What is it?• Definition created by Daniel Olweus in 1990s1• Bullying involves – Repeated negative actions – By one or more aggressors – That physically harm or exclude – a person who is seen as less powerful than the aggressor(s)
Types of cyberbullying2• Flaming – verbal abuse• Harassment – repeatedly sending hateful or threatening messages to another• Denigration – distributing information that would damage a person’s credibility or relationships• Impersonation – using someone else’s persona to harm that person or their relationships with others• Outing – sharing private information without the person’s permission• Trickery – talking someone into revealing secrets then sharing it.• Exclusion – deliberate and cruel removal of a person from a social sphere• Cyberstalking – repeated threatening harassment that causes fear in the stalked person
Who does it effect?• In a survey given in 2011, 16% or students in grades 9-12 state that they experience cyberbullying.3• Students who are bullied are perceived as less powerful than those around them.4• This included people who identify as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgendered (LGBT); persons with disabilities, and those who are otherwise socially isolated.4
Examples• Please take a moment to look through these examples of cyberbullying. We will be referring back to them in the discussion questions. – The day I confronted my troll – Reddit Users Attempt to Shame Sikh Woman, Get Righteously Schooled – Internet troll jailed after mocking deaths of teenagers – CBS WKBT News Anchor Responds to Viewer Email Calling Her Fat
Resources for Combating CyberbullyingLegislation5 For teachers and students• The first legislation was made in • Self help organizations such 1999, after the Columbine as It Gets Better which is for shootings. GLBT youth.• 46 states have laws on bullying. • Educating adults Includes an 41 of which have created a model extensive training course for policy for schools. (see Virginia’s DOE policy) bus drivers which can be• 36 states prohibit cyberbullying. adapted for a wider audience.• The majority of laws require • Educating students Created reporting, investigation, and by MTV to help students punishment to accompany the identify and stop event. Laws also require training cyberbullying. and prevention methods be • See more resources on utilized. stopbullying.gov
Discussion Questions• Much of the legislation on bullying is centered around students and schools. Should legislation take a wider view of the issue and include all ages?• Would you consider the examples given in this presentation bullying? Why (not)?• Is cyberbullying just people moving to new media, or is it something inherent in the technology itself?
Citations1. Hamburger ME, Basile KC, Vivolo AM. (2011). Measuring Bullying Victimization, Perpetration, and Bystander Experiences: A Compendium of Assessment Tools. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/pdf/BullyCompendium-a.pdf 10/24/20122. Virginia Department of Education. (2008). Cyberbullying and School Policy. Retrieved from http://www.doe.virginia.gov/support/technology/info_briefs/cyberbullying.pdf3. U.S Department of Health and Human Services. “What is it” Stopbullying.gov. Retrieved from http://www.stopbullying.gov/cyberbullying/what-is- it/index.html4. U.S Department of Health and Human Services. “Risk Factors” Stopbullying.gov. Retrieved from http://www.stopbullying.gov/at-risk/factors/index.html5. Stuart-Cassel, V., Bell, A., and Springer, J.F. (2011). Analysis of State Bullying Laws and Policies. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/bullying/state-bullying-laws/state-bullying- laws.pdf6. Troll image adapted from Benimoto. (2007). “The ‘Feral Troll’”. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/benimoto/1186476322/