Adapting cities to climate variability and change bob


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  • Jakarta as the capital city is fail to manage climate change related disaster risk. Jakarta also has problem managing unplanned spatial development which resulted: floods, access to clean water, solid waste management and others. Being a waterfront city Jakarta also facing land subsidence and forced to absorb water flows from highlands.
  • As you can see here northern part of Jakarta where the three pilot Kelurahan/sub district located is suffering from land subsidence causing it to be vulnerable to sea water flood and flood from river clogging from highlands water flow.
  • This slide shows the topographic condition of the city. The three major rivers channeling waters from highland. High rainfall causing the river to flood in North and west part of Jakarta.
  • Year by year loss caused by flood increased. The National Planning board estimates the loss is about US$ 900 million in 2007.
  • This is a fried tofu street peddler who still try to sell his food despite the unfavorable condition.
  • Currently Jakarta has the strongest momentum to date as several initiatives are underway. The Jakarta Urgent Flood Mitigation Project (JUFMP) is under preparation and is an important public sector investment project that will have significant benefits for reducing flood risks. This Project shows the commitment of the Central and Provincial Governments. On the other hand, Governorial Decree No. 147 year of 2009 on Organisation and Working Mechanism of Kelurahan. The decree stipulated that Kelurahan has authority to implement some tasks delegated by Municipality such as: community health, local safe and order and environmental cleansing. Developing a continuous flow in governance processes through inter-relationships among Government at the Regional and Local levels, and reaching out to communities to increase civic participation provides a tremendous opportunity for initiating the momentum towards developing sustainable practices.
  • The situation presents opportunities to improve the current conditions: (i) at a policy level with the DKI Provincial level Government, helping to identify systemic and institutional challenges; and (ii) facilitation of community engagement programs by targeting a set of carefully chosen Kelurahan’s associated with JUFMP as pilot locations. This initiative comes at a unique juncture of overall developments occurring in Jakarta and has strong support by the Local Government. The initiative is situated in the three Kelurahan/Sub Districts located in the most vulnerable area in the Northern part of Jakarta. These sub districts are Pademangan Barat, Pluit and KapukMuara.
  • LRAP is a climate-change action plan document at Kelurahan level formulated by community through participatory planning process. The objective of LRAP are as following:to improve community awareness related to climate change, impacts and response need to be taken;To formulate participatory action plan in dealing with climate change impacts and to increase community resilience;To integrate climate change action plan and annual development program in Kelurahan;To provide guidance for stakeholder in relation to climate change activities.
  • The formulation of annual development plan at province/municipality level began with the implementation of annual development meeting starting from neighborhood unit, kelurahan, subdistrict, municality, province and national. The process was designed to accomodate the community needs and aspirations regarding with the development of their areas. Beside to accomodate community needs, the annual development meeting at lowest level can be used as the forum for integration of all development projects taken part in the area. In case of Jakarta, Kelurahan has a big potential to coordinate and to manage the development projects undertaken in the area. There are so many source of funds coming from national project and province taken place at kelurahan area. This is to support the idea of promoting Lurah as Urban Manager in their respective areas.
  • Regarding with the formulation of LRAP, there is also urgent need to integrate the LRAP model into annual development planning process at Kelurahan level. Although, the scope of LRAP is only limited to climate-change related issues, but there are opportunities to cover all development issues in Kelurahan. Climate change issue become a starting point to open-up community awareness on the importance of their participation in development planning process as well as to make sure their voices heard by decision makers.It is also possible for Provincial Government of DKI Jakarta to adopt and to replicate the approaches have been developed under LRAP formulation to other Kelurahan’s. The LRAP model can be used as ‘planning document at Kelurahan level integrated all development projects undertaken in the area.
  • Adapting cities to climate variability and change bob

    1. 1. Balance between community engagement and supportingfacilitation roles of the local government to reduce theimpacts of climate changeBob Eko KurniawanWorld Water Week, Stockholm 2011
    2. 2. A Vulnerable City Jakarta as the political and economic center of Indonesia with populationestimate is roughly 9 million, has the largest Gross Domestic Regional Productamong all provinces (17% of total GDP). Jakarta only has 1.8% piped sewerage treatment coverage. Unplanned spatial development has resulted in many direct and residual impactsthat Jakarta struggles with, including: floods, access to clean water, solid wastemanagement, wastewater management, fires, etc. Land subsidence is crippling the flood management system, which has resultedin expanded inundation areas as well as increased vulnerabilities to tidal floodingin coastal areas.
    3. 3. Sea water level increase willfloods Jakarta to over 160.4Km2 or 24.3% of total city areaby 2050
    4. 4. Topographic Condition Consisted of 5 cities and one district with 42sub district and 265 villages. Jakarta in 2010has 9,588,198 registered residences in about661, 51 Sq, making Jakarta become the mostdensely populated place in Indonesia (14,494people per Sq. Km). Jakarta is located in the northern lowlandcoastal of Java. Since 1654, Jakarta has been hit by a flood asthe forest in Puncak cleared for teaplantation development. Three major rivers (Sunter River, Ciliwung /Liwung River, and Angke-Pesanggrahanrivers) flows through the administrative areaof Jakarta, watershed of those three riversstarted from Puncak Area thus anyexceeding water flowing through any of thisriver may ended up causing flood in Jakarta.Located inlowland of JavaWatershed & some rivers in JakartaSource: Martin Hardiono
    5. 5. Loss Caused by Flood Disaster 2007 flood: financial loss up to US$ 900 million, andEconomic cost of human life, health costs, labor andschools days lost. 2008 flood: caused 30 deaths and shut down Jakarta’sinternational airport for three days
    6. 6. So….what to do?
    7. 7. Balancing Community Empowermentwith Government Supportive RoleCommunityEmpowermentGovernmentSupportiveRole
    8. 8. Community Engagement ThroughKelurahan Empowerment InitiativesProvincial LevelProvincial Advisory Committee(PAC)Sub district LevelSub District Working Group(SDWG)ExpertsURDI, ITBBMKGGoI AgenciesSelectedKelurahans/SubDistrictsVulnerability Assessments CommunityEngagementCommunityLocal GovernmentApparatusLRAPTechnical AssistanceJ U F M P
    9. 9. Formulating LRAP1. Getting toStart2. StakeholderAnalysis3. CommunityBasedVulnerability andCapacityAssessment6. ResilienceCriteria forAction Plan7.Prioritisation8. Monitoringand Evaluasi4. IdentifyingStrategic/ActionsOptions5. ActionPlanining
    10. 10. Participatory Planning through theAnnual Development MeetingAnsweredCommunityAspiration(MusrenRW)KelurahanWorking PlanPPMKPNPMOperational budgetAsmas BudgetKecamatan AnnualDevelopmentPlanningStored /ForwardedAnsweredStored /ForwardedKecamatanWorking PlanStoredKelurahan AnnualDevelopmentPlanningCity AnnualDevelopmentPlanningAnsweredLocal Working Unit(UKPD) WorkingPlanStored /ForwardedProvincial AnnualDevelopmentPlanningOperationalbudgetAsmas BudgetAnsweredSectoral StrategicPlan (SKPD)Working PlanLocal Working UnitPriorityRegional Priority, LongtermProvincial Working UnitPriorityPriority, Mid termINPUTASMAS
    11. 11. Integration of LRAP Process intoAnnual Development Planning ProcessLRAPArrangementsCityInvestmentCommunityEmpowermentProgramPre Annual Development PlanAnnual DevelopmentPlanAnnual DevelopmentPlanPre Annual Development PlanForumMunicipalAnnual DevelopmentPlanMunicipalAnnual DevelopmentPlanProvincialAnnualDevelopment PlanNationalAnnualDevelopmentPlan
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