1) Downward communication  Higher designation to lower designation.  Ex. Boss ordered his worker.  Here effect of this type of communication is very much than upward communication.
  • 8. (2) Upward communication.  Lower designation to higher designation.  Ex. Worker request to his boss.  Here the effect of communication is less than downward communication.
  • 9. Informal communication.  We use this type of communication with our family or friends. Three types of informal communication.  (1) lateral  (2) diagonal  (3) grapevine
  • 10. Lateral communication.  Found among members working at the same level.  Ex. Peer group.  Most effective form of communication.  Barrier of subordinates or boss is not present here.
  • 11. Diagonal communication.  The path is mixture of vertical and horizontal movement.  In large communications various departments need communication support from each other.
  • 12. Grapevine communication.  Also called as “backbiting” or “backstabbing”.  A backstabber is a colleague or an employee who acts like a friend in public but badmouth you in private.
  • 13. Verbal Communication: Oral  “The Man Who Can Think And Does Not Know How To Express What He Thinks, is at the same level who as the person cannot Think”.
  • 14. Characteristics/salient Features of Oral Communication Instantaneous Two Way Process One Off Exercise Day To Day Language Presence Of Sender And Receiver Principles Effect Of Body Language And Speech Modulation  It Cannot Be Erased Or Mended      
  • 15. Method Of Oral Communication  Among Individuals 1.Face To Face Conversation 2.Interviews 3.TelePhone Conversations 4.grapevine  Among Groups 1.Negotiations 2.Meetings 3.Lecture/Speech 4.Presentation 5.Conferences/Seminars /Workshops
  • 16. Need For Learning Oral Communication Skills Help In Problem Solving Resolve conflict Influence People To Work Together Persuade Other To Be Involved In Organizational Goals  Be Assertive Without Being Aggressive  Develop Listening Skills  Be An Effective Negotiator    
  • 17. Oral Communication  Advantages 1.Immediate FeedBack 2.Better Relationships 3.Time Saving 4.Effective Tool Of Persuasion 5.Effective Tool Of group communication 6.Economical 7.Allows To Measure Effectiveness Immediately 8.It Is The Only Way out During An Emergency
  • 18. Disadvantages 1.Lack Of Retention/Documentation 2.Distortion In Passing The Message 3.No Legal Validity 4.Possibility Of Misunderstanding 5.Unsuitable For Long Messages 6.Difficulty In assigning Responsibility 7.It Is Constrained by physical Barriers 8.Not Effective when The Target group Is Spread Out
  • 19. Tips for Effective Oral Communication 1.Consider The Objective 2.Be Confident 3.Think About The interest Level Of The Receiver 4.Be Sincere And Honest 5.Use simple Language And Familiar Words 6.Be Brief And Precise 7.Avoid Vagueness And Generalities 8.Give Full Facts 9.Use Polite Words And Tones 10.Leave Out Insulting Message 11.Say Something interesting and Pleasing To The recipient
  • 20. … 12.Allow Time To Respond 13.Avoid Disagreement And Argument 14.Avoid use Of slang Words 15.Be Sensitive And Courteous To The Listener 16.Develop New Areas Of Conversation 17.Maintain Eye Contact 18.Exhibit Positive Gestures And Body Language 19.Be Descriptive But Not Evaluation 20.Avoid Making The Speech Monotonous And Boring 21.Don’t Be Repetitive 22.Hear The Other Person Too 23.Try To Summarize The Discussions For Clarity
  • 21. Verbal Communication: Written True Ease In Writing Come from Art, Not Chance, As Those Move Easiest , who Have Learnt To Dance.
  • 22. Methods Of Written Communication                Letters Memoranda Notices Minutes Circulars Agenda Manuals Handbooks Reports Orders Enquiries Complaints Quotations Contracts Forms
  • 23. Characteristics Of Written Communication Most Formal Type Of Communication Used For Documentation Used For Circulation Of Information Conventional by nature Presence Of Both Sender And Receiver Is Not Necessary At The Same Time  A Creative Activity  Time Factor  It has fewer Cycles     
  • 24. Written Communication  Advantages 1.Ready Reference 2.Legal Defence 3.Promotes Uniformity 4.Mass Access 5.Suitable For Distance Communication 6.Images Building 7.Accurate and Unambiguous 8.Permanent In Nature 9.Facilities In Order To Assign responsibility 10. Permits substitution and revision.  - DisAdvantages Limited to literate world Time consuming Lot of paper work Needs expertise in expression Lack of immediate feedback Costly More man hours needed No immediate clarification
  • 25. Non verbal communication  Which does not involve words or speech.
  • 26. Characteristics of non-verbal communication Instinctive Less conscious Subtle Complimentary to verbal communication  Forms the larger par of the overall communication activity    
  • 27. Relationship of non-verbal message with verbal message  A non verbal message can complement a verbal one.  It can emphasize a verbal one.  It can repeat a verbal one.  A non verbal message can regulate a verbal one.  It can substitute for a verbal one.  A non verbal message can contradict a verbal one.
  • 28. Classification of Non-verbal communication      Kinesics: Body language Proxemics : Space language Time language Paralanguage Sign language
  • 29. Kinesics  It means body movements.  Body language is the reflection of thought, feelings and position.  It includes - Facial expressions - Eye contact - Gestures - Body shape and posture - Appearance
  • 30. Why is Body Language important?  Body language plays a big role in intuition as it gives us messages about the other person, that we can interpret at an intuitive level. 55% 7% 38%
  • 31. Facial expressions         Happiness Surprise Fear Anger Sadness Interest Bewilderment Determination
  • 32.  Direct eye contact of more than 10 seconds can create discomfort and anxiety.  Averted eyes show anger, hurt feelings.  Looking at somebody for a long time shows the intensity of our interest in him.
  • 33. Gestures  Emblems: - Patting the stomach – I’m full of food. - Nodding the head up and down – yes - Yawning – I’m bored. - Waving – hello Illustrators Regulators Displays Adaptors
  • 34. Gestures  Positive - Leaning a little towards the speaker. - Tilting the head. - Eye contact with the speaker. - Gently nodding the head in agreement.  Negative - Hands in the pocket - Covering the mouth with the hand while speaking - Scratching - Drumming fingers. - Tapping feet - Sitting on the edge of the chair - Clicking the pen
  • 35. Proxemics / Space Language & Surroundings  Proxemics is the study of how we communicate with the space around us.  Space Language - intimate zone – physical contract/touch to 18 inches. - personal zone – 18 inches to 4 feet. - social zone – 4 to 12 feet. - Public zone – 12 feet to as far as we can see and hear.
  • 36. Paralanguage  Para means ‘like’  Paralanguage literally means like language.  It tells us how speaker verbalizes his words/speech.  Verbal includes ‘what’ but paralanguage includes ‘how’
  • 37. Voice        Pitch variation Speaking speed Pause Non fluencies Volume variation Pronunciation Word stress
  • 38. Sign Language  Use of mutually understood signs/symbols between the sender and receiver of a message or piece of information.  Language is systematic set of symbols.
  • 39. Visual sings        Pictures Caves / temples / buildings Drawing pictures Cartooons/caricatures Statues/effigies Maps and diagrams Red light, colours of flags
  • 40. Audio/Sound Signals      Drumbeating Alarms Various kinds of sirens Blowing horn Sound signalling system
  • 41. Touch     Intimate touch Friendly touch Professional touch Social touch
  • 42. Generally, people retain       10% 20% 30% 50% 70% 90% of of of of of of what what what what what what they they they they they they READ HEAR SEE SEE and HEAR SAY SAY and DO
  • 43. Communication Process Noise Sender Encoding the message Message Feedback Decoding the message Receiver
  • 44. Barriers to Effective Communication  The barriers/negative forces may affect the effective communication by acting upon any or all of the basic elements of communication process and sender/receiver/channel.
  • 45. Different Types of Barriers a. b. c. d. e. f. Semantic barriers Organizational barriers Interpersonal barriers Individual barriers Cross cultural barriers Physical barriers/channel and media barriers g. Technological barriers
  • 46. Semantic Barriers  Words having similar pronunciation but multiple meaning  Badly expressed message  Wrong interpretation  Unqualified assumptions  Technical language
  • 47. Organizational Barriers o o o o o o Organization culture and climate Organizational rules and regulations Status relationships Complexity in organizational structure Inadequate facilities and opportunity An lack of co-operation between superior and subordinate
  • 48. Interpersonal Barriers (superior-subordinate) 1. - Barriers emanating from superiors shortage of time for employee lack of trust lack of consideration for employee’s needs - wish to capture authority - fear of losing power of control - information overload
  • 49. Interpersonal Barriers (superior-subordinate) -2 2. Barriers emanating from subordinates - lack of proper channel - no interest to communicate - lack of co-operation - lack of trust - poor relationship between superior and subordinate - fear of penalty
  • 50. Individual / Psycho-sociological Barriers 1. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Style Linguistic accent The form of expression The level of drama Types of humour The choice of brevity The choice of discriminatory/non discriminatory communication modes vii. The qualities of credibility and charisma
  • 51. Individual / Psycho-sociological Barriers - 2 2. Selective perception 3. Halo effect 4. Status relationship 5. Poor attention and retention 6. Inattention 7. Undue importance of written words 8. Defensiveness 9. Closed mind 10. State of health 11. Filtering
  • 52. Cross-cultural/ Geographic Barriers        National character/basic personality Language Values and norms of behaviour Social relationships Concept of time Perception Non verbal communication
  • 53. Physical Barriers/ Channel and media Barriers • •    Noise Environment External transreceivers Number of links in the chain Circumstantial factors • Defects in the medium
  • 54. Technical Barriers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. i. ii. iii. iv. Communication usually fails If the message can be understood Filtering Meta communication Noise in communication process Human sounds Traffic Telephone instruments Birds, trees, fans, chalk writing, use of duster, projectors and nasal voice.
  • 55. Overcoming the Barriers  Constant effort  Desired to be effective and efficient  Check continuously during the communication  Be fully attentive  Listen, listen, listen and listen again  Share opinions, feelings and perceptions generated by the message
  • 56. Measures to overcome Barriers in communication  Fostering good relationship  Purposeful and well focused communication  Co-ordination between superior and subordinates  Avoid technical language  Feedback  Accuracy  Clarity in message
  • 57. Measures to overcome Barriers in communication - 2  Communication of organizational philosophy  Flat organizational structure  Division of labour  Organization policies  Minimize semantic problem  Proper communication channels  Right feedback
  • 58. ‘

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