Pp Ch30 Architecture


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  • Source: http://tilde-walsham.web.cern.ch/~walsham/images/brighton/p_brighton_pavilion.jpg
  • Source: http://college.hmco.com/history/west/mosaic/chapter14/images/crystal_palace.jpg
  • Source: http://www.victorianstation.com/palace.html
  • Source: http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Eiffel_Tower.html and http://www.artday.com/dayimg.php3 Eiffel Tower Commentary "...the tower was the greatest affront not only to the architecture of Paris, but also to the eye of the Parisian, for whom its structural logic and revolutionary aesthetic language were incomprehensible. "Essentially, the structure of the Eiffel Tower—which was a far-ranging extrapolation of Eiffel's spidery, wrought-iron bridge pylons—could not have been more simple: four immense, tapering, curved, lattice-girder piers that meet asymptotically. These piers rise from an immensely broad square base—125 meters on a side—and are laced together at two levels by connecting girders to form an integral unity of great stability..." — Marvin Trachtenberg and Isabelle Hyman. Architecture: from Prehistory to Post-Modernism. p485. Details Built for the 1889 International Exhibition, Paris, the centenary celebration of the French Revolution. On the Av. Gustave Eiffel, by the river Seine. 300 m (985 ft) tall.
  • Source: http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/fa267/sullivan/guaranty.jpg Source: http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/fa267/sullivan/carsonp2.jpg (second slide shows “work as temple” concept and lingering romanticism in modern design as seen in front door in Louis Sullivan: Carson, Pirie, Scott,  Building, Chicago, 1899
  • Pp Ch30 Architecture

    1. 1. Romanticism, Realism and Architecture Chapters 29 and 30 Humanities 103 Instructor Beth Camp
    2. 2. What is Architecture? Context: What is the geographic, political, economic, religious, psychological, or historical context for this building? Space: How is the building designed? How are different spaces used as they relate to FUNCTION and AESTHETICS? Climate : How does climate affect the design of this building?
    3. 3. Architecture is STRUCTURE <ul><li>POST AND LINTEL= typically stone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited in ability to define space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Stonehenge </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Architecture is STRUCTURE <ul><li>ARCH = transfers stress outward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buttress used on outside walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: early bridges, churches, mosques </li></ul></ul>Roman Arch Gothic Moorish
    5. 5. Architecture is DESIGN <ul><li>Line, repetition, balance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Architect may take a single design and repeat it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result = balance or symmetry, regardless of style </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scale and proportion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SCALE = size of building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PROPORTION = how individual elements in the overall design relate to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often in ratios: (2 to 1), (3 to 2) or (1 to 3) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Architecture is DESIGN <ul><li>Vitruvius (Roman architect, c. 26 CE) </li></ul><ul><li>Good architecture contains these elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UTILITAS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FIRMITAS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BELLITAS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul><ul><li>Beauty </li></ul>
    7. 7. What is architecture? Line, Repetition, Balance Scale and Proportion Building materials Structure Context, space and climate Design principles
    8. 8. Romanticism and Architecture <ul><li>How would you expect Romanticism to influence architecture? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Houses of Parliament and Big Ben
    10. 10. Parliament <ul><li>What architectural features are considered Romantic in the English Parliament? Or, in the Pavilion at Brighton that follows? </li></ul>
    11. 12. Romantics and architecture <ul><li>Neomedievalism (Gothic style) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Houses of Parliament, Big Ben </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Restoration of churches and castles </li></ul><ul><li>Exoticism (Nash, Indian Gothic) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal Pavilion, Brighton </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Romantic Themes 1800-1850 <ul><li>Celebrates nature and natural landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Glorifies heroism, suffering and death </li></ul><ul><li>Supports nationalism and political independence </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes nature’s wild, mysterious, exotic, melancholic, melodramatic aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes gender roles </li></ul>
    13. 14. Realism and Architecture <ul><li>How would you expect Realism to influence architecture? </li></ul>
    14. 15. Realism and architecture <ul><li>New materials meant new forms (cast iron) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First cast-iron suspension bridge, 1836 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paxton’s Crystal Palace, 1851 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>18,000 panes of glass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1,851 feet long </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eiffel Tower, 1889 (1,064 feet high) </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. Crystal Palace
    16. 17. Crystal Palace Visit a virtual tour at the University of Virginia
    17. 18. Eiffel Tower Source: Great Buildings Online , Everything Eiffel
    18. 19. Realism and architecture <ul><li>Ornamental structures  functional structures </li></ul><ul><li>New materials  Steel  new forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1868 Equitable Life Building (6 stories) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1880s Home Insurance building (Jenney) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1890s Sullivan, multistory buildings </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Sullivan Building Source: Digital Archive of American Architecture
    20. 21. Realistic Themes 1800-1850 <ul><li>Reaction against sentimentality of Romanticism </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction against militarism, industrialism, colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Concern for natural landscapes, rural and urban = Show nature as it truly is </li></ul><ul><li>Social realism (working class themes) </li></ul>
    21. 22. Realism and Architecture 1800-1850 <ul><li>Reaction against sentimentality of Romanticism? </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction against militarism, industrialism, colonialism – but not with architecture? </li></ul><ul><li>Concern for natural landscapes, rural and urban = Show nature as it truly is? </li></ul><ul><li>Social realism (working class themes) Perhaps a blend that romanticizes labor? </li></ul>
    22. 23. What’s Next? <ul><li>As we move to the modern era over the next several weeks, notice how architecture changes in response to new ideas and new materials – keeping in mind the basics of design. </li></ul>
    23. 24. What is architecture? Line, Repetition, Balance Scale and Proportion Building materials Structure Context, space and climate Design principles