Input and interaction in language classroom
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Input and interaction in language classroom



SLA, Focus on the Language

SLA, Focus on the Language



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Input and interaction in language classroom Input and interaction in language classroom Presentation Transcript

  • Input and interaction in Language Classroom B. Anand Kumar B. Kondal T Safwan Yozna Gurung Rukulu Kezo Shakul Tewari
  • Comprehensible Input • (i+1) i = learner’s current stage of interlanguage development; + 1= input that is challenging but not overwhelming • Only a portion of input can serve as intake (Corder, 1978)
  • Long’s Model of the relationship between type of conversational task and language acquisition Verbal communication task involving a two-way exchange of information Opportunity for the less competent speaker to provide feedback on his or her lack of comprehension Negotiated modification of the conversation Comprehensible input Language acquisition
  • An alternative model of the relationship between negotiated interaction and language acquisition Comprehensible Input Negotiated Interaction Language Acquisition
  • Turn distribution and turn taking • Personal solicit Vs general solicit • Allwright 1980-pilot study – In Los Angeles, student named Igor (pseudonym) – It was assumed that Igor got more turns because he was a better communicator • Transcript No 7: „Just a second, Igor‟
  • Chuck • Greater proportion of the speaking turns; • Teacher’s impression was that Chuck seldom spoke; • Chuck didn’t take any turns that were loud enough; • Microphone noticed his quiet private turns
  • Participation • What is participation? • Tools to tap unobservable data • Diary studies, self-report and think aloud protocol
  • PARTICIPATION PARTICIPA TION Observable Activity Unobservable Activity Self-initiated Turns Bidding For Turns Nonverbal Bids Unbidden Turns Verbal Cues Teacherinitiated Turns By Direct Nomination Nonverbal Cues Verbal Cues Attention By General Nomination Nonverbal Cues Verbal Cues
  • Qualitative studies of classroom Interaction • Is interaction a good thing? • High Input Generators (HIGs) vs. Low Input Generators (LIGs) ,Seliger,1977 • Relate participation behavior to achievement in English • “Does practice make perfect?”
  • • Sample-3 HIGs and 3 LIGs • Performance on two English Language tests • A questionnaire called „Language Contact Profile‟ to gauge their out-of-class English use • Earliest attempts to combine observable language classroom data with language tests results and learner generated self-report data • Findings- HIGs outperformed LIGs; also have more out-of-class contact with native speakers • Conclusion: “ learners who initiate interaction are better able to turn input into intake
  • Qualitative studies of classroom Interaction • Study-Seliger- investigated relationship between errors and participation. – Sample – Findings • Limitation- small sample size; results not generalizable • Slimani‟s experiment-modification of Seliger‟s experiment • Other researchers
  • Teacher talk • How does teacher talk relate to learner‟s gradual progress in the target langauge? • Gaies (1977) • Long and Sato (1983)
  • Learning Strategies • Some types of turns learners take in classroom may be direct evidence of their own private efforts to learn. For ex: chuck‟s egocentric speech • Taxonomy of verbal learning strategies developed during an observational research on children in bilingual classes: 1. Repetition 2. Use of formulaic expressions 3. Verbal attention getter 4. Answer in unison 5. Elaboration 6. Anticipatory answer 7. Appeal of assistance 8. Request for clarification 9. Role play ( Adapted from Chesterfield and Chesterfield 1985:49-50)
  • Learning Strategies • Transcript 8 - one learner‟s use of the strategy called „appeal for assistance‟ • Maria‟s question („What you mean?‟) • One learner via her appeal for assistance, influenced the course of the lesson • Do not yet know the importance of such „diversions‟ • Need more investigations to look into the power of learner-introduced material • Teacher-learner role reversal
  • Forced participation • Diary study by John Schumann • More the merrier-is it always true? • Felix study – Where – What – Summary; counteproductive • Powerful classroom interaction rule „Thou shalt answer thy teacher‟s questions‟, forces students who are called upon to speak-sometimes before they are ready
  • Transcript on forced participation T: Is it a dog? S: Yes, it isn‟t. T: Can you see a sofa in Peter‟s room? S: No, I can. T: Who is this girl? S: Yes, it is. T:Are you a girl? S: No, I am Kiel (name of a city) T: Is it a blue flag? S: No, I can‟t. T:Are you a girl? S: No, he is. T: Am I your teacher? S: Yes, I am your teacher.
  • Classroom and group work • Small group Vs large group • Teacher‟s presence vs. absence and it‟s effect on learner‟s interaction patterns • Dyads Vs Lockstep • Using Embryonic Category System-pairs gets more turns and performed a wider range of communicative functions. • Long (1976) • Doughty and Pica (1986)
  • Summary • The contributive effects of input and interaction on classroom language learning • Interactive work should be the focus of the teacher • Teacher Talk – a valuable source of input • Interaction important because it determines the language opportunities learners get