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  • 1. Searching For PerspectiveHemingway and American Writers in Paris
  • 2. The Great War DEAD10 million combatants 7 million civilians
  • 3. At Home Racism African AmericansChinese/Japanese Americans Native Americans Jews Censorship Literature Art Cinema Political Discourse
  • 4. The Result?Anomie Something gone wrong with the Enlightenment Reason seemed in doubt Cultural norms were being challenged in EuropeThe Arts Patronage restricted Showings/publication/readings limited Limited ability to learn the various artistic skills Inability to subsist while learning
  • 5. The Solution? Expatriatism - moving to another country Paris – 1920s, 1950s to 1960s London – early 20th century Prague – 1980s to today Vienna – today
  • 6. What Was NeededCommunity of other writersMentorsLibraries/ book storesPlaces to meetInexpensive, available foodCheap living space
  • 7. American Writers Living in ParisEzra Pound Kay BoyleScott Fitzgerald H.D. (Hilda Doolittle)John Dos PassosGertrude SteinSherwood AndersonHenry MillerDjuna BarnesArchibald MacLeish
  • 8. Others in the Paris CommunitySamuel BeckettAnais NinGerald and Sara MurphyLawrence DurellFord Madox FordPablo Picasso
  • 9. Ernest Hemingway Volunteered for the army in 1917 Served in Italy – handled maimed bodies Wounded in 1918 – heroically saved a man’s life Returned to the U.S. (age 19), bored with “normal life.” Married, took wife and son to Paris in 1921 Blurred lines between fiction/nonfiction/journalism
  • 10. John Dos Passos Harvard Graduate Volunteered for the ambulance corps in 1917 Remained in Paris after the war, studied at the Sorbonne Became a “social revolutionary.” Manhattan Transfer/ USA/stream of consciousness
  • 11. H.D. (Hilda Doolittle) Poet, novelist, memoirist Moved to London in 1911 – Imagist movement Mentored by Ezra Pound WWI - lost brother and marriage Bisexual – championed gay rights/feminism Magna Graeca novels influenced by Freud
  • 12. Djuna Barnes Born in log cabin in NY Grandmother Zadel Barnes Women’s suffragist activist Bohemian community in Greenwich Village Journalist influenced by James Joyce Went to Paris in 1920 Ryder- novel of a polygamous household
  • 13. Scott Fitzgerald First published story at age 13 Graduated from Princeton The Great Gatsby/1925 Made excursions to Paris with Zelda Trouble writing (alcoholism) Hemingway befriended him
  • 14. The Lost Generation Hemingway the chronicler/voice of the “Lost Generation.” The Sun Also Rises A Moveable Feast The “Pilot Fish” analogy “Never any ending to Paris.”