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06   toyota manufacturing, eko rudianto 06 toyota manufacturing, eko rudianto Presentation Transcript

  • LOW-VISCOSITY LUBRICANTLOW-VISCOSITY LUBRICANT FOR FOR LOW-FUEL CONSUMPTION LOW-FUEL CONSUMPTION AND AND ZERO-EMISSION CAR ZERO-EMISSION CAR EKO RUDIANTO PT. TOYOTA MOTOR MANUFACTURING INDONESIA November, 2007 1
  • OVERVIEW1. BACKGROUNG2. OBJECTIVES3. EMISSION REGULATION MOVEMENT4. ENGINE TECH. DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENT5. FUEL SPEC. QUALITY DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENT6. ENGINE OIL SPEC. DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENT7. DISCUSSION8. CONCLUSION 2
  • 1.BACKGROUNG 3
  • ORGANIZATION OF UNWP29 UN GRPE Working Party on Pollution and Energy Inland Inland G R B Working Party on Noise transport transportcommitteecommittee GRSG Working Party on General Safety ProvisionsWP29 GRRF Working Party on Brakes and Running Gear G R E Working Party on Lighting and Light-signaling GRSP Working Party on Passive Safety Source : GAIKINDO 4
  • GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE MEGA MERGER Opel Suzuki Fiat GENERAL MOTOR Isuzu Mazda SAAB TOYOTA Hino FORD Daihatsu Volvo RENAULT Subaru Nissan Diesel Nissan Roll BMWRoyce Honda PEUGEOT Mitsubishi DAIMLER Chrysler AUDI VW Source : GAIKINDO 5
  • GLOBAL PASSENGER CAR MARKET • Substantial contribution to growth emanating from emerging auto markets: China, India, Iran and Russia • Toyota projected to overtake GM as world’s largest seller of automobiles this year; Hyundai and Renault/Nissan also on the rise 80 18% 70 16% ToyotaUnits in Millions 60 14% GM Sales Share 50 12% Ford R/N 40 10% VW 30 8% Hyundai 20 6% DCX 10 4% 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Source : GAIKINDO 6
  • ASEAN AUTOMOTIVE CONDITION No.1(1,000) Production In Total of ASEAN4 993,171 No.2 950 342,606 850 No.3 310,910 750 Toyota Honda 650 Isuzu Mitsubishi No.4 Nissan Perodua 280,804 550 Proton Suzuki 450 Ford Chevrolet No.5 255,981 350 250 No.6 216,385 150 No.7 50 152,185 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2012 YEAR Source : GAIKINDO 7
  • INDONESIA AUTO INDUSTRY COMMUNITY Jeep Daihatsu Isuzu Djakarta Motor Nissan Hyun KIA/ UD ASTRA dai Biman Motor Toyota BMW GROUP tara German Neoplan Peugeot Fiat Motor Mercedes B Suzuki Ford Star Datsun Mazda Motor Honda INDO Hino GMBI Honda ProspekNissan Chevrolet Motor MOBIL Renault Citroen Audi GROUP GM Berliet Opel Holden Ssang VW Yong Volvo Alun Mitsu KTB bishi Starsauto Land Dinamika Rover China DAF IVECO Sources :: GAIKINDO Source GAIKINDO 8
  • INDONESIA AUTOMOTIVE SALE & GOVERNMENT POLICY 307/M/SK/8/76 PP. 36/1996 KEPPRES 20/98 PP. 145/00 586/PJ/01 756/MPP/KEP/11/02 231/M/SK/11/78 INPRES NO.2 ‘96 19/MPP/KEP/98 569/KMK.04/00 460/KMK.03/01 PP. 43/03 KEPPRES 42/96 20/MPP/KEP/98 97/KMK.05/00 PP. 60/01 411/MPP/KEP/06/03 168/M/SK/9/79 PAKJUN ‘96 49/MPP/KEP/2/00 172/MPP/KEP/5/01 458/MPP/KEP/07/03 349/M/SK/8/80 PP. 59/99 371/M/SK/9/83 111/M/SK/10/90 PAKJUN’99 117/M/SK/4/86 201/KPB/VII/92 107/M/SK/VII/92 PAKMEI’95 PAKJUN’93900 800800 750 700700 620 750 700600 534 620 483 500500 570 387 354400 341 332 318 450 322 301 300 275 261300 208 211 172 189 162 178 170200 103 152 152 144 160 158 94 72 88 103 58100 0 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10Devaluasi Rp 27.5% [83] Pemilihan Devaluasi Rp Peraturan Baru Program Mobil Umum 31.0% Perbankan Nasional Pemilihan [04] [86] [89] [96] Umum [99] Tight Money Tight Money Krisis Kenaikan BBM Policy (TMP) Policy (TMP) Ekonomi [05] [87] [91] [98] Source : GAIKINDO 9
  • 2.OBJECTIVES 10
  • LOW VISCOSITY LUBRICANT FOR LOW FUEL CONSUMPTION & ZERO EMISSION CAR HYBRIDEmission (20. gr/km) TECHNOLOGYCO, HC, CAR FuelNOx, PM. Efficiency [50. km/liter] (km/liter) Emission (g/km) Fuel Efficiency (9. gr/km) [20. km/liter] Emission [15. km/liter] [10. km/liter] (3. gr/km) (0.3 gr/km) (0.0 gr/km) Euro-3 Euro-4 Euro-5 Zero Euro-2 (Emission & CO2) SE SF SJ ~ SL SJ ~ SL SL LUBRICANT GRADE 11
  • 3. EMISSION REGULATIONMOVEMENT REQUIREMENT 12
  • EMISSION REGULATION CONTROL Gasoline and Diesel - Low Duty Car(g/km) 20CO 10 Euro-1 Euro-2 Euro-3 Euro-4 HYBRID CAR FUEL CELL(g/km) 6 5HC 4 + 3NOx 2 1 Euro-1 Euro-2 Euro-3 Euro-4 HYBRID CAR FUEL CELL 13
  • GLOBAL EMISSION REGULATION FOR GASOLINE AND DIESEL LOW DUTY VEHICLE EXHAUST EMISSION EC (EEC) UNECE MODE TEST EUROPE Global Commercial Passenger UNION Vehicles Vehicles ECE 15 - 04 ( Euro- 0 ) ( Euro- 0 )88 / 76 / EEC ECE 82 / 00 ( A ) Euro- 1 Euro- 1 ECE 82 / 00 ( B )91 / 441 / EEC ECE 82 / 01 Test Test93 / 59 / EEC ECE 82 / 02 Mode: Mode :94 / 12 / EC ECE 82 / 03 New EC Euro New EC Mode96 / 69 / EC ( ECE 82 / 04 ) -2 Mode Euro- 2 Euro- ( UDC + Euro- ( UDC +98 / 69 / EC ( ECE 82 / 05 ) 3&4 EUDC ) 3&4 EUDC ) 14
  • Gasoline & Diesel Passenger Vehicle among ASEAN countries and Asia countries. 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 CHINA Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 BEIJING Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 TAIWAN US Tier1 US Tier 2 Euro 4HONGKONG Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 PHILIPINE Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro3 INDONESIA Euro 2 Euro 4 MALAYSIA Euro 2 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 THAILAND Categorized required BRUNEI ECE15/04 Euro 3 VIETNAM Euro 2 SINGAPORE Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 AUSTRALIA Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4NEW ZEALAND Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Source : AAF/TC3 15
  • GLOBAL EMISSION REGULATION FOR DIESEL HEAVY DUTY VEHICLE EC ( EEC ) ECE EXHAUST REGULATION REGULATION EMISSION TEST MODE LEVEL 88 / 77 / EEC ECE 49 / 01 0 ESC91 / 542 / EEC ( A ) ECE 49 / 02 ( A ) EURO 1 ( Europe91 / 542 / EEC ( B ) ECE 49 / 02 ( B ) PREVIOUS Stationer EURO 2 Cycle ) 96 / 1 / EC ECE 49 / 03 ? EURO 2 ETC1999 / 96 / EC ( A ) UNDER STUDY EURO 3 (Europe Transient Cycle) ESC1999 / 96 / EC ( B1 ) UNDER STUDY EURO 4 ETC ESC1999 / 96 / EC ( B2 ) UNDER STUDY ( EURO 5 ) ETC 16
  • Diesel Commercial Vehicle (Heavy Duty) among ASEAN countries and Asia countries. 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 CHINA Euro 2 Euro 3 BEUJING Euro 2 Euro 3 TAIWAN US 94HDE US 04HDE Euro 4HONGKONG Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 PHILIPINE Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro3 INDONESIA Euro 2 Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 4 MALAYSIA THAILAND Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 BRUNEI VIETNAM Euro 1 Euro 2SINGAPORE Euro 2 Euro 4AUSTRALIA Euro 3 Euro 4NEW ZEALAND Euro 3 Euro 4 Source : AAF/TC3 17
  • EMISSION REGULATION MOVEMENT TREND AMONG ASEAN & ASIAN COUNTRIES ,China, Beijing, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, , Thailand, Vietnam,Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, India, 11 major cities in India Gasoline & Diesel of Passenger Vehicle1412 ASEAN countries Euro1 Euro2 intently direct to Euro410 in year 2010. 8 6 Euro3 4 Euro 4 2 or Equivalent 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Source : AAF/TC3 18
  • INDONESIA EMISSION REGULATIONMINISTRY DECREE NO : 141 , IN SEPT. 23-2003.Petrol Light Duty and Diesel light Duty (GVW<3.5 ton ; Category : M1 Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Enforce toNew Model Idle ECE 83-04 (Euro-2) EURO-4 ?Enforce to Idle ECE 83-04 (Euro-2)Existing ModelDiesel Heavy Duty (GVW>3.5 ton ; Category : M2,M3,N2,N3,O3, & O4) Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Enforce toNew Model Idle ECE 49-02 (Euro-2) EURO-4 ?Enforce toExisting Model Idle ECE 49-02 (Euro-2) 19
  • 4. ENGINE TECHNOLOGYDEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENT 20
  • GASOLINE ENGINE TECHNOLOGY SCHEMA (GVW < 3.5 TON) Three way Euro-2 Engine Reduction Catalyst Catalyst Oxidation CatalystTechnology schema Fuel Tank ECU Muffler Three way Catalyst Exhaust O2 Manifold sensor Lambda ECU (ELECTRONIC COMPUTER UNIT) Fuel Supply Valve Timing Ignition Air Control Cooling SystemEURO-1 Engine ContactTechnology CARBU- CARBU- Fixed (FIX) Single Throttle LLC Point System (Long Life Coolant) RATER System ECU. AND OBD (ON BOARD DIAGNOSTIC) Fuel Supply Valve Timing Ignition Air Control Cooling System EFI VVT-i VVT- ESA (Electronic ACIS & EGREURO-2 (Variable Valve Spark Advance) (Acoustic Control SLLC (Super (Electronic Engine Timing Induction) Long Life Fuel Full Transistor Three Way Catalyst +Technology Intelligent ) Coolant) Injection) O2 Sensor 21
  • GASOLINE ENGINE TECH. VS EMISSION REG. TYPICAL SYSTEM TWC = Three Way Catalyst S/C = Swirl Control OBD= On Board Diagnostic O2S = O2 Sensor EM HC g/km 1.0 EM S<500 ppm Euro1 1O2S TWC(13R) OBD 0.5 EM 2O2S S<150 ppm Euro2 TWC(13R) EM OBD Euro3 2O2S S<50 ppm Euro4 3 2 1 0 0.5 1.0 CO NOxS/C(7R) TWC(9R) Source : JAMA 22
  • DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY SCHEMA (GVW < 3.5 TON) Euro-2 Engine Technology schema EURO-1 Injection Pump, Exhaust Gas Re-Circulating, Diesel PM Reduction : Black Smoke Reduction : Micro Grain Injection Fuel. And Multi-Valve System. Soluble Organic Fraction : Oxidation Catalyst & Diesel Particulate Filter System. EURO-2 Diesel NOx Reduction : Pilot Injection by Common Rail System, Cooled Exhaust Gas Re-Circulating, Super Charger with Inter-Cooler, Nox Reduction Catalyst System. 23
  • DIESEL ENGINE PASSENGER TECH. VS EMISSION REGULATION TYPICAL SYSTEM EGR =EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATING HC g/kmIP 1.0EM Euro1IP S<500 ppm EGREM 0.5 OC Euro2 CR S<350 ppm EGREM Euro3 OC Euro4 CO 3 NOx 2 1 0 0.5 1.0 CR S<50 ppm 0.05 EGREM 0.10 OC 0.15EM =EXHAUST MANIFOLD IP= Injection PumpVE =INJECTION PUMP CR =COMMON RAIL PM Source : JAMA 24
  • DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY SCHEMA (GVW > 3.5 TON)Intake Throttle Valve EGR Valve Common Rail System for Ultra-High-Pressure Fuel Injectors Intercooler Oxidation Catalyst for Ammonia EGR Cooler Oxidation Catalyst for NO Air Intake Exhaust Urea Injection Controller P Selective Catalytic Reduction Device for NOx Euro-2 Engine Technology schema Urea Tank EURO-1 Injection Pump, Exhaust Gas Re-Circulating, Urea-Based Selective Catalytic Reduction and Ultra-High-Pressure Fuel Injection EURO-2 25
  • DIESEL ENGINE HEAVY DUTY TECH. VS EMISSION REGULATION TYPICAL SYSTEM HC g/kWhIP 1.0 Euro1 ESC Euro3 ETC Euro2IP S<500 ppm EGR Euro3 Euro4 0.5 CR S<350 ppm Euro4 EGR OC CO 6 NOx 4 2 0 5 10 CR S<50 ppm 0.1 EGR 0.2 0.3 OC 0.4 (Diesel Particulate NOx Reduction) PM Source : JAMA 26
  • HYBRID CARTECHNOLOGY 27
  • Source : TMC 28
  • HYBRID DRIVING PROFILE SYSTEM1. 3. 4. Deceleration 2. 5. Deceleration (Recharging) Source : TMC 29
  • HYBRID ENERGY PROFILE SYSTEM 3. 2. 4. 5.1. 4. 4. Source : TMC 30
  • FUEL EFFICIENCY TECNOLOGY DEVELOMENT PRIUS 2001 Hybrid CarVehicle Efficiency (Km/ liter) 50 PRIUS 1997 40 LEXUS 2003 HINO BUS 2004 Y OG OL HN 30 T EC N IO VAT NO IN HIGHLINDER CAMRY 2006 20 2003 Conventional Car 10 1900 2000 2005 200 Source : TMC 31
  • 5. FUEL SPEC.DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENT 32
  • RELATION BETWEENGASOLINE PROPERTIES AND VEHICLE PERFORMANCE Properties Vehicle Performance Octane Number Knocking Power/Acceleration RVP / T10 Fuel economy T50 Startability T90 FBP Driveability Sulfur Catalyst poisoning Evaporative emission Aromatics Olefins Di-Olefins Exhaust emission Unwashed Gum deposit Washed Gum Oxidized fuels Material compatibility Detergent Alcohol Engine oil degradation Engine Reliability Metals Spark plug fouling Source : JAMA 33
  • FUEL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS WWFC GASOLINE FUEL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTNO. FUEL SPEC. Current EURO-0 EURO- 1 EURO- 2 EURO- 3 EURO- 4 ITEMS Fuel 1. 98 RON-Researchs 98 98 88 MON-Motor O.N 88 88 2. Lead Content gr/l Run-Out Phase- out Metalic Oct. buster Run-Out 3. (MMT,FERRO) Phase- out 4. 35% Keep going Aromatic % v/v 60% Keep going Reduction 6. 7% Keep going 1% Keep going Benzene % v/v Reduction 7. Olefin % v/v 50% Keep going 10% Keep going Reduction 8. Sulfur % m/m 0.5% Keep going Run-Out Phase-out 9. Keep going Detergent Generation Level-up 34
  • RELATION BETWEENDIESEL FUEL PROPERTIES AND VEHICLE PERFORMANCE Properties Vehicle PerformanceCetane Number Knocking Power/AccelerationDensity Noise/VibrationT90 Fuel EconomySulfur Catalyst Cold startability poisoningAromatics/PAHLubricity Exhaust emissions DepositViscosity Wear in injection pumpCFPP/PP SealOxidation stability Fuel filter pluggingSediment Material compatibility Engine oil degradationWater Engine Reliability Source : JAMA 35
  • DIESEL FUEL SPEC. REQUIREMENTS WWFC DIESEL FUEL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTNO. FUEL SPEC. Current EURO-0 EURO- 1 EURO- 2 EURO- 3 EURO- 4 ITEMS Solar1. CETANE NUMBER 45 45 48 53 55 55 CETANE INDEX 45 45 45 50 52 52 SULFUR CONTENT 3002. 5000 3000 30 Free (ppm) WATER CONTENT 2003. (mg/Kg) 5004. PARTICULATES (mg/l) No standard 24 LUBRICITY HFRR6. 400 (micron) 2007. AROMATIC 25 (% m/m) 22 158. CARBON RESIDU 0.30 0.25 0.20 (% m/m)9. DETERGENT INJEC. Keep going CLEANNESS Generation Level-up 36
  • 6. ENGINE OIL SPEC.DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENT 37
  • VEHCLE LIQUID MATERIAL CONSUMPTION Gasoline Diesel Fuels CNG - LPG Hydrogen Liquid Methanol Reforming Engine - Oil Oil Gear - Oil Bearing Grease Vehicle Grease Bolt Joint Grease Liquids Material Brake Fluid FluidConsumption Radiator Fluid Air Condition Refrigerant Heater Water Wiper Washing 38
  • PEFORMANCE TARGET OF ENGINE OIL ACTIVITIES OIL FLOW WORK IN ENGINE OIL WORK PERFORMANCEOIL FUNCTION REQUIREMENT OIL PROPERTIES PERFORMANCE 39
  • LUB BASE SPEC. OF PERTAMINA PRODUCTS FROM CILACAP REFINERYNO. PROPERTY METHOD HVI - 60 HVI - 95 HVI-160S HVI-160B HVI- HVI- HVI-650 HVI-1. Appearance VISUAL Clear & Bright2. Ash Content (%wt) ASTM D-482 Constant max. 0.01 Cloud Test (hours) SMS-2556 Min. 3.03. Constant Min. 7.0 (No Cloud at 0 ° ) C Color ASTM ASTM D-1500 Max. 1.5 Max. 4.04. Max. 2.0 Max. 3.0 Color stability,5. (48 hours at 100 ° C) SMS-260 Constant max. 1.00 Min. 204 Min. 2106. Flash Point PMcc. (° C) ASTM D-93 Constant Min. 228 Min. 2677. Total Acidity (mg KOH/g) ASTM D-974 Constant max. 0.05 Max. -15.8. Pour Point (° C) ASTM D-97 Constant Max. -9. Specific Gravity9. (at 60 / 60 °F) ASTM D-1298 To be reported Max. 33.5 Max. 11.8 Viscosity, Kinematics Max. 7.4 Min. 30.510. ASTM D-445 Max. 4.9 Min. 10.7 (100 ° cSt.) C, Min. 6.7 Min. 4.411. Viscosity Index ASTM D-2270 Constant Min. 95. Source : PERTAMINA 40
  • PROPERTIES REQUIREMENTS STD. OF ENGINE OIL CLASSIFICATION REQUIREMENT OF READ ACROSS TEST OIL TEST METHOD ITEMSNO NO TEST CLASSIFICATION DESCRIPTION ITEM METHOD Element content The element contents in oil are analyzed 1. Name of refinery1 in Oil Test using the most accurate and precise1. methods currently available 2. Location of refinery Cooper Strip The Copper Strip corrosion is evaluated 3. Neutral number of base 22. Corrosion test at 120oC for 3 hours using a glass tube oil (mixing ratio) as specified in ASTM D1300 4. Refining process 3 Rust prevention It shall be evaluated in accordance with3. 5. Flash point (oC) ASTM D92 characteristic test ASTM D655 using 10 volt % of distilled water 6. Pour point (oC) ASTM D974. 4 Oxidation It is evaluated at 165,5oC for 72 hours in 7. Kinematics viscosity ASTM D445 Stability (ISOT) accordance with TSK1000G and n-pentane (mm2/s ; 40o ; 100oC) ASTMD46 in soluble by ASTM D893 8. Viscosity index ASTM D22705. Miscibility Test 5 Follow Federal Test Method 791B and 9. Aniline Point ASTM D611 Method 3470 Compatibility 10. Element content ASTMD3121 6 It is evaluated in accordance with ASTM6. with Oil Seal (mass %) (S/N) ASTMD3431 D471 (Sect 12) at 120oC for 70 hours Rubber 11. Structural group analysis ASTM 7 The wear preventive characteristic are (mass %) (Paraffins ; D32387. Wear evaluated in accordance with ASTM D4172 Naphthenes ; Aromatics) Prevention under of RPM 1800 rpm load of 392N (40 characteristic Boiling range ASTM kef), t 90oC and time duration 30 minutes 12. distribution (oC) D2887 41
  • ENGINE OIL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS1. CLASSIFICATION 2. READ ACROSSREQUIREMENT OF TEST ITEMS OIL TEST METHOD3. QUALITY STD.REQUIREMENTS Engine Dynamometer Test 42
  • HEAVY DUTY TEST – ENGINE TEST BENCH 43
  • 7.DISCUSSION 44
  • LOW VISCOSITY LUBRICANT FOR LOW FUEL CONSUMPTION & ZERO EMISSION CAREmission (20. gr/km)CO, HC, FuelNOx, PM. Efficiency [50. km/liter] (km/liter) Emission (g/km) Fuel Efficiency (9. gr/km) [20. km/liter] Emission [15. km/liter] [10. km/liter] (3. gr/km) (0.3 gr/km) (0.0 gr/km) Euro-3 Euro-4 Euro-5 Zero Euro-2 (Emission & CO2) SE SF SJ ~ SL SJ ~ SL SL LUBRICANT GRADE 45
  • COST COMPARATIONHigh EV Price Electrical Vehicle HEV ICE Internal Hybrid Combustion Electrical Engine (ICE) VehicleLow Vehicle Source:Toyota data 46
  • 8.CONCLUSION 47
  • TOYOTA eco-carApproachesto Reduces CO2 andZero Emissions UNDER STUDYNo control Hybrid TechnologyCO2Euro-5Euro 4, UNDEREuro 3 STUDYEuro 2,Euro 1. BIO Diesel LPG Gasoline Electric Fuel Cell FUEL Engine CNG Engine Vehicle Vehicle 48
  • 49