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Frames, scripts, scenarios,models, spaces and otheranimals:Bridging conceptual divides between thecognitive, social and co...
Caveats
Avoid reduction throughredescription. I.e. Don’t callthings in other disciplines aframe and claim to have solvedtheir prob...
Differentiate betweenhermeneutics and heuristics.I.e. principles of understandingare distinct from methods ofarriving at t...
What is a frame?
“Structure of expectation” Tannen,1993“frames are basic cognitivestructures which guide theperception and representation o...
Mostly overlappingconcepts
Frame (Goffman, Lakoff, Schon)Idealized Cognitive Model(Lakoff)Mental Model (cognitivepscyhologists)Mental Space (Fauconni...
Partially overlappingconcepts
SchemaScriptScenarioDomainFooting (Goffman)Prototype (psychology)Exemplar (phonology)PresuppositionMetaphor (Outward bound...
Concepts relying onsomething like a frame
Discourse (as in "dominant discourses")Narrative (as in "prevailing narrative", "fit into a narrative")Family resemblanceE...
Disciplines usingframe-like concepts
Artificial IntelligenceEthnography/AnthropologyArt historyCognitive psychologySocial psychologyLinguisticsSociologyHistory...
RhetoricLawPedagogyOrganization studiesPolicy studies
What is a frame?
Fundamental non-atomicelement of mental, social,emotional and physical actionsusceptible to mentaloperations similar to th...
Fundamental basic-level unit ofmental representation.Both conscious andunconscious.
What does a framelook like?
Idealized Cognitive Model is nota bad start.Enriched by episodic memory,discursive psychology, socialanthropology, and cor...
Propositional aspectsImage aspectsFigurative aspectsMeronymic aspectsMetacognitive aspects
DefinitionsNarrativesRich imagesImage schemasMetaphorsAnalogiesCollocationsLinks to related conceptsAwareness of social li...
What does a frame doas part of reasoning?
Something like blending theoryis a good start but needs inputfrom discursive psychology andsocial psychology.
What does a frame doas part of humanaction?
Construction grammar is a goodstart.Frames are the semantic polesof meaning/form links insymbolic units.
What is missing frommost frame theories?
Notion of an inventory of framesand inventory only propertiesHypostasis and negotiation(frame negotiation)Social as well a...
Examples of framingand frame analysis
Since 2002, it has been the official practice      at Fox News to refer to attacks like the one      at Moscow’s Domodedov...
bombingKilling of people. Done at adistance. Unlawful connotationunless by military.suicideKilling of self. Usually in pri...
suicide bombingKilling of people. Done by anindividual carrying a bomb. Likelyto die in the attack. Associated withpeople ...
homicide bombingRemoves explicitly possibility ofrecovering frame aspects(discursive practices) blendedaway in suicide bom...
inside the structure of military rhetoric,         a suicide mission occupies a place of         honor: to sacrifice ones ...
What knowledge is required tomake sense of frame blends?
I teach civil warI teach public policyI teach FrenchI teach shootingI teach guns
What is the nature ofknowledge necessary tointerpret framing.
fruit dumplingsmeat dumplingsbread dumplingspotato dumplingscheese-curd dumplingshairy dumplings
Interplay of propositionalknowledge, force dynamics,scale schemas, rich images.
The Normans conquered BritainThe Browns conquered BritainThe Beatles conquered Britain
Nazi HolocaustJewish HolocaustHungarian HolocaustSpanish Holocaust
I drink too much, last time Igave a urine sample, it had anolive in it.                 Rodney Dangerfield
I learned this summer thatpeeing in the pool and peeingINTO the pool are very differentthings.                     Demetri...
Conclusion: Why areframes useful?
Non-reductionist analysis ofissues in the humanities
Remind us what else to look forin the conceptualizations. E.g.schemas have associated richimages, narratives, andpropositi...
Prevent debates aboutquestions assuming traditionalconcepts requiring logicaloperations are at play. Forinstance definitio...
Further researchneeded?
Cognitive psychology of framingMemory of framesPrimingHabituation and embodimentIndividual variationFrame negotiation
Frames, scripts, scenarios, models, spaces and other animals: Bridging conceptual divides between the cognitive, social an...
Frames, scripts, scenarios, models, spaces and other animals: Bridging conceptual divides between the cognitive, social an...
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Frames, scripts, scenarios, models, spaces and other animals: Bridging conceptual divides between the cognitive, social and computational

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Presentation for talk given at Cognitive Futures conference on 6 April 2013. http://www.bangor.ac.uk/cognitive-humanities/

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Transcript of "Frames, scripts, scenarios, models, spaces and other animals: Bridging conceptual divides between the cognitive, social and computational"

  1. 1. Frames, scripts, scenarios,models, spaces and otheranimals:Bridging conceptual divides between thecognitive, social and computationalDominik Lukeš, @techczechhttp://metaphorhacker.net
  2. 2. Caveats
  3. 3. Avoid reduction throughredescription. I.e. Don’t callthings in other disciplines aframe and claim to have solvedtheir problems.
  4. 4. Differentiate betweenhermeneutics and heuristics.I.e. principles of understandingare distinct from methods ofarriving at that understanding.
  5. 5. What is a frame?
  6. 6. “Structure of expectation” Tannen,1993“frames are basic cognitivestructures which guide theperception and representation ofreality”Interpretation of Goffmanhttp://www.ccsr.ac.uk/methods/publications/frameanalysis/
  7. 7. Mostly overlappingconcepts
  8. 8. Frame (Goffman, Lakoff, Schon)Idealized Cognitive Model(Lakoff)Mental Model (cognitivepscyhologists)Mental Space (Fauconnier)World (text world, possible world) -(Werth)
  9. 9. Partially overlappingconcepts
  10. 10. SchemaScriptScenarioDomainFooting (Goffman)Prototype (psychology)Exemplar (phonology)PresuppositionMetaphor (Outward bound)Gestalt (psychology)Construct (as in constructivist psychology)Case (as in "case-based reasoning")StereotypePerspectiveAbility to see something in a ____ way
  11. 11. Concepts relying onsomething like a frame
  12. 12. Discourse (as in "dominant discourses")Narrative (as in "prevailing narrative", "fit into a narrative")Family resemblanceEpisodic memoryPrimingIdentityCognitive dissonanceContestationConstructionHistorical memoryFolk theoryTheoryParadigmMetanarrativeFoucaults archeology of the mindCultureGrammar (as in “grammar of schooling”)Archetype (psychology)PersuasionPrejudicesThe OtherHistorical ImaginationMythRole model
  13. 13. Disciplines usingframe-like concepts
  14. 14. Artificial IntelligenceEthnography/AnthropologyArt historyCognitive psychologySocial psychologyLinguisticsSociologyHistory of scienceTherapeutic psychologyLogicPolitical theoryBehavioral economicsMedia theory
  15. 15. RhetoricLawPedagogyOrganization studiesPolicy studies
  16. 16. What is a frame?
  17. 17. Fundamental non-atomicelement of mental, social,emotional and physical actionsusceptible to mentaloperations similar to thoseintuitively described asreasoning.
  18. 18. Fundamental basic-level unit ofmental representation.Both conscious andunconscious.
  19. 19. What does a framelook like?
  20. 20. Idealized Cognitive Model is nota bad start.Enriched by episodic memory,discursive psychology, socialanthropology, and corpuslinguistics
  21. 21. Propositional aspectsImage aspectsFigurative aspectsMeronymic aspectsMetacognitive aspects
  22. 22. DefinitionsNarrativesRich imagesImage schemasMetaphorsAnalogiesCollocationsLinks to related conceptsAwareness of social links
  23. 23. What does a frame doas part of reasoning?
  24. 24. Something like blending theoryis a good start but needs inputfrom discursive psychology andsocial psychology.
  25. 25. What does a frame doas part of humanaction?
  26. 26. Construction grammar is a goodstart.Frames are the semantic polesof meaning/form links insymbolic units.
  27. 27. What is missing frommost frame theories?
  28. 28. Notion of an inventory of framesand inventory only propertiesHypostasis and negotiation(frame negotiation)Social as well as psychologicaldimensionVariation in accessibilityAcquisition
  29. 29. Examples of framingand frame analysis
  30. 30. Since 2002, it has been the official practice at Fox News to refer to attacks like the one at Moscow’s Domodedovo airport this week, in which a bomber blows himself up along with his victims, as “homicide bombings.” In adopting the terminology, Fox took its cues from the Bush White House, which felt the more commonly used “suicide bombings” gave undue attention to the fate of the bomber.http://www.forbes.com/sites/jeffbercovici/2011/01/26/fox-news-cant-keep-its-made-up-propaganda-words-straight/
  31. 31. bombingKilling of people. Done at adistance. Unlawful connotationunless by military.suicideKilling of self. Usually in privateby individual means. Forpersonal reason. Connotationsof sadness and grief.
  32. 32. suicide bombingKilling of people. Done by anindividual carrying a bomb. Likelyto die in the attack. Associated withpeople belonging to movements.Negative connotations.Associated with discursivepractices not inherited from thoseof suicide. The homicide aspect ofbombing takes over.
  33. 33. homicide bombingRemoves explicitly possibility ofrecovering frame aspects(discursive practices) blendedaway in suicide bombing.
  34. 34. inside the structure of military rhetoric, a suicide mission occupies a place of honor: to sacrifice ones life for the cause is regarded as noble, by the partisans of war. Think of the Alamo, or the 300... A suicide bomber partakes in some of the "Lost Cause" nobility. Whereas a "homicide" bomber may (must?) be regarded merely as a murderous psychopath. There is no chance that the act could be thought "noble." A "homicide" bomber cannot be a martyr...http://thewell-armedlamb.blogspot.co.uk/2010/01/homicide-bomber-vs-suicide-bomber-whats.html
  35. 35. What knowledge is required tomake sense of frame blends?
  36. 36. I teach civil warI teach public policyI teach FrenchI teach shootingI teach guns
  37. 37. What is the nature ofknowledge necessary tointerpret framing.
  38. 38. fruit dumplingsmeat dumplingsbread dumplingspotato dumplingscheese-curd dumplingshairy dumplings
  39. 39. Interplay of propositionalknowledge, force dynamics,scale schemas, rich images.
  40. 40. The Normans conquered BritainThe Browns conquered BritainThe Beatles conquered Britain
  41. 41. Nazi HolocaustJewish HolocaustHungarian HolocaustSpanish Holocaust
  42. 42. I drink too much, last time Igave a urine sample, it had anolive in it. Rodney Dangerfield
  43. 43. I learned this summer thatpeeing in the pool and peeingINTO the pool are very differentthings. Demetri Martin
  44. 44. Conclusion: Why areframes useful?
  45. 45. Non-reductionist analysis ofissues in the humanities
  46. 46. Remind us what else to look forin the conceptualizations. E.g.schemas have associated richimages, narratives, andpropositional content.
  47. 47. Prevent debates aboutquestions assuming traditionalconcepts requiring logicaloperations are at play. Forinstance definitions.
  48. 48. Further researchneeded?
  49. 49. Cognitive psychology of framingMemory of framesPrimingHabituation and embodimentIndividual variationFrame negotiation
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