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Chapter 11

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  • 1. Chapter 11 Administrative Information Systems
  • 2. Objectives • Explore agency-based health information systems. • Evaluate how administrators use core business systems in their practice. • Assess the function and information output from selected information systems used in healthcare organizations.
  • 3. Introduction • Healthcare organizations integrate a variety of clinical and administrative types of information systems. • These systems collect, process and distribute patient-centered data to aid in managing and providing care.
  • 4. Case Management Information Systems (CMIS) • Case management information systems (CMIS) identify resources, patterns and variances in care to prevent costly complications related to chronic conditions and enhance the overall outcomes for patients. • Once a trend is identified case management systems provide decision support promoting preventative care.
  • 5. Case Management Information Systems (CMIS) • A care plan is a set of care guidelines that outline the course of treatment and the recommended interventions that should be implemented to achieve optimal results. • CMIS are especially beneficial for patient populations with a high cost of care and complex health needs such as the elderly or patients with chronic disease conditions.
  • 6. Case Management Information Systems (CMIS) • Case management systems assimilate massive amounts of information obtained over a patient’s lifetime by reaching far beyond the walls of the hospital and track care from one medical visit to the next (Simpson & Falk, 1996). • Information collected by case management systems is processed in a way that helps to reduce risks, ensures quality, and decrease costs.
  • 7. Communication Systems • Communication systems promote the interaction between healthcare providers and patients. • Communication systems have historically been separate from other types of health information systems and from one another.
  • 8. Communication Systems • Examples of communication systems include call light systems, wireless phones, pagers, email, and instant messaging, which have traditionally been forms of communication targeted at the clinicians. • Integrating communication systems with clinical applications provides a real-time approach that will facilitate care among the entire healthcare team, patients and their families.
  • 9. Core Business Systems • Core Business Systems enhance administrative tasks within healthcare organizations. • Core business systems provide the framework for reimbursement, support of best practices, quality control, and resource allocation. There are four common core business systems: 1) admission, discharge and transfer (ADT), 2) financial, 3) acuity, and 4) scheduling systems.
  • 10. Admission, Discharge and Transfer (ADT) System • Contains the groundwork for the other types of healthcare information systems since it includes the patient’s name, medical record number, visit or account number and demographic information such as age, sex, home address and contact information; • They are the central source for collecting this type of patient information and communicating it to the other types of healthcare information systems including clinical and business.
  • 11. Financial System • Manage the expenses and revenue for providing healthcare. • Financial systems often interface to share information with materials management, staffing, and billing systems to balance the financial impact of these resources within an organization.
  • 12. Uses of the Financial System • These systems report the fiscal outcomes in order to track them against the organizational goals of an institution. • Financial systems are one of the major decision- making factors as healthcare institutions prepare their fiscal budgets. • These systems often play a pivotal role in determining the strategic direction for an organization.
  • 13. Acuity System • Calculates the nursing care requirements for individual patients based on: – severity of illness, – specialized equipment and technology needed, and – intensity of nursing interventions. • Helps to determine the amount of daily nursing care needed for each patient in a nursing unit.
  • 14. Scheduling System • Scheduling systems coordinate staff, services, equipment, and allocation of patient beds. • Scheduling systems help to track resources within a facility while managing the frequency and distribution of those resources.
  • 15. Order Entry Systems • Order entry systems are one of the most important systems in use today. • These systems automate the way that orders have traditionally been initiated for patients. • Order entry systems provide major safeguards by ensuring that physician orders are legible and complete thereby providing a level of patient safety that was historically missing with paper- based orders.
  • 16. Patient Care Support Systems • Most specialty disciplines within healthcare have an associated patient care information system. • These patient-centered systems focus on collecting data and disseminating information related to direct care.
  • 17. Patient Care Support Systems • Clinical Documentation Systems also known as Clinical Information Systems (CIS) are the most commonly used type of patient care support system within healthcare organizations. • Clinical information systems are designed to collect patient data in real time.
  • 18. Pharmacy Information Systems • Pharmacy information systems have also become a mainstream patient care support system. • These systems typically allow pharmacists to order, manage and dispense medications for a facility.
  • 19. Laboratory Support Systems • Laboratory Information Systems were perhaps some of the first systems ever used in healthcare. • Laboratory information systems report on blood, body fluid and tissue samples along with biological specimens that are collected at the bedside and received in a central laboratory.
  • 20. Radiology Information Systems • Radiology Information System (RIS) are systems schedule, result, and store information as it relates to diagnostic radiology procedures. • The benefit of RIS and picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is their ability to assist in diagnosing and storing vital patient care support data.
  • 21. Managing Data in Healthcare Systems • Many organizations are aggregating data in a data warehouse for the purpose of mining the data to discover new relationships and to build organizational knowledge. • A single comprehensive database facilitates communications among and helps to maintain compliance with privacy regulations.
  • 22. Data Warehouse • An extremely large database or repository that stores all of an organization’s or institution’s data and makes this data available for data mining. • The combination of an institution’s many different databases that provides management personnel flexible access to the data.
  • 23. Data Mart • Collection of data focusing on a specific topic or organizational unit or department created to facilitate management personnel making strategic business decisions; • may be as small as one database or larger such as a compilation of databases; generally smaller than a data warehouse.
  • 24. Data Mining • Software that sorts through data in order to discover patterns and ascertain or establish relationships. • Software that helps discover or uncover previously unidentified relationships among the data in a database; • A program that conducts exploratory analysis looking for hidden patterns in data.
  • 25. Departmental Collaboration and Knowledge/Information Exchange • Knowledge exchange is the product of collaboration when sharing an understanding of information promotes learning from past experiences to make better decisions in the future. • At an administrative level, collaboration among key stakeholders is critical to the success of any project. • From collaboration comes the exchange of information and ideas through knowledge sharing.
  • 26. Thought Provoking Questions 1. What type of technology exists today that could be converted into new types of information systems to be used in healthcare? 2. How could collaboration and knowledge sharing at a single organization be used to help individuals preparing for information technology at a different facility?
  • 27. Thought Provoking Questions 3. Discuss the administrative information systems and their applications.