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# Network Protocol

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explaining about network protocol, a course material at IMTelkom http://www.imtelkom.ac.id

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### Network Protocol

1. 1. TCP / IP Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol Nyoman Bogi Aditya Karna, ST, MSEE Sisfo – IM Telkom
2. 2. Sistem Bilangan <ul><li>Sistem yang menyepadankan antara suatu besaran dengan suatu simbol. </li></ul><ul><li>Decimal : memiliki 10 simbol : 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 </li></ul><ul><li>Binary : memiliki 2 simbol : 0 dan 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Octal : memiliki 8 simbol : 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 </li></ul><ul><li>Hexadecimal : memiliki 16 simbol : 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F </li></ul><ul><li>contoh : </li></ul><ul><li>110(10) = 110D = 100 + 10 + 0  1x102 + 1x101 + 0x100 </li></ul><ul><li>110( 2) = 110B = 4 + 2 + 0  1x 22 + 1x 21 + 0x 20 </li></ul><ul><li>110( 8) = 110O = 64 + 8 + 0  1x 82 + 1x 81 + 0x 80 </li></ul><ul><li>110(16) = 110H = 256 + 16 + 0  1x162 + 1x161 + 0x160 </li></ul>
3. 3. Transformasi Sistem Bilangan 1010 1101 B = … … … D 1x2 7 +0x2 6 +1x2 5 +0x2 4 + 1x2 3 +1x2 2 +0x2 1 +1x2 0 = 128 + 0 + 32 + 0 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 1010 1101 B = 1 7 3 D 173 D = … … … B 2 173 1 2 86 0 2 43 1 2 21 1 2 10 0 2 5 1 2 2 0 1 173 D = 1010 1101 B 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 2 7 2 6 2 5 2 4 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 0 a b c d e f g h (B)
4. 4. Transformasi Sistem Bilangan A D H = … … … D 10x16 1 + 13x16 0 = 160 + 13 A D H = 1 7 3 D 173 D = … … … H 16 173 D A 173 D = A D O 4096 256 16 1 16 3 16 2 16 1 16 0 a b c d (H)
5. 5. Transformasi Sistem Bilangan Binary  Hexadecimal 11011011011 B = … … … H bobot : 421 8421 8421 110|1101|1011 6 D B 11011011011 B = 6 D B H Hexadecimal  Binary 6DB H = … … … B 6 D B 110|1101|1011 6 D B H = 11011011011 B
6. 6. Istilah <ul><li>bit (binary digit) adalah suatu simbol biner (‘0’ atau ‘1’) </li></ul><ul><li>Byte adalah kesatuan 8 bit (contoh : ‘00010110’) </li></ul><ul><li>Word adalah 1 informasi data, tergantung dari prosesor yg digunakan (80386DX – Pentium4 : 1 word = 32 bit) </li></ul><ul><li>1 Kilobyte (KB) = 1024 Byte </li></ul><ul><li>1 Megabyte (MB) = 1024 KB = 1058576 Byte </li></ul><ul><li>1 Gigabyte (GB) = 1024 MB </li></ul><ul><li>1 Terabyte (TB) = 1024 GB </li></ul><ul><li>1 kbps = 1 kilo bit per second = 1000 bit per second </li></ul>
7. 7. Topologi Jaringan : Bus
8. 8. Topologi Jaringan : Star
9. 9. Topologi Jaringan : Bus + Star
10. 10. Protocol <ul><li>Definition: Set of rules ↔ spoken language </li></ul><ul><li>different hardware will be able to communicate and understand each other </li></ul><ul><li>protocol for computer networking  network protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Network protocol : NetBEUI, IPX/SPX, TCP/IP </li></ul>
11. 11. Network Protocol <ul><li>NetBIOS and NetBEUI </li></ul><ul><li>16 characters naming (15 user’s last name + 1 object type), small LAN (<200 objects), no routing, fewer network utility, simple to install, high compatibility, unlimited session, low memory requirement, solid error detection and recovery </li></ul><ul><li>IPX/SPX </li></ul><ul><li>Addition to NETBIOS : routing capability, greater reliability, remote console </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><li>two sets of protocols: TCP for transmission manager and IP for addressing, highest reliability with error detection and recovery </li></ul>
12. 12. TCP / IP <ul><li>Application Layer </li></ul><ul><li>application software that access (receive/send data) a service through specific port </li></ul><ul><li>Transport Layer </li></ul><ul><li>split data from application into packets with specific size (usually 1500 byte with transport header) </li></ul><ul><li>Put additional information (TCP header) to each packet, i.e. checksum and packet number  to ensure reliable transport (packet received without error) </li></ul><ul><li>Network Layer (or Internet Layer) </li></ul><ul><li>encapsulates the transport layer data unit in an IP datagram </li></ul><ul><li>handles the incoming datagram and uses the routing algorithm to determine whether the datagram is to be processed locally or be forwarded </li></ul><ul><li>Network Interface Layer </li></ul><ul><li>responsible for accepting and transmitting IP datagram </li></ul>Data Application layer Data TCP header Transport layer Data TCP header IP header Network layer Data TCP header IP header Network Interface header Network Interface layer
13. 13. IP Addressing v.4 <ul><li>Consists of 4 number separated by dot (dotted decimal) </li></ul><ul><li>Each number is a decimal representation from 8-bit binary (thus create value from 0 to 255) </li></ul><ul><li>IP address contains Network ID (describe where the network located) and Host ID (describe which object is addressed) </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Net ID and Host ID, IP address can be divided by 5 classes (A, B, C, D, and E) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class A : 1.x.x.x – 127.x.x.x </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class B : 128.x.x.x – 191.x.x.x </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class C : 192.x.x.x – 223.x.x.x </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CIDR (Classless Internet DR) </li></ul><ul><li>IP : 00001010 . 00001110 . 11001001 . 01100100 </li></ul><ul><li>netmask : 11111111 . 11111111 . 11111111 . 00000000 </li></ul><ul><li>Net ID : 00001010 . 00001110 . 11001001 . 00000000  10.14.201.0 </li></ul><ul><li>IP : 11011110 . 1111100 . 00010100 . 11101000 </li></ul><ul><li>netmask : 11111111 . 1111111 . 11111111 . 11111000 </li></ul><ul><li>Net ID : 11011110 . 1111100 . 00010100 . 11101000  222.124.20.232 </li></ul>
14. 14. http://www.imtelkom.ac.id