Biochemistry final ppt

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Biochemistry final ppt

  1. 1. CARBOHYDRATES
  2. 2. Objectives • To understand the classification of1 carbohydrates • To become familiar with steroisomerism2 • To draw the structures of and to3 indicate the reactions of several hexoses • To compare the structures and reactions4 of disaccharides and polysaccharides
  3. 3. Carbohydrates• All carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 empirical ratio.• The general empirical formula for a carbohydrate is CH2O. If a carbohydrate has 5 carbons atoms, what would be its empirical formula? C5H10O5 If a carbohydrate has 12 hydrogen atoms present, what would be its empirical formula? C6H12O6• Most carbohydrates end with the suffix -ose
  4. 4. Functions of Carbohydrates• Provide energy source: A fuel source when catabolized during cellular respiration. Energy is stored in the chemical bonds within the molecule and released during cellular respiration. Usually simple sugars.• Provide energy storage: Plants store energy in a complex carbohydrate form called starch (amylose). Animals store energy in a complex carbohydrate in their muscle tissue and liver in the called glycogen.• Structural Building Material: Plants build their cell walls of a complex carbohydrate material called cellulose. Animals such as arthropods build their exoskeletons of a complex carbohydrate called chitin. Chitin is also found in the cell walls of
  5. 5. Classes of Carbohydrates• There are three major classes of carbohydrates: 1. Monosaccharides (simple sugars) These are the monomers or building blocks for all other classes of carbohydrates. Examples: glucose, fructose, galactose, and ribose. 2. Disaccharides are produced by joining two simple sugars by dehydration synthesis forming a covalent bond between them. Examples: sucrose (table sugar), maltose, lactose 3. Polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) are produced by joining many monosaccharides together by many dehydration synthesis reactions forming a polymer molecule. Examples: amylose, glycogen, cellulose, and chitin
  6. 6. CARBOHYDRATES THERE ARE 2 TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES Simple Complex
  7. 7. Simple Sugars arecarbohydrates made up of 1or 2 monomers.They also taste sweet.
  8. 8. Complex Carbohydrates … What are they?Complex Cabohydrates are polymers made up of many monomers. Most also taste starchy.
  9. 9. SimpleSugars
  10. 10. ComplexCarbohydrates
  11. 11. Carbohydrates  Carbohydrates (or saccharides) consist of only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen  Carbohydrates come primarily from plants, however animals can also biosynthesize them  The “Carbon Cycle” describes the processes by which carbon is recycled on our planet - Energy from the sun is stored in plants, which use photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water to glucose and oxygen - In the reverse process, energy is produced when animals oxidize glucose during respiration Photosynthesis6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 Respiration
  12. 12. Simplified Carbon Cycle

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