Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Advanced Practice Nursing and Research
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Advanced Practice Nursing and Research


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine

1 Comment
1 Like
No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Nursing Research 1850 - Present
  • 2. Re*search
    • To search again
    • To examine carefully
    • Diligent, systematic inquiry or study to validate and refine existing knowledge and develop new knowledge
    • Ultimate goal: development of a body of knowledge
    • Need knowledge to improve clinical practice
  • 3. Use of Research in Nursing
    • Nursing is accountable to society for providing high quality care and for seeking ways to improve that care (patient outcomes, health care delivery services, and nursing care)
    • Research is used to generate knowledge about nursing education, administration, nursing roles, etc.
  • 4. Nursing Research Provides a Scientific Base
    • Description (identify nature and attributes of nursing phenomena)
    • Explanation (determines relationships)
    • Prediction (estimate the probability of a specific outcome)
    • Control (manipulate situation to produce the desired outcome)
  • 5. Historically
    • 1850 Nightingale
    • 1900 AJN (case studies in l920s-1930s)
    • 1950 Schools had research at BSN level
    • 1952 Nursing Research
    • 1967 Image (Sigma Theta Tau Publication)
    • 1960s-1970s (models, theories)
    • 1980s clinical research and funding
  • 6. Acquiring knowledge the old fashioned way
    • Tradition
    • Authority
    • Borrowing
    • Trial and error
    • Personal experience
    • Role-modeling
    • Intuition
    • reasoning
  • 7. Quantitative
    • Formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information about the world
    • Types: Descriptive, Correlational, Quasi-experimental, and experimental
    • Arises from the Positivist view of the world
  • 8. Qualitative
    • Systematic, subjective approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning
    • Types include: Phenomenological, Grounded Theory, Ethnographic, Philosophical, and Historical
    • Arises from the naturalistic world where everything is viewed in context and words are translated into themes.
    • In this view there is no absolute truth and things are not quantifiable
  • 9. Basic vs. Applied
    • Which one would you think is pure research or knowledge for knowledge sake?
    • Which one has as its purpose to solve problems, make decisions, or predict or control outcomes in real-life practice situations?
  • 10. Sampling
    • Probability vs. Nonprobability
  • 11. Settings
    • Natural
    • Partially controlled
    • Highly controlled
  • 12. Research Problem
    • A situation in need of a solution, improvement, or alteration
    • E.g. Dyspnea is a symptom that can have a significant impact upon the activities of the school aged child with asthma; however, little is known about the sensation of dyspnea.
  • 13. Research Purpose
    • Specific goal or aim of the study
    • The major purpose of this study is to describe the sensation of dyspnea in school aged children
  • 14. Review of Literature
    • To discover what is known and not known about a topic
    • Usually conducted first with quantitative research; however, with qualitative research this may occur at any time.
  • 15. Study Framework
    • Abstract theoretical basis for study that enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge.
    • Theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts and relational statements that present a view of a phenomena and can be used to describe, explain, predict or control
  • 16. Research Hypotheses
    • Guesses as to the outcome of the study
    • Research Hypothesis: a relationship exists
    • Null Hypothesis: a relationship does not exist; used to test statistical outcomes
  • 17. Hypothesis
    • Simple=2 variables
    • Complex=more than 2 variables
    • Directional=negative/positive relationship
    • Nondirectional=relationship exists
  • 18. Variables
    • Concepts of various levels of abstraction that can be measured, manipulated, or controlled in a study
    • Conceptual Definition: theory definition
    • Operational Definition: measurable definition
  • 19. Assumptions
    • Statements that are taken for granted and are considered true even though they have not been scientifically tested
  • 20. Limitations
    • Restrictions on the study that may decrease credibility and generalizability of the findings.
    • Nonprobability sampling, for example, limits generalizability
  • 21. Research Design
    • Blueprint for the Study
    • Pilot Study often the design of a study. This is conducted to determine feasibility, refine instruments, develop protocols, identify problems with design, try out data collection/analysis techniques, examine reliability and validity of research instruments.
  • 22. Feasibility
    • Researcher Expertise
    • Money Commitment
    • Availability of Subjects, Facilities and Equipment
    • Ethical Considerations
  • 23. Population vs. Sample
    • Population: All elements that meet certain criteria
    • Sample: Subset of the population
    • Who do you think have been underrepresented in studies?
  • 24. Data Collection and Analysis
    • Data Collection: Precise, systematic gathering of information relevant to the research purpose or specific objectives
    • Data Analysis: Process for reducing, organizing, and giving meaning to the data
  • 25. Research Outcomes
    • Findings
    • Conclusions
    • Recommendations
  • 26. Sources of Research in Nursing
    • Advances in Nursing Science
    • Applied Nursing Research
    • Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
    • Nursing Research
    • Research in Nursing & Health
    • Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice: An International Journal
    • Western Journal of Nursing Research
  • 27. Variables
    • Independent: that which is manipulated by the researcher
    • Dependent: that which is measured
    • Extraneous: may be recognized/unrecognized and controlled/uncontrolled
    • Confounding: not recognized until study in progress
    • Demographic: attributes of subjects
  • 28. Bias
    • Who has it?
  • 29. Progression of Nursing Research
    • 1920s-1930s: Case Studies
    • 1950s: Standards of Care
    • 1960s-1970s: Studied ourselves with job satisfaction research and studied quality care and measurement of patient outcomes
    • 1980s: Conducted clinical research
    • Qualitative Research
  • 30. Evidence Based Research
    • Evidence Based Nursing is the process by which nurses make clinical decisions using the best available research evidence, their clinical expertise and patient preferences.
    • To carry out EBN must have sufficient research on a topic, skill in critiquing research and ability to implement change
    • *see handout Evidence Based Nursing
  • 31. Participatory Action Research
    • A method of research where creating a positive social change is the predominant driving force
    • *see handout Participatory Action Research: Getting the Job Done
    • *see handout Announcement of New Rural Action Research Programme and Participatory Action Research as a Methodology of Rural Development
  • 32. National Institute of Nursing Research
    • 1983: Report by Institute of Medicine recommended that nursing research be included in the mainstream of biomedical and behavioral science
    • 1984: NIH Task Force study found nursing research activities relevant to NIH mission
    • 1986: National Center for Nursing Research
    • 1993 NINR
    • *see handout A Brief History of NINR
  • 33. NINR Planning for 21 st Century
    • Special Health Needs:
    • Women
    • Minorities
    • Elderly
    • Residents of Rural Areas
    • Economically Disadvantaged
  • 34. Track Record of Research that has Made a Difference
    • Chronic Illnesses
    • Quality and Cost Effectiveness of Care
    • Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
    • Management of Symptoms
    • Adaptation to New Technologies
    • Health Disparities
    • Palliative Care at the End of Life
    • * see handout Current RFAs
  • 35. Challenges for the Future
    • More people will live longer and be subject to diseases and disabilities
    • More minorities who experience disparities in the incidence, prevalence and seriousness of disease
    • Healthier Lifestyles
    • More home care
    • More caregivers who need balance
  • 36. Challenges cont.
    • End of Life Issues
    • Genetics
    • Better systems in healthcare systems
    • Better systems for reporting nursing research
  • 37. NINR Vision
    • To reshape not only health research and health care, but also the way Americans view the importance of good health in their lives
  • 38. NINR Mission
    • Reduction of risks for disease and disability
    • Promotion of healthy lifestyles
    • Promotion of quality of life in those with chronic illness
    • Care for individuals at the end of life
  • 39. Barriers to Nursing Research
    • See handout
    • Towards A Strategy for Nursing Research and Development