– patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump
– Drug administration system
– any number of physiologic monitoring systems
– electronic thermometers
– and, of course, telephones and pagers.
Any time a human uses technology, there is
some type of hardware and/or software that
enables and supports the interaction.
• Circumvent troublesome technology
• Are bandaids
• Do not fix the problem
• Could put the patient at risk
Uses telecommunication and
videoconferencing software to communicate
more effectively and more frequently with
patients at home by using the technology to
monitor patients’ vital signs, supervise their
wound care, or demonstrate a procedure.
Allow patients to interact with a virtual
clinician (actually a computer program) that
will ask questions, provide social support, and
tailor education to identify patient needs
based on the answers to screening questions
These human–technology interfaces have
been remarkably successful; sometimes
patients prefer them to live clinicians!
Human Technology Interface Problems
The major cause of up to 87% of all patient
monitoring incidents. It is not always that
technology is faulty. Technology may perform
flawlessly, but interface design may lead
human user to make errors (Vicente, 2004).
Technology Should Fit
5 Levels of Human Requirements
Analysis Tools and Techniques
• Cognitive task analysis (CTA)
• Cognitive work analysts (CWA)
Involve the users
• Focus group
• Cognitive walkthrough
• Heuristic evaluation
• Formal usability test
• Field study
• Fit between Individuals, Tasks, and Technology
• Suggests that each of these factors
be considered in designing and evaluating
Doctors Vs. Nurses
• Doctors and nurses describe patient
– doctors emphasized diagnosis, treatment and
– nurses emphasized functional issues.
Issues Associated with Wearable
The human-technology interface must address:
• How will people use this technology?
• How will they behave with it on their person?
• How will they wear it?
• How and when will they enable and use it?
• Will others be able to detect the technology?
In the Ideal World
• Every human-technology interface will be
– designed to enhance users’ workflow
– as easy to use as ATM machines
– fully tested prior to its implementation in a
setting that mirrors the setting where
it will be used