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War of 1812 (1)


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  • 1. The War of 1812
  • 2. The War of 1812 Background • Britain and France are at war and attacking our ships and impressing our men • The British are also arming the Native American tribes in the Ohio River Valley who are attacking our settlers there. • Congress (filled with War Hawks) wants to defend our honor and gain more territory to boot • In June of 1812, President Madison declares war on Britain
  • 3. The War of 1812 Thank you Thomas Jefferson! At Issue • The US has no real Army – only 7000 trained troops • There are only 50 – 100,000 untrained militia on reserve • Most of the Revolutionary War military leaders are either dead or too old to fight
  • 4. The War of 1812 At Issue (continued) • The US Navy has very few ships, but does have a number of frigates which are much faster and more maneuverable than the traditional warship • There is not unified support for the War. Federalists in the Northeast oppose it very loudly (this will come back to haunt them!) Thanks again Mr. Jefferson!
  • 5. The War of 1812 So, here’s what happens in a nutshell! June-July 1812 • First move is to invade Canada • Madison sends William Hull into Canada, but it failed • British blockade the US coast
  • 6. The War of 1812 William Hull • Hull was a Revolutionary War hero • He was tried for cowardice and convicted after he failed to attack the British fort and retreated (saving his men from sure defeat and annihilation) • The sentence would have been a hanging • Eventually, he was pardoned by Madison. He died many years later, all the while trying to reclaim his honor (unsuccessfully). BACK TO THE WAR!
  • 7. The War of 1812 WAR AT SEA War at Sea • We are up against the most powerful Navy in the world • The first concern is breaking the blockade • The second concern is to protect from the invasion through the Great Lakes
  • 8. The War of 1812 The USS Constitution A Side Picture Show!
  • 9. Rear of the ship
  • 10. Part of the Officer’s Quarters
  • 11. Here’s where you would sleep
  • 12. Another view of your bedroom
  • 13. A couple of looks up the masts
  • 14. It’s a long way to the top if you wanna rock ‘n’ roll
  • 15. Back to why it was afloat
  • 16. Looks good from here
  • 17. Eli’s ready for duty
  • 18. Tending to the ammo
  • 19. The USS Constitution was known as Old Ironsides
  • 20. Cannon balls bounced off her, but it was wood
  • 21. The USS Constitution is still a commissioned Naval ship
  • 22. The War of 1812 War on the Water • Oliver Hazard Perry defeated the British in Lake Erie in 1813 • The USS Constitution defeated the HMS Guerriere and the HMS Java along the way Oliver Hazard Perry • Americans also keep the British out of upper New York with their victory at Lake Champlain (1814) • But the blockade is still in force and Britain is still able to get troops in
  • 23. The War of 1812 1813 - 1814 • War is going our way! US troops march into York (Canada’s capital) and burn the Parliament building. (This will come back to haunt us) • US Forces defeat British and Native American fighters at Thames (where Tecumseh is killed) and Horseshoe Bend (where Andrew Jackson gets his start)
  • 24. The War of 1812 1814-1815 • The British defeat France – now they concentrate on US • Britain plans a three part invasion up the Chesapeake Bay, down Lake Champlain and at the mouth of MS River • In August 1814, they march up to DC and take over burning much of the city. Madison is forced to flee.
  • 25. The War of 1812 The Stars and Bars flown at Fort McHenry 1814-1815 (cont.) • The Brits then move up to Baltimore • The city is guarded by 13,000 militia at Fort McHenry • Although the British bombard the fort overnight, they are turned back • Francis Scott Key is so moved by the event, he wrote what would become our National Anthem
  • 26. The War of 1812 1814-1815 (cont.) • British suffer another defeat at Plattsburgh and decide the war over here isn’t worth it • December of 1814, the Treaty of Ghent is signed – no real changes occurred • Battle of New Orleans is fought in Jan. 1815 • Andrew Jackson’s forces defeat British and he becomes a national hero