Pp Ch33 Freud

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  • Drawings are mine but inspired by the work of Charles Hampden-Turner, Maps of the Mind. New York: Mitchell Beazley Publishers, 1986.
  • Drawings are mine but inspired by the work of Charles Hampden-Turner, Maps of the Mind. New York: Mitchell Beazley Publishers, 1986.
  • Image source: http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/jung.html
  • Image from Mark Hardin Artchive
  • Source: http://faculty.pittstate.edu/~knichols/dramabm4.html Expressionism in drama and art was a movement that rejected traditional methods of representing objective reality. Instead, expressionists exaggerated and distorted aspects of the outside world in order to "express" subjective moods and feelings. In other words, their landscapes and portraits were actually "mindscapes." In American drama, Eugene O'Neill and Elmer Rice are noted for their expressionist plays. Thriving from about 1910 to 1925, expressionism continues to be an important influence on experimental theatre and art.
  • Image from Mark Hardin Artchive
  • Source: Expressionist Art Gallery at http://faculty.pittstate.edu/~knichols/dramabm4.html
  • Image from Mark Hardin Artchive
  • Image from Mark Hardin Artchive
  • Image from http://www.beatmuseum.org/duchamp/images/bride Notes: http://www.marcelduchamp.net/bride/bride.htm (The painting consists of two large panels of glass, one above the other, displaying the top and bottom of an intricate mechanical diagram. It is usually called, simply, the Large Glass .) "All along, while painting [the Large Glass ], I wrote a number of notes which were to compliment the visual experience like a guide book." (1) These notes were intended "to accompany and explain (as might an ideal exhibition-catalogue) my painting on clear glass." (2)
  • Source: http://www.popsubculture.com/pop/bio_project/surrealism.html According to the major spokesman of the movement, the poet and critic André Breton , who published " The Surrealist Manifesto " in 1924, Surrealism was a means of reuniting conscious and unconscious realms of experience so completely, that the world of dream and fantasy would be joined to the everyday rational world in "an absolute reality, a surreality."   Drawing heavily on theories adapted from Sigmund Freud , Breton saw the unconscious as the wellspring of the imagination. He defined genius in terms of accessibility to this normally untapped realm, which, he believed, could be attained by poets and painters alike. This movement continues to flourish at all ends of the earth. Continued thought processes and investigations into the mind produce today some of the best art ever seen.
  • Image from http://art-quarter.com/beck/joe/aj/1/3/picasso_dream.html
  • Image from Mark Hardin Artchive
  • Image from Mark Hardin Artchive Text source: http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/klee/ Death and Fire (1940; 46 x 44 cm (18 x 17 1/3 in)) is one of Klee's last paintings. A white, gleaming skull occupies the center, with the German word for death, Tod , forming the features of its face. A minimal man walks towards death, his breast stripped of his heart, his face featureless, his body without substance. Death is his only reality, his facial features waiting there in the grave for him. But there is fire in this picture too: the sun, not yet set, rests on the earth's rim, which is also the hand of death. The upper air is luminous with fire, presenting not an alternative to death, but a deeper understanding of it. The man walks forward bravely, into the radiance, into the light. The cool, grey-green domain of death accepts the fire and offers wry comfort.
  • Image from Mark Hardin Artchive Text source: http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/klee/
  • Image from CGFA and Mark Hardin Artchive
  • Image: Mark Hardin Artchive
  • Image from http://www.mcs.csuhayward.edu/~malek/surrealism/dali1.jpg
  • Source: http://www.rollins.ed/Foreign_Lang/Russian/kandin.html
  • Image from Mark Hardin Artchive
  • Image from Mark Hardin Artchive
  • Image from Mark Hardin Artchive
  • Image from http://www.ellensplace.net/okeeffe5.html
  • Text from http://www.ellensplace.net/okeeffe5.html
  • Image from http://www.ellensplace.net/okeeffe5.html
  • Image from postcard, Portland Art Museum
  • Pp Ch33 Freud

    1. 1. Freud and the Arts <ul><li>Chapter 33: Freudian Revolution </li></ul>Copyright, 1996 © Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc. Humanities 103 Spring 2005 Instructor Beth Camp
    2. 2. Challenge questions: <ul><li>The first part of this slide show summarizes ideas from Freud, Jung and Adler. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As you view the paintings here, ask which thinker seemed to have influenced each painting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Options: Investigate any specific artist that appeals to you. Write a paper or journal entry exploring the psychological meaning of any painting. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Understanding Freud <ul><li>Created concept of three-part mind: </li></ul><ul><li>ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to help women with hysteria </li></ul><ul><li>Believed repressed emotions led to problems </li></ul><ul><li>Developed FREE ASSOCIATION to release repressed emotion from UNCONSCIOUS mind </li></ul><ul><li>Followers (Jung, Adler) rejected Freud over two key concepts: infant sexuality, Oedipus complex </li></ul>
    4. 4. Three-part mind ID = unconscious human instincts that seek instant gratification (pleasure principle) EGO = mediator between needs of id and real world Superego = conscience repression sublimation
    5. 5. Understanding Jung <ul><li>Founder of analytic psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious has 2 dimensions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PERSONAL (repressed mental and physical life) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COLLECTIVE (shared acts or thoughts either universally or within a culture) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identified ARCHETYPES (images, patterns, symbols) seen in dreams, fantasies </li></ul>
    6. 6. Three-part mind Individual confronts shadow (good and evil) and animus (male/female archetype), carries collective unconscious ( archetypes ) Self grows to individuation Persona = social roles Unconscious Consciousness
    7. 7. Understanding Jung <ul><li>Defined concepts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>introvert and extrovert </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Believed most important task any person could do was to create a balance between conscious and unconscious life </li></ul>Jung often painted mandalas as a symbol of balance and the “ultimate unity of the personality” (also symbolized by the circle and the cross)
    8. 8. Understanding Adler <ul><li>Founder, individual psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected Freud’s emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>on sex and asserted that personality difficulties come from feelings of inferiority (inferiority complex) </li></ul>
    9. 9. What was the Freudian Revolution... <ul><li>When artists, writers, thinkers applied Freud’s ideas to culture </li></ul><ul><li>“ Release the unconscious” became the key </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class continues to reject most of Freud’s ideas, but artists . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction against strict conventions of Victorians (as hippie movement reaction against strict conventions of 1950s) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Metaphysical/Fantastic Art <ul><li>Giorgio de Chirico (1888-1978) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Nostalgia of the Infinite” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marc Chagall (1887-1985) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I and the Village” </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Marc Chagall <ul><li>I and the Village, </li></ul><ul><li>1911 </li></ul>What elements of this painting suggest fantasy? Content? Technique? Theme?
    12. 12. New Psychology & Arts <ul><li>Expressionism </li></ul>Surrealism Dadaism
    13. 13. Expressionism <ul><li>Rejected traditional ways of showing reality </li></ul><ul><li>Exaggerated and distorted shapes to “express” subjective moods and feelings, calling their landscapes and portraits “mindscapes” </li></ul><ul><li>Captured brooding melancholy of romantics </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected prewar tensions (Germany) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edvard Munch (1863-1944) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ernst Kirchner (1880-1938) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Edvard Munch <ul><li>The Scream (1927) </li></ul>Is the main figure an adult or a child? Who are the characters in the background? What do the colors add to the mood? Freud might say this painting suggests the anxiety that can exist between parents and children
    15. 15. Edvard Munch on The Scream <ul><li>I was walking along a path with two friends -- the sun was setting -- suddenly the sky turned blood red -- I paused, feeling exhausted, and leaned on the fence -- there was blood and tongues of fire above the blue-black fjord and the city -- my friends walked on, and I stood there trembling with anxiety -- and I sensed an infinite scream passing through nature.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>--Edvard Munch 1892 </li></ul>
    16. 16. Ernst Kirchner <ul><li>Girl Under Japanese Parasol (1909) </li></ul>What does the direct glance of the reclining woman, her nudity, and the wallpaper suggest? What are the key symbols of this painting and how do they contribute to the painting’s meaning?
    17. 17. Ernst Kirchner <ul><li>Self-portrait as soldier (1915) </li></ul>Do the two figures in this painting suggest a “divided self”? Alienation between the artist (as natural man) and the soldier?
    18. 18. New Psychology & Arts <ul><li>Expressionism </li></ul>Surrealism Dadaism
    19. 19. Dada Movement <ul><li>Reaction to World War I (If the world has gone mad, shouldn’t art be mad?) </li></ul><ul><li>Followed “Gospel of irrationality” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise concerts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvisation and chance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poems from newspapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random and bizarre events, even cruelty </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>“ The acts of life have no beginning or end. Everything happens in a completely idiotic way. Simplicity is called dada . . . Like everything in life, dada is useless.” </li></ul><ul><li>----Tzara (1922) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968) <ul><li>After 1912, made art objects </li></ul><ul><li>Created concept of “anti-artist” who questioned nature of art </li></ul><ul><li>Ridiculed the academy </li></ul><ul><li>Made mobile (sculpture with moving parts) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Marcel Duchamp <ul><li>Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even (The Glass Wall) (1915-1923) </li></ul>This panel is the top of a glass box that held notes on the meaning of this work. Duchamp said this work is a “wedding of mental and visual reactions” and “an accumulation of ideas.” What does this suggest about dada?
    23. 23. New Psychology & Arts <ul><li>Expressionism </li></ul>Surrealism Dadism
    24. 24. Surrealism <ul><li>Movement dedicated to connect conscious and subconscious experiences through art </li></ul><ul><li>Breton, “Surrealist Manifesto” (1924) says: </li></ul><ul><li>The artist is free from reason and conventional society </li></ul>Does Breton’s statement remind you of Dostoevsky’s Crime and Punishment where the “hero” says that an exceptional person is above the law? Do you agree with Breton?
    25. 25. Visionary surrealism Abstract surrealism Dreams Subconscious
    26. 26. Abstract Surrealists <ul><li>Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) </li></ul><ul><li>Joan Miro (1893-1983) </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Klee (1879-1940) </li></ul>NOTE: Although we can talk about categories, many artists (especially artists with long, productive lives, like Picasso), can be considered in more than one category
    27. 27. Pablo Picasso <ul><li>The Dream, 1932 </li></ul>Some see the right side of the dreamer as the “superego” with the left side of the figure showing the “id”. Do you agree? What details suggest this dreamer may be a divided self?
    28. 28. Paul Klee <ul><li>Insula Dulcamara, 1938 </li></ul>Critics say this painting shows a map of the mind, the territory of the unconscious.
    29. 29. Paul Klee <ul><li>Death and Fire, 1940 </li></ul>Does this painting suggest images from the unconscious? From dreams? Perhaps a nightmare about the war? Do you agree with the interpretation on the next page?
    30. 30. Paul Klee: Death and Fire (1940) <ul><li>Source: WebMuseum Paris </li></ul>Death and Fire (1940) . . . is one of Klee's last paintings. A white, gleaming skull occupies the center, with the German word for death, Tod , forming the features of its face. A minimal man walks towards death, his breast stripped of his heart, his face featureless, his body without substance. Death is his only reality, his facial features waiting there in the grave for him. But there is fire in this picture too: the sun, not yet set, rests on the earth's rim, which is also the hand of death. The upper air is luminous with fire, presenting not an alternative to death, but a deeper understanding of it. The man walks forward bravely, into the radiance, into the light. The cool, grey-green domain of death accepts the fire and offers wry comfort.
    31. 31. Visionary surrealism Abstract surrealism Dreams Subconscious
    32. 32. Visionary Surrealists <ul><li>Rene Magritte (1898-1967) </li></ul><ul><li>Salvador Dali (1904-1989) </li></ul>Do these next paintings suggest imagery from dreams?
    33. 33. Rene Magritte <ul><li>Clairvoyance (Self-Portrait) (1936) </li></ul><ul><li>Next: The Lovers I </li></ul>The artist paints the “vision” of the egg, rather than its “real” shape. In the next painting, what mood is most apparent?
    34. 34. Rene Magritte
    35. 35. Salvador Dali <ul><li>Crucifixion (Hypercubic Body) (1954) </li></ul>Dali is well known for his personal symbols used in his paintings. Can you translate any of these symbols?
    36. 36. Women Surrealists <ul><li>Frida Khalo (1907-1954) </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia O’Keefe (1887-1986) </li></ul><ul><li>Meret Oppenheim (1913-1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Hannah Hoch (1889-1978) photomontage </li></ul>
    37. 37. Frida Kahlo <ul><li>The Two Fridas </li></ul><ul><li>(1939) </li></ul>Kahlo here paints her “divided self” from her German father and Mexican mother, a mixing of European and indigenous traditions. What could the other images in this painting represent?
    38. 38. Frida Kahlo: The Little Deer, 1946
    39. 39. Frida Kahlo <ul><li>The Love Embrace of the Universe, the Earth (Mexico), Me, and Senor Xolotl (1949) </li></ul>What repeating shape holds this painting together? The “baby” is the famous Mexican muralist, Diego Rivera, Kahlo’s husband. Does this painting have a dreamlike flavor?
    40. 40. Georgia O’Keefe <ul><li>O’Keefe with pot (1970s) </li></ul>
    41. 41. Georgia O’Keefe <ul><li>&quot; When I think of death, I only regret that I will not be able to see this beautiful country anymore...unless the Indians are right and my spirit will walk here after I'm gone.&quot; </li></ul>
    42. 42. Georgia O’Keefe <ul><li>Red Canna (1923) </li></ul>What is suggested by the images of this flower? What would Freud say about this painting? What would Jung say?
    43. 43. What’s Next: War Years
    44. 44. Sources... <ul><li>Mark Harden, The Artchive http://artchive.com </li></ul><ul><li>Nicolas Pioch, Web Museum, Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Art Quarter, Joe’s Art Journal </li></ul><ul><li>The Beat Museum http://beatmuseum.org </li></ul><ul><li>CGFA and Ellenspace </li></ul><ul><li>California State University, Hayward </li></ul><ul><li>Hampden-Turner, Charles. Maps of the Mind. New York: Mitchell Beazley Publishers, 1986. </li></ul>

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