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Sänger: Retro-Digitisation of Library Stocks in Europe – Alternatives to the Google Model
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Sänger: Retro-Digitisation of Library Stocks in Europe – Alternatives to the Google Model

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The „Google Book Settlement“, which has since been replaced by the „Amended Settlement Agreement” has brought the question of retro-digitisation of books and their online availability into the focus …

The „Google Book Settlement“, which has since been replaced by the „Amended Settlement Agreement” has brought the question of retro-digitisation of books and their online availability into the focus of public attention. Whilst Google in its Library Programme chose an approach that was not based on prior consent of rightsholders, digitisation projects in Europe are moving towards permission-based mass digitisation. After a brief look at the Google approach, this session will focus on alternative models and projects which are working towards making cultural heritage available in digital libraries and through Europeana.

by: Jessica Sänger, Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels

Published in Business , Technology , Education
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  • 1. Retro-Digitisation of Library Stocks European Alternatives to the Google Model
  • 2. Digitisation Plans • Large-scale digitisation projects (European Digital Library, etc.) • Increasing demand for content online • Most books in library stocks are out of print • But many are in copyright • Avoid „20th century black hole“ • Percentage of orphan works? Seite 2 Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels e. V. B. Jessica Sänger, Legal Counsel
  • 3. Google Book Settlement • Based on Google library programme • aimed at US territory (uses from US only – in theory) • 2nd version ASA now before court • Idea: scan everything, rightsholders must opt out to prevent online uses → Copyright turned on its head → no protection of moral rights Seite 3 Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels e. V. B. Jessica Sänger, Legal Counsel
  • 4. Google Book Settlement • Google determines which books are commercially available • Books not commercially available: default is display use • Commercially available books: default non-display uses • No assessment of availability at work level → danger of collision with publisher‘s exploitation of work • Cut-off dates for claiming and managing works • Insufficient information of rightsholders Seite 4 Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels e. V. B. Jessica Sänger, Legal Counsel
  • 5. Google Book Settlement • Management database severely deficient • Non-US rightsholders were not properly represented in the negotiations • No search for rightsholders, no solution for Orphan Works • Scan quality not always reliable • Other concerns include over-stretching of class action format and competition concerns (i.a. monopoly on unclaimed works) Seite 5 Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels e. V. B. Jessica Sänger, Legal Counsel
  • 6. German Stakeholder Proposal for Digitisation • Proposal agreed between stakeholders • Making use of existing RRO structure • Libraries to start by digitising older works in copyright • RRO‘s mandate is currently being extended to cover licensing digitisation and making available of older out of print works for non-commercial purposes Seite 6 Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels e. V. B. Jessica Sänger, Legal Counsel
  • 7. German Stakeholder Proposal for Digitisation Conditions for the license from the RRO • Books published in or before 1965 (in future: possibiltiy of moving wall of 50 years) • Work is out of print • Non-commercial online use License fee to be divided between rightsholders through RRO Seite 7 Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels e. V. B. Jessica Sänger, Legal Counsel
  • 8. German Stakeholder Proposal for Digitisation • RH may choose not to participate at all (standard procedure of notification in course of extension of RRO mandate) • Participating RH receive detailed information on downloads • RH may pull out individual titles at any time – and possibly re- publish • Safe Haven for libraries • High-quality digitisation in public interest with public funding • World-wide access Seite 8 Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels e. V. B. Jessica Sänger, Legal Counsel
  • 9. Proposals for Legislation in Germany If most rightsholders do not object to extension of RRO mandate for out of print works (very likely), the mandate could be extended to non-members of the RRO. Orphan works proposal: If diligent search for RH is without result, RRO may license, indemnify library, and collect revenues in escrow fund for re-emerging RH. RH may re-claim work, collect remuneration and take control of all uses for the future. Seite 9 Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels e. V. B. Jessica Sänger, Legal Counsel
  • 10. Plans for Digitisation in France • Negotiations between Ministry of Culture and French Publishers • Working on an agreement to cover 500,000 to a million French out of print books from the 20th century • Public funding for digitisation of National Library stocks („Big Bond“) • Overall legally binding agreement for large category of works with flexible opt in and opt out mechanisms • Model for revenue generation and distribution still to be developed Seite 10 Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels e. V. B. Jessica Sänger, Legal Counsel
  • 11. Arrow – an Essential Tool Arrow = Accessible Registries of Rights Information on Orphan Works towards the EDL Project co-funded by the European Commission. Pilots have started in a number of countries, including Germany. Arrow as a technological project will serve policy, not make policy. It aims to deliver a rights information infrastructure operable within and across borders. Seite 11 Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels e. V. B. Jessica Sänger, Legal Counsel
  • 12. Arrow • Identification of works, clustering of editions (books) • Determining in print or out of print status by work • Facilitating the identification of rightsholders (data collection) as a tool within a diligent search • Facilitating the identification of IPR status • Creating a network of OW registries (European Registry) • Arrow Plus: integrate countries without books in print databases Seite 12 Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels e. V. B. Jessica Sänger, Legal Counsel
  • 13. Books in print Libreka! • German Book Sector Portal for Full Text Search and E-Book Distribution • Based on Rightsholder Consent • Neutral Platform, open to all • World-wide access Seite 13 Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels e. V. B. Jessica Sänger, Legal Counsel
  • 14. Conclusions • Digitisation of library stocks poses significant legal challenges. • Google has not proposed a solution that meets the needs of rightsholders or the public, but we can do better. • Pragmatic solutions are possible and close to implementation. • Stakeholder-driven; representation of rightsholders ensured • Out of print categorisation reliable • Withdrawal possible at any time • Safe haven for libraries, high quality ensured Seite 14 Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels e. V. B. Jessica Sänger, Legal Counsel
  • 15. Thank you! B. Jessica Sänger