Chapter 23Nursing Informatics and Nursing Education
Objectives• Describe nursing education in relation to the Foundation of Knowledge model.• Explore knowledge acquisition and sharing.• Assess technology tools and delivery modalities used in nursing education.• Compare and contrast knowledge assessment methods.
Instructional Applications Of Computer Technology• A way to erase geographical boundaries for students• May enhance the presentation of content• May improve learning outcomes• Helps tailor instruction to individual learning needs.
Modern Instructional Technologies Provide• Opportunities for simulations• Complex multimedia• Virtual reality-assisted clinical scenarios• Information and literature-gathering Internet tools.
Interactivity in Web-enhanced courses• learner–learner – students interact to troubleshoot, work out challenges, and exchange solutions• learner–content – Students interact with course content• learner–instructor – direct interaction with instructor• learner–interface interactions – access to content
Software/Hardware Decisions• Consider usability, functionality, and accessibility – When evaluating software or hardware for purchase, careful assessment of the products and services will help an educator, administrator, or student to make the best choices. – Hardware decisions will depend upon the way a computer system will be used, in addition to cost, ease of use, and durability.
Changing Students• Nursing educators are discovering that current students are not responding in the same ways they did during their own tenure as students.• Technology-laden students from the millennial age demand instant information delivered in an entertaining fashion, an expectation built upon extensive exposure to e-mail, text messaging, online chatting, and the Internet.
Learning Spaces• Learning is a multispatial function, and in the age of technology innovation, instructional delivery can inhabit many forms in both physical and virtual spaces.• “Spaces” in academia are no longer defined by a class or its content, but instead by the learning the class is trying to promote.
Teaching Methods Compared• Although the most widely used teaching method among nurse educators, traditional face-to-face lecture yields only a 5% information retention rate over a 24-hour period, compared with – demonstration (30%) – discussion groups (50%) – practice activities (75%) – peer teaching (90%)
Collaborative Learning Environments• The professor guides conversation and sets up discussion, acting less as classroom authority and more as facilitator, helping students maintain focus, gently guiding discussion, and ultimately empowering students to push knowledge boundaries in a safe and secure atmosphere of peer support.• interactive, cooperative learning strategies might include gaming, role playing, and problem-based learning
Online Delivery• E-learning, online and web-based education have caused a significant shift in student-teacher relationships in nursing education. – online learning allows educators to translate theory into practice, creating a virtual classroom space that promotes collaboration, engagement, discussion, and analysis. – detractors of online learning initiatives suggest that sharing an online space undermines the student- teacher relationship, makes building peer relationships difficult, and generally disrupts the normal classroom dynamic, thus creating an unfamiliar, uncomfortable atmosphere.
Web-Based Courses• Asynchronous and time-independent elements of Web-based courses – provide flexible class times – meet needs of population of nontraditional learners.• Allows participation by anyone, anywhere in the world, with access• Re-envision classroom interaction, and depending on the specific delivery mode, can even change basic pedagogical concepts.
Hybrid/Blended Delivery• Traditional courses are more frequently being offered as online, virtual classes, i.e., “distance education”: learning that occurs elsewhere than in the traditional classroom.• Web-enhanced instruction allows technically ambivalent institutions to participate in the technology revolution without huge budgetary expenditure and also addresses a preference by some faculty for a way to include innovation and technology in classes without giving up traditional classroom engagement.
Smart Classrooms• “Digital” and “multimedia” classrooms, – integrate computer and audio-visual technologies by providing a ceiling-mounted projector with an access point at the front of the room, an instructor podium/workstation, sound, and network access.• Enhanced smart classroom – also provide networked student workstations instead of traditional desks, allowing students to follow along online and perform network or Web searches, chat, blog, etc.
Net Generation or Millennials• students who have grown up inside a wired world of instant access and online everything• connected, digital, experiential, and social• interacting in peer-to-peer situations is a familiar and common learning mode• desire information immediately• are skilled multitaskers
Online Tutorials• Provide information to students and the skills to find, evaluate, understand, and apply this information• Attempt to mimic lectures by guiding users through a series of objectives or tasks, usually allowing the user to do the work at his or her own pace• May use animation, text, graphics, sound, questions, and different kinds of interactivity to engage and intrigue the user.
Simulations• Combine high-fidelity equipment with real- time demonstrations of simulated medical emergencies or patient situations• Task and skill training ranks as the most popular form of simulation, during which students hone repetitive skills through interaction with a wide range of equipmentSee Chapter 24 for in-depth coverage of Simulations
Virtual Reality• Multiple sensory inputs, either mediated or generated by a computer, through visual stimulation, audio input, and touch• Fosters unintentional learning through gamer-like technology – students discover and create knowledge in order to accomplish something,• Their experiences result in greater comprehension and deeper knowledge
Internet Tools• The general consensus in nursing education suggests that any technology that allows users to interact and engage both materials and each other is useful.• Webcasts, typically live presentations delivered via the Web, offer great potential for students and faculty to engage both information and each other globally, tapping students’ multiple intelligences in order for them to access what they need.
Internet Tools• One of the most common and proliferate search tools in technology today is the “wiki.” – Wikis are websites or hypertext document collections that allow users to edit and add content in an open-ended forum.• Instant messaging (IM), one of many collaborative Web “chat” tools available to any user with a computer and Internet access.
Internet Tools• Real-time chats occur all over the Internet, at each hour of every day. – In a chat, students can meet, discuss, and engage each other over any given topic.• One low-investment information-gathering tool for use by nursing professionals includes membership in a listserv.
Internet Tools• Electronic discussion groups that use e-mail to communicate, listservs promote communication and collaboration with others interested in a particular field of study. – Similar to listservs in the way they deliver specific information to one’s e-mail, a portal allows the personalization of a specific website.• Portals organize information from Web pages into simple menus so that the user may choose what they want to view and how they want to view it.
Podcasts• Podcasts are audio recordings linked to the Web that are then downloaded to an MP3 player or computer where the listener accesses the recording or video. – “Audiopods” is a term used to describe traditional, or audio-based, podcasts. Participating in podcasting can exercise not just basic technology skills, but also writing, editing, and speaking skills as well.
Videopods• Similar to audiopods in set-up and accessibility, videopods are podcasts that provide video in addition to audio functionality. – Faculty might use videopodcasts to demonstrate concepts, interview experts in the field, and even assess student progress.
Internet Tools• As technologically-savvy students continue to demand accessible, interactive learning tools to keep them engaged, an increasing number of instructors are experimenting with and incorporating multimedia into their courses.• Research suggests that the seeing, hearing, doing and interacting afforded by multimedia facilitates learning retention, with multimedia at least as effective as traditional instruction, but with the benefit of greater learner satisfaction.
Library Redesign• Libraries have also begun to recognize their role in students’ success with and predisposition to collaborative learning with redesigned spaces that reflect students’ need to huddle in small groups, sit closely together without barriers, chat about their work, and view digital information without physical hindrances like carrels or work stalls.
Evaluating Learning Tools• Integral and critical component of educational programming• Administrators and nursing educators across various programs are responsible for evaluation• When looking for feedback and assessment of a particular learning activity, data are best collected during and at the completion of the activity. – Evaluation by participants at the end of project is also valuable since learners can provide information related to the attainment of objectives and the teaching effectiveness of both the faculty and the learning materials while the experience is still fresh and memorable.
Paper Projects• When a paper assignment or project does fail, the outcome provides a valuable learning opportunity for all educators to look closely at the pedagogy, structure, goals, outcomes, and expectations of success of the proposed activity and determine what needs revising or re- evaluating in order for what the educator would term “successful” completion.
Discussions• While traditional in-class discussion seems almost outdated in light of the stunning advances in technology that allow learners to participate in every kind of activity from computer-guided online quizzes to interactive simulations, the educator as facilitator still holds value and importance in a traditional or even blended classroom.
Assuring Competence• Legal and financial implications of employee and student performance--a major concern for all providers and health care organizations• National Agencies (ANA) established minimum competencies for nurses .• Schools have redesigned their curricula as the competency-based curricular outcomes
Knowledge Dissemination and Sharing• Sharing experiences of clinical learning can help convey life-saving information to other clinicians in a way that is more memorable and less imposing than warnings delivered outside a social context.• The power of pooled knowledge in combination with knowledge produced in dialogue with others helps to limit tunnel vision and is a powerful strategy for maximizing the clinical knowledge of a group.
Knowledge Dissemination and Sharing• Networking encourages professional support by making successful professionals accessible to their colleagues.• Nurses tend to gather their information from personal networks such as colleagues or professional meetings, the increased availability of technology to assist in networking has greatly facilitated information exchange.
Knowledge Dissemination and Sharing• Formal networks, such as the International Nurse Practitioner/Advanced Practice Nursing Network (INP/PNN), unveiled in 2000, promote the exchange of knowledge, resources, and expertise in order to enhance the presence of nursing in primary healthcare.• Membership and participation in professional associations also provide ways to network and advance one’s profession.
Knowledge Dissemination and Sharing• Publishing provides excellent opportunities to extend knowledge and share research.• Making presentations at contemporary professional conferences allows nursing educators and students to gain experience and share scholarship with colleagues.• Conferences often host poster presentations to share research findings, innovations and exemplar programs in a low-investment but visually-captivating way.
Thought Provoking Questions1. What are some of the forces behind the push towards a more wired learning experience in nursing education?2. What technology do you find most beneficial to use in your practice or education setting? Why do you find this tool useful? From your perspective, how could this tool be enhanced?