2. What is communication ?
 Derived from the Greek word “communicare” or
“communico” which means “to share”.
 Community implies a group of people living in
 Languages are the codes of communications.
3. Types of communication.
4. Non-verbal communication
 Through signs & symbols.
 Non-verbal can go without
 Verbal can’t go without
5. Verbal communication.
 Two types of verbal communication.
 (1) formal communication.
(2) informal communication.
6. Formal communication
 We use this type of communication in
offices and social gathering.
 Two types of formal communication.
 (1) Downward
7. (1) Downward communication
 Higher designation to lower
 Ex. Boss ordered his
 Here effect of this type of
communication is very much
than upward communication.
8. (2) Upward communication.
 Lower designation to
 Ex. Worker request to his
 Here the effect of
communication is less than
9. Informal communication.
 We use this type of communication with
our family or friends.
Three types of informal communication.
 (1) lateral
 (2) diagonal
 (3) grapevine
10. Lateral communication.
 Found among members working at the same
 Ex. Peer group.
 Most effective form of communication.
 Barrier of subordinates or boss is not
11. Diagonal communication.
 The path is mixture of vertical and
 In large communications various
departments need communication
support from each other.
12. Grapevine communication.
 Also called as “backbiting” or
 A backstabber is a colleague or an
employee who acts like a friend in public
but badmouth you in private.
13. Verbal Communication: Oral
 “The Man Who Can Think And Does Not
Know How To Express What He Thinks,
is at the same level who as the person
14. Characteristics/salient Features of
Instantaneous Two Way Process
One Off Exercise
Day To Day Language
Presence Of Sender And Receiver
Effect Of Body Language And Speech
 It Cannot Be Erased Or Mended
15. Method Of Oral Communication
 Among Individuals
1.Face To Face
 Among Groups
16. Need For Learning Oral
Help In Problem Solving
Influence People To Work Together
Persuade Other To Be Involved In
 Be Assertive Without Being Aggressive
 Develop Listening Skills
 Be An Effective Negotiator
17. Oral Communication
4.Effective Tool Of Persuasion
5.Effective Tool Of group communication
7.Allows To Measure Effectiveness Immediately
8.It Is The Only Way out During An Emergency
1.Lack Of Retention/Documentation
2.Distortion In Passing The Message
3.No Legal Validity
4.Possibility Of Misunderstanding
5.Unsuitable For Long Messages
6.Difficulty In assigning Responsibility
7.It Is Constrained by physical Barriers
8.Not Effective when The Target group Is
19. Tips for Effective Oral Communication
1.Consider The Objective
3.Think About The interest Level Of The Receiver
4.Be Sincere And Honest
5.Use simple Language And Familiar Words
6.Be Brief And Precise
7.Avoid Vagueness And Generalities
8.Give Full Facts
9.Use Polite Words And Tones
10.Leave Out Insulting Message
11.Say Something interesting and Pleasing To The
12.Allow Time To Respond
13.Avoid Disagreement And Argument
14.Avoid use Of slang Words
15.Be Sensitive And Courteous To The Listener
16.Develop New Areas Of Conversation
17.Maintain Eye Contact
18.Exhibit Positive Gestures And Body Language
19.Be Descriptive But Not Evaluation
20.Avoid Making The Speech Monotonous And
21.Don’t Be Repetitive
22.Hear The Other Person Too
23.Try To Summarize The Discussions For Clarity
21. Verbal Communication: Written
True Ease In Writing Come from Art,
Not Chance, As Those Move Easiest ,
who Have Learnt To Dance.
22. Methods Of Written Communication
23. Characteristics Of Written
Most Formal Type Of Communication
Used For Documentation
Used For Circulation Of Information
Conventional by nature
Presence Of Both Sender And Receiver Is
Not Necessary At The Same Time
 A Creative Activity
 Time Factor
 It has fewer Cycles
24. Written Communication
5.Suitable For Distance
8.Permanent In Nature
9.Facilities In Order To
10. Permits substitution and
Limited to literate world
Lot of paper work
Needs expertise in
Lack of immediate
More man hours needed
25. Non verbal communication
 Which does not involve words or
26. Characteristics of non-verbal
Complimentary to verbal
 Forms the larger par of the overall
27. Relationship of non-verbal message
with verbal message
 A non verbal message can
complement a verbal one.
 It can emphasize a verbal one.
 It can repeat a verbal one.
 A non verbal message can regulate a
 It can substitute for a verbal one.
 A non verbal message can contradict
a verbal one.
28. Classification of Non-verbal
Kinesics: Body language
Proxemics : Space language
 It means body movements.
 Body language is the reflection of thought,
feelings and position.
 It includes
- Facial expressions
- Eye contact
- Body shape and posture
30. Why is Body Language important?
 Body language plays a big role in
intuition as it gives us messages
about the other person, that we can
interpret at an intuitive level.
32.  Direct eye contact of more than 10
seconds can create discomfort and anxiety.
 Averted eyes show anger, hurt feelings.
 Looking at somebody for a long time
shows the intensity of our interest in him.
- Patting the stomach – I’m full of food.
- Nodding the head up and down – yes
- Yawning – I’m bored.
- Waving – hello
- Leaning a little towards
- Tilting the head.
- Eye contact with the
- Gently nodding the
head in agreement.
- Hands in the pocket
- Covering the mouth
with the hand while
- Drumming fingers.
- Tapping feet
- Sitting on the edge of
- Clicking the pen
35. Proxemics / Space Language &
 Proxemics is the study of how we communicate
with the space around us.
 Space Language
- intimate zone – physical contract/touch to 18
- personal zone – 18 inches to 4 feet.
- social zone – 4 to 12 feet.
- Public zone – 12 feet to as far as we can see
 Para means ‘like’
 Paralanguage literally means like
 It tells us how speaker verbalizes his
 Verbal includes ‘what’ but
paralanguage includes ‘how’
38. Sign Language
 Use of mutually understood
signs/symbols between the sender
and receiver of a message or piece of
 Language is systematic set of
39. Visual sings
Caves / temples / buildings
Maps and diagrams
Red light, colours of flags
40. Audio/Sound Signals
Various kinds of sirens
Sound signalling system
42. Generally, people retain
SEE and HEAR
SAY and DO
43. Communication Process
44. Barriers to Effective Communication
 The barriers/negative forces may
affect the effective communication by
acting upon any or all of the basic
elements of communication process
45. Different Types of Barriers
Cross cultural barriers
Physical barriers/channel and media
g. Technological barriers
46. Semantic Barriers
 Words having similar pronunciation
but multiple meaning
 Badly expressed message
 Wrong interpretation
 Unqualified assumptions
 Technical language
47. Organizational Barriers
Organization culture and climate
Organizational rules and regulations
Complexity in organizational structure
Inadequate facilities and opportunity
An lack of co-operation between
superior and subordinate
48. Interpersonal Barriers
Barriers emanating from superiors
shortage of time for employee
lack of trust
lack of consideration for employee’s
- wish to capture authority
- fear of losing power of control
- information overload
49. Interpersonal Barriers
2. Barriers emanating from subordinates
- lack of proper channel
- no interest to communicate
- lack of co-operation
- lack of trust
- poor relationship between superior
- fear of penalty
50. Individual / Psycho-sociological
The form of expression
The level of drama
Types of humour
The choice of brevity
The choice of discriminatory/non
discriminatory communication modes
vii. The qualities of credibility and charisma
51. Individual / Psycho-sociological
Barriers - 2
2. Selective perception
3. Halo effect
4. Status relationship
5. Poor attention and retention
7. Undue importance of written words
9. Closed mind
10. State of health
52. Cross-cultural/ Geographic Barriers
National character/basic personality
Values and norms of behaviour
Concept of time
Non verbal communication
53. Physical Barriers/ Channel and
Number of links in the chain
• Defects in the medium
54. Technical Barriers
Communication usually fails
If the message can be understood
Noise in communication process
Birds, trees, fans, chalk writing, use of
duster, projectors and nasal voice.
55. Overcoming the Barriers
 Constant effort
 Desired to be effective and efficient
 Check continuously during the
 Be fully attentive
 Listen, listen, listen and listen again
 Share opinions, feelings and
perceptions generated by the
56. Measures to overcome Barriers in
 Fostering good relationship
 Purposeful and well focused communication
 Co-ordination between superior and
 Avoid technical language
 Clarity in message
57. Measures to overcome Barriers in
communication - 2
 Communication of organizational
 Flat organizational structure
 Division of labour
 Organization policies
 Minimize semantic problem
 Proper communication channels
 Right feedback