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Advanced Practice Nursing and Research
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Advanced Practice Nursing and Research

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  • 1. Nursing Research 1850 - Present
  • 2. Re*search
    • To search again
    • To examine carefully
    • Diligent, systematic inquiry or study to validate and refine existing knowledge and develop new knowledge
    • Ultimate goal: development of a body of knowledge
    • Need knowledge to improve clinical practice
  • 3. Use of Research in Nursing
    • Nursing is accountable to society for providing high quality care and for seeking ways to improve that care (patient outcomes, health care delivery services, and nursing care)
    • Research is used to generate knowledge about nursing education, administration, nursing roles, etc.
  • 4. Nursing Research Provides a Scientific Base
    • Description (identify nature and attributes of nursing phenomena)
    • Explanation (determines relationships)
    • Prediction (estimate the probability of a specific outcome)
    • Control (manipulate situation to produce the desired outcome)
  • 5. Historically
    • 1850 Nightingale
    • 1900 AJN (case studies in l920s-1930s)
    • 1950 Schools had research at BSN level
    • 1952 Nursing Research
    • 1967 Image (Sigma Theta Tau Publication)
    • 1960s-1970s (models, theories)
    • 1980s clinical research and funding
  • 6. Acquiring knowledge the old fashioned way
    • Tradition
    • Authority
    • Borrowing
    • Trial and error
    • Personal experience
    • Role-modeling
    • Intuition
    • reasoning
  • 7. Quantitative
    • Formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information about the world
    • Types: Descriptive, Correlational, Quasi-experimental, and experimental
    • Arises from the Positivist view of the world
  • 8. Qualitative
    • Systematic, subjective approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning
    • Types include: Phenomenological, Grounded Theory, Ethnographic, Philosophical, and Historical
    • Arises from the naturalistic world where everything is viewed in context and words are translated into themes.
    • In this view there is no absolute truth and things are not quantifiable
  • 9. Basic vs. Applied
    • Which one would you think is pure research or knowledge for knowledge sake?
    • Which one has as its purpose to solve problems, make decisions, or predict or control outcomes in real-life practice situations?
  • 10. Sampling
    • Probability vs. Nonprobability
  • 11. Settings
    • Natural
    • Partially controlled
    • Highly controlled
  • 12. Research Problem
    • A situation in need of a solution, improvement, or alteration
    • E.g. Dyspnea is a symptom that can have a significant impact upon the activities of the school aged child with asthma; however, little is known about the sensation of dyspnea.
  • 13. Research Purpose
    • Specific goal or aim of the study
    • The major purpose of this study is to describe the sensation of dyspnea in school aged children
  • 14. Review of Literature
    • To discover what is known and not known about a topic
    • Usually conducted first with quantitative research; however, with qualitative research this may occur at any time.
  • 15. Study Framework
    • Abstract theoretical basis for study that enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge.
    • Theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts and relational statements that present a view of a phenomena and can be used to describe, explain, predict or control
  • 16. Research Hypotheses
    • Guesses as to the outcome of the study
    • Research Hypothesis: a relationship exists
    • Null Hypothesis: a relationship does not exist; used to test statistical outcomes
  • 17. Hypothesis
    • Simple=2 variables
    • Complex=more than 2 variables
    • Directional=negative/positive relationship
    • Nondirectional=relationship exists
  • 18. Variables
    • Concepts of various levels of abstraction that can be measured, manipulated, or controlled in a study
    • Conceptual Definition: theory definition
    • Operational Definition: measurable definition
  • 19. Assumptions
    • Statements that are taken for granted and are considered true even though they have not been scientifically tested
  • 20. Limitations
    • Restrictions on the study that may decrease credibility and generalizability of the findings.
    • Nonprobability sampling, for example, limits generalizability
  • 21. Research Design
    • Blueprint for the Study
    • Pilot Study often the design of a study. This is conducted to determine feasibility, refine instruments, develop protocols, identify problems with design, try out data collection/analysis techniques, examine reliability and validity of research instruments.
  • 22. Feasibility
    • Researcher Expertise
    • Money Commitment
    • Availability of Subjects, Facilities and Equipment
    • Ethical Considerations
  • 23. Population vs. Sample
    • Population: All elements that meet certain criteria
    • Sample: Subset of the population
    • Who do you think have been underrepresented in studies?
  • 24. Data Collection and Analysis
    • Data Collection: Precise, systematic gathering of information relevant to the research purpose or specific objectives
    • Data Analysis: Process for reducing, organizing, and giving meaning to the data
  • 25. Research Outcomes
    • Findings
    • Conclusions
    • Recommendations
  • 26. Sources of Research in Nursing
    • Advances in Nursing Science
    • Applied Nursing Research
    • Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
    • Nursing Research
    • Research in Nursing & Health
    • Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice: An International Journal
    • Western Journal of Nursing Research
  • 27. Variables
    • Independent: that which is manipulated by the researcher
    • Dependent: that which is measured
    • Extraneous: may be recognized/unrecognized and controlled/uncontrolled
    • Confounding: not recognized until study in progress
    • Demographic: attributes of subjects
  • 28. Bias
    • Who has it?
  • 29. Progression of Nursing Research
    • 1920s-1930s: Case Studies
    • 1950s: Standards of Care
    • 1960s-1970s: Studied ourselves with job satisfaction research and studied quality care and measurement of patient outcomes
    • 1980s: Conducted clinical research
    • Qualitative Research
  • 30. Evidence Based Research
    • Evidence Based Nursing is the process by which nurses make clinical decisions using the best available research evidence, their clinical expertise and patient preferences.
    • To carry out EBN must have sufficient research on a topic, skill in critiquing research and ability to implement change
    • *see handout Evidence Based Nursing
  • 31. Participatory Action Research
    • A method of research where creating a positive social change is the predominant driving force
    • *see handout Participatory Action Research: Getting the Job Done
    • *see handout Announcement of New Rural Action Research Programme and Participatory Action Research as a Methodology of Rural Development
  • 32. National Institute of Nursing Research
    • 1983: Report by Institute of Medicine recommended that nursing research be included in the mainstream of biomedical and behavioral science
    • 1984: NIH Task Force study found nursing research activities relevant to NIH mission
    • 1986: National Center for Nursing Research
    • 1993 NINR
    • *see handout A Brief History of NINR
  • 33. NINR Planning for 21 st Century
    • Special Health Needs:
    • Women
    • Minorities
    • Elderly
    • Residents of Rural Areas
    • Economically Disadvantaged
  • 34. Track Record of Research that has Made a Difference
    • Chronic Illnesses
    • Quality and Cost Effectiveness of Care
    • Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
    • Management of Symptoms
    • Adaptation to New Technologies
    • Health Disparities
    • Palliative Care at the End of Life
    • * see handout Current RFAs
  • 35. Challenges for the Future
    • More people will live longer and be subject to diseases and disabilities
    • More minorities who experience disparities in the incidence, prevalence and seriousness of disease
    • Healthier Lifestyles
    • More home care
    • More caregivers who need balance
  • 36. Challenges cont.
    • End of Life Issues
    • Genetics
    • Better systems in healthcare systems
    • Better systems for reporting nursing research
  • 37. NINR Vision
    • To reshape not only health research and health care, but also the way Americans view the importance of good health in their lives
  • 38. NINR Mission
    • Reduction of risks for disease and disability
    • Promotion of healthy lifestyles
    • Promotion of quality of life in those with chronic illness
    • Care for individuals at the end of life
  • 39. Barriers to Nursing Research
    • See handout
    • Towards A Strategy for Nursing Research and Development

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