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The American Revolution
• How was it that the American Patriots gained
independence from the British Empire?
Early years of the war
• The idea of separation was controversial. 2030% stayed as Loyalists. 40-45% were for
Separation (...
War in the Middle States
• The Battle for Long Island- Washington vs Howe and
9000 Hessians. England wins and Washington’s...
Britain's Northern Strategy

• British Strategy (or plan of action) was to isolate the
New England colonies. They have a 3...
• General Howe splits his force and tries to capture
the Continental Congress in Philadelphia only
sending a few thousand ...
Saratoga and Foreign Help
• Burgoyne’s army continues to move south but begins
to run out of supplies because the people h...
• This victory inspires countries to join – France,
Spain, the Netherlands all begin to help. Some
send supplies. France s...
Valley Forge, the Frontier and war at sea

• After the defeat by Howe, George Washington’s
troops winter at Valley Forge i...
• The war at sea- American Privateers are used
to harass British trade. More than 1000 were
used.
• John Paul Jones sailed...
Savannah and Charlestown
• The British decide to attack in the south. 1778
they capture Savannah. A British army lands
and...
Yorktown and why America wins
• Cornwallis sets up a base at Yorktown without
orders. Washington joins forces with French ...
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The american battles

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Transcript of "The american battles"

  1. 1. The American Revolution • How was it that the American Patriots gained independence from the British Empire?
  2. 2. Early years of the war • The idea of separation was controversial. 2030% stayed as Loyalists. 40-45% were for Separation (patriots) The rest were neutral (didn’t pick sides) • June 1775 George Washington- becomes leader Continental Army- Soldiers only sign up for 1 year enlistments • British expected to win easily but couldn’t find a lot of recruits b/c its for life so they hire German Hessians (Mercenaries)
  3. 3. War in the Middle States • The Battle for Long Island- Washington vs Howe and 9000 Hessians. England wins and Washington’s army is demoralized. They retreat across the Delaware. • Political writer Thomas Paine writes The American Crisis – “These are the times that try men’s souls” • Desperate to turn the tide before his soldiers’ enlistments run out Washington leads a sneak attack back across the Delaware on Christmas morning to Trenton. They capture or kill over 900 Hessians. Then they win at Princeton . • The soldiers now believe that victory is possible and they sign back up
  4. 4. Britain's Northern Strategy • British Strategy (or plan of action) was to isolate the New England colonies. They have a 3 part plan 1. General Burgoyne would lead a force from Canada 2. Lt. Colonel St. Leger would come down the Mohawk valley 3. General Howe would follow the Hudson River North from NYC • All would converge on Albany NY and the Hudson River valley. • First St. Leger is not able to keep moving through the Mohawk valley after an encounter with Benedict Arnold.
  5. 5. • General Howe splits his force and tries to capture the Continental Congress in Philadelphia only sending a few thousand men up the Hudson to meet Burgoyne. • Howe defeats Washington at Brandywine and captures Philadelphia. • Burgoyne continues toward Albany but will not have help from St Leger or from a large force commanded by Howe.
  6. 6. Saratoga and Foreign Help • Burgoyne’s army continues to move south but begins to run out of supplies because the people hide/ destroy the food before he gets there. • American general Horatio Gates digs in at Bemis Heights (Near Saratoga) The fortifications allow them to command the valley below and the British cannot pass without being attacked by cannon fire. • Benedict Arnold leads several attacks on British nearby and defeats that part of the army. • Burgoyne is unable to defeat Gates and retreats to Saratoga. The Continentals surround and capture Burgoyne there.
  7. 7. • This victory inspires countries to join – France, Spain, the Netherlands all begin to help. Some send supplies. France sends troops. The war sparks conflict world wide forcing the British to fight on several “fronts”. • Famous foreign officers – Marquis De Lafayette- French officer helped command w/Washington. G.W regarded him as a son. • Baron von Steuben (German) - trained the Continentals
  8. 8. Valley Forge, the Frontier and war at sea • After the defeat by Howe, George Washington’s troops winter at Valley Forge in PA. The lack of supplies is apparent as most men don’t have shoes, jackets or food.. The continental congress is very slow in getting $. (1777) • The Frontier- The Wilderness Road (built in 1775 by Daniel Boone) leads to KY. George Rogers Clark captures several British outposts. Clark and his men then battle Brit. Henry (Hair Buyer) Hamilton for fort Sackville at Vincennes. He sneaks up through the swamps and tricks them into thinking that there is a bigger colonial army than there is. Brutal execution of natives persuade the brits to surrender.
  9. 9. • The war at sea- American Privateers are used to harass British trade. More than 1000 were used. • John Paul Jones sailed all the way to Britain to attack ships on their coast. Jones leads a courageous attack on 2 Brit ships… “I have not yet begun to fight…” He wins the battle but his ship sinks and he sails off in a British ship.
  10. 10. Savannah and Charlestown • The British decide to attack in the south. 1778 they capture Savannah. A British army lands and corners an American army in Charlestown. It surrenders and this is the worst defeat of the war. From here Lord Cornwallis is put in charge for the Brits while General Gates is sent for the Americans. Gates is defeated at Camden and American Morale is sent to an all time low. • Francis Marion is an american commander who uses guerilla tactics to hit and run. The Brits can never find him (Swamp fox)
  11. 11. Yorktown and why America wins • Cornwallis sets up a base at Yorktown without orders. Washington joins forces with French General Rochambeau. A peninsula, Yorktown is a perfect place for a trap. The army arrives at the same time as a French fleet, which prevents Cornwallis from escaping by sea. • 1781 Cornwallis surrenders his army of 8000. With the capture of their finest general the British negotiate a peace treaty.. . The Brits are not just defeated by soldiers but by a civilian resistance that never gave up.
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