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Frames, scripts, scenarios, models, spaces and other animals: Bridging conceptual divides between the cognitive, social and computational

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Presentation for talk given at Cognitive Futures conference on 6 April 2013. http://www.bangor.ac.uk/cognitive-humanities/

Presentation for talk given at Cognitive Futures conference on 6 April 2013. http://www.bangor.ac.uk/cognitive-humanities/

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  • 1. Frames, scripts, scenarios,models, spaces and otheranimals:Bridging conceptual divides between thecognitive, social and computationalDominik Lukeš, @techczechhttp://metaphorhacker.net
  • 2. Caveats
  • 3. Avoid reduction throughredescription. I.e. Don’t callthings in other disciplines aframe and claim to have solvedtheir problems.
  • 4. Differentiate betweenhermeneutics and heuristics.I.e. principles of understandingare distinct from methods ofarriving at that understanding.
  • 5. What is a frame?
  • 6. “Structure of expectation” Tannen,1993“frames are basic cognitivestructures which guide theperception and representation ofreality”Interpretation of Goffmanhttp://www.ccsr.ac.uk/methods/publications/frameanalysis/
  • 7. Mostly overlappingconcepts
  • 8. Frame (Goffman, Lakoff, Schon)Idealized Cognitive Model(Lakoff)Mental Model (cognitivepscyhologists)Mental Space (Fauconnier)World (text world, possible world) -(Werth)
  • 9. Partially overlappingconcepts
  • 10. SchemaScriptScenarioDomainFooting (Goffman)Prototype (psychology)Exemplar (phonology)PresuppositionMetaphor (Outward bound)Gestalt (psychology)Construct (as in constructivist psychology)Case (as in "case-based reasoning")StereotypePerspectiveAbility to see something in a ____ way
  • 11. Concepts relying onsomething like a frame
  • 12. Discourse (as in "dominant discourses")Narrative (as in "prevailing narrative", "fit into a narrative")Family resemblanceEpisodic memoryPrimingIdentityCognitive dissonanceContestationConstructionHistorical memoryFolk theoryTheoryParadigmMetanarrativeFoucaults archeology of the mindCultureGrammar (as in “grammar of schooling”)Archetype (psychology)PersuasionPrejudicesThe OtherHistorical ImaginationMythRole model
  • 13. Disciplines usingframe-like concepts
  • 14. Artificial IntelligenceEthnography/AnthropologyArt historyCognitive psychologySocial psychologyLinguisticsSociologyHistory of scienceTherapeutic psychologyLogicPolitical theoryBehavioral economicsMedia theory
  • 15. RhetoricLawPedagogyOrganization studiesPolicy studies
  • 16. What is a frame?
  • 17. Fundamental non-atomicelement of mental, social,emotional and physical actionsusceptible to mentaloperations similar to thoseintuitively described asreasoning.
  • 18. Fundamental basic-level unit ofmental representation.Both conscious andunconscious.
  • 19. What does a framelook like?
  • 20. Idealized Cognitive Model is nota bad start.Enriched by episodic memory,discursive psychology, socialanthropology, and corpuslinguistics
  • 21. Propositional aspectsImage aspectsFigurative aspectsMeronymic aspectsMetacognitive aspects
  • 22. DefinitionsNarrativesRich imagesImage schemasMetaphorsAnalogiesCollocationsLinks to related conceptsAwareness of social links
  • 23. What does a frame doas part of reasoning?
  • 24. Something like blending theoryis a good start but needs inputfrom discursive psychology andsocial psychology.
  • 25. What does a frame doas part of humanaction?
  • 26. Construction grammar is a goodstart.Frames are the semantic polesof meaning/form links insymbolic units.
  • 27. What is missing frommost frame theories?
  • 28. Notion of an inventory of framesand inventory only propertiesHypostasis and negotiation(frame negotiation)Social as well as psychologicaldimensionVariation in accessibilityAcquisition
  • 29. Examples of framingand frame analysis
  • 30. Since 2002, it has been the official practice at Fox News to refer to attacks like the one at Moscow’s Domodedovo airport this week, in which a bomber blows himself up along with his victims, as “homicide bombings.” In adopting the terminology, Fox took its cues from the Bush White House, which felt the more commonly used “suicide bombings” gave undue attention to the fate of the bomber.http://www.forbes.com/sites/jeffbercovici/2011/01/26/fox-news-cant-keep-its-made-up-propaganda-words-straight/
  • 31. bombingKilling of people. Done at adistance. Unlawful connotationunless by military.suicideKilling of self. Usually in privateby individual means. Forpersonal reason. Connotationsof sadness and grief.
  • 32. suicide bombingKilling of people. Done by anindividual carrying a bomb. Likelyto die in the attack. Associated withpeople belonging to movements.Negative connotations.Associated with discursivepractices not inherited from thoseof suicide. The homicide aspect ofbombing takes over.
  • 33. homicide bombingRemoves explicitly possibility ofrecovering frame aspects(discursive practices) blendedaway in suicide bombing.
  • 34. inside the structure of military rhetoric, a suicide mission occupies a place of honor: to sacrifice ones life for the cause is regarded as noble, by the partisans of war. Think of the Alamo, or the 300... A suicide bomber partakes in some of the "Lost Cause" nobility. Whereas a "homicide" bomber may (must?) be regarded merely as a murderous psychopath. There is no chance that the act could be thought "noble." A "homicide" bomber cannot be a martyr...http://thewell-armedlamb.blogspot.co.uk/2010/01/homicide-bomber-vs-suicide-bomber-whats.html
  • 35. What knowledge is required tomake sense of frame blends?
  • 36. I teach civil warI teach public policyI teach FrenchI teach shootingI teach guns
  • 37. What is the nature ofknowledge necessary tointerpret framing.
  • 38. fruit dumplingsmeat dumplingsbread dumplingspotato dumplingscheese-curd dumplingshairy dumplings
  • 39. Interplay of propositionalknowledge, force dynamics,scale schemas, rich images.
  • 40. The Normans conquered BritainThe Browns conquered BritainThe Beatles conquered Britain
  • 41. Nazi HolocaustJewish HolocaustHungarian HolocaustSpanish Holocaust
  • 42. I drink too much, last time Igave a urine sample, it had anolive in it. Rodney Dangerfield
  • 43. I learned this summer thatpeeing in the pool and peeingINTO the pool are very differentthings. Demetri Martin
  • 44. Conclusion: Why areframes useful?
  • 45. Non-reductionist analysis ofissues in the humanities
  • 46. Remind us what else to look forin the conceptualizations. E.g.schemas have associated richimages, narratives, andpropositional content.
  • 47. Prevent debates aboutquestions assuming traditionalconcepts requiring logicaloperations are at play. Forinstance definitions.
  • 48. Further researchneeded?
  • 49. Cognitive psychology of framingMemory of framesPrimingHabituation and embodimentIndividual variationFrame negotiation

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