revel in bringing back another classic 70s gameshow!
WORLD CITIES! Contemporary urbanisation processes Urban decline and regeneration within urban areas Retailing and other services Contemporary sustainability issues in urban areas
“ What do they mean?!”
What is a millionaire city?
What is a megacity?
What is a world city?
Come up with a definition for each, thinking caps on per favor - Premium Crank Points TM are available!
Key Key Terms
Millionaire City – a city with more than 1million people
(India & China have the most in the world)
Megacity – a city with more than 10million people
(20 in the world, of which 15 are in LEDCs)
Key Key Terms
World City – a city with great influence on a global scale, because of financial status and worldwide commercial power
Which three cities sit at the top of the global hierarchy?
Key Key Terms
These house the HQ of many mega TNCs
Centres of world finance
International consumer services
There are other major ones of course – LA, Paris, Singapore, Sao Paulo...
Big Big Cities!
Almost 50% of the world’s population lives in towns and cities!
And 19% lives in a city of more than 1million people, or as we now call it, a millionaire city
Where Is It?!?
Which areas do you think urbanised first?
Which areas of the world do you think are increasing most rapidly?
Urbanisation – which areas?!
Where Is It?!?
Increasing rapidly in Africa and Asia
By 2025, almost the half the pop of these continents will live in urban areas – 80% of all urban dwellers will live in LEDCs
Hand in Hand...
The level of urbanisation tends to increase at the same time as rapid economic development - of course China, India etc are developing economically
In MEDCs, urban population peaked in 1970s and is now falling steadily
What does the map show?
Niger Ethiopia Oman
Saudi Arabia Libya Sweden
The causes of urban growth
Natural population growth
There tends to be more young people in cities as it is the young that are most likely to migrate from rural areas. They then have children meaning the rates of natural increase are higher in cities.
2. Rural-urban migration
This is divided into push and pull factors.
PUSH From rural
PUSH From rural Population growth – not enough land to support the people. Leads to over-farming and low yields Agricultural problems – due to desertification, subdivision of land into smaller plots and debt on loans taken out to help pay for agricultural change. Health - Local diseases and inadequate medical provision. Cash crops – land traditionally used to grow food for locals now used to produce crops for money. Natural disasters – floods, tropical storms, earthquakes.. Wars and civil strike cause people to flee
PULL to urban
PULL to urban Employment- in factories and service industries such as hotels – better paid than rural area jobs. Informal employment – selling on the street, providing transport eg. rickshaw, prostitution. Better quality social provisions – education, healthcare, entertainment…. A perceived better quality of life
There has been an economic shift in advanced economies from goods production to information handling.
Globalisation has led to manufacturing shifting from traditional centres such as Manchester to lower wage economies eg. China
World cities are identified as places of innovation and entrepreneurialism.
Are part of a network of learning consisting of clusters of universities, company research bases and so on. They may be seen as ‘science cities’ or ‘creative hubs’.
Tend to have shed a lot of their routine activities to other countries.
Offer a wide range of jobs – but mainly at either the top end or low end – this leads to increased differentiation in types of residential areas within these cities.
In Western Europe, London is the only indisputable world city. Paris perhaps also qualifies.
Below them are national capital cities and a number of specialised cities eg. Milan, Stuttgart, Manchester. These are called sub-world cities.
Within Europe high-speed train and air travel has developed to allow convenient face-to-face contact.
These important centres have shown dynamism in adapting to the loss of traditional manufacturing and goods-handling.