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Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications
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Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications

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by 邵廣昭 (K-T Shao) 林朝欽 (C-C Lin)

by 邵廣昭 (K-T Shao) 林朝欽 (C-C Lin)

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    • 1. 生物多樣性資料與出版品公眾授權的議題與挑戰 邵廣昭 (K-T Shao) 林朝欽 (C-C Lin) 中央研究院生物多樣性研究中心 行政院農委會林業試驗所 20090327-- AS 資訊所 (25mins) Issues and Challenges in Public Licensing of Biodiversity Data and Publications Research Center for Biodiversity, Academia Sinica Taiwan Forest Research Institute, Council of Agriculture
    • 2. 保育需要公開且足夠的資訊 (vs. 智財權 ) Conservation needs open and sufficient information (vs. IPR) <ul><li>生物多樣性資料的整合與公開是達成生物多樣性公約要求完成之重要工作,唯有足夠及分享的資訊,才能達成生物多樣性保育及資源永續利用的目標。 </li></ul><ul><li>In order to meet the tasks stipulated by the Convention on Biological Diversity, it is essential that biodiversity data be integrated and accessible; only through sufficient and shared information can the objectives of biodiversity conservation and resource sustainability be achieved. </li></ul>
    • 3. 國際自然保育聯盟 -- 保育之創用 IUCN - Conservation Commons <ul><li>理念 (purpose) :公開並公平的使用保育及生物多樣性之相關資料與數據 (1995 由一些組織倡議, 2004 年由 IUCN 正式推動 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Free and open access & equally use the conservation and biodiversity data, information and knowledge (initiated in 1995 by several organizations and formally promoted by IUCN in 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.conservationcommons.org/ </li></ul>
    • 4. 正式簽署成員包括 <ul><li>超過 93 個非政府組織、政府單位、博物館、學術單位 和 100 個以上的個人 ( 團体代表 ) 正式連署 </li></ul><ul><li>More than 93 NGO, GO, museums and academic institutions and 100+ individuals formally endorsed </li></ul><ul><li>在其 Steering 委員會中,包括的工作會員 (Staff member) 單位有 </li></ul><ul><li>IUCN, NASA, National Geographic Society, </li></ul><ul><li>BirdLife International, Nature Serve, Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>International, CRIA-Brazil, The Natural </li></ul><ul><li>Conservancy, GBIF, UNEP WCMC </li></ul>Participants who signed the MoU IUCN - Members of “Conservation Commons”
    • 5. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) is an international organisation that is working to make the world's biodiversity data accessible via internet. Sharing primary scientific biodiversity data to benefit society, science and a sustainable future. GBIF's members include countries and international organisations(82 members), 282 Data Providers, 170 M records. 全球生物多樣性資訊機構 G LOBAL B IODIVERSITY I NFORMATION F ACILITY GBIF , http://www.gbif.org/
    • 6. All GBIF data by one-degree cell (darker colours representing more records) 1.7 億筆博物館標本及其分布之資料 170 M georeferenced records mapped to a 1 X 1 degree grid
    • 7. GBIF’s National Nodes GBIF 之國家節點或入口網站 ( GBIF’s National Nodes or Portals ) 82 members -- 47 countries, 35 organizations plus CBD Secretariat. Each country has its’ own NODE.
    • 8. Integrate Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network with global databases (TaiBIF/TELDAP  GBIF) GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility) Species 2000 ITIS, BIOS BioNET-International …… Species 2000 AO, ASEANET …… PACINET, PBIF Global organisms database e.g. FishBase TaiBIF /TELDAP (national node of GBIF) Global Regional (Asia, Asian Oceania or Pacific) Taiwan TaiBNET (species checklist & experts namelist) NDAP (specimen database) TBRD (distribution database) Local organisms database (e.g. Fish database of Taiwan) Local Institutions, NGO, heritages, projects and publications etc.
    • 9. RECOMMENDATION ON OPEN ACCESS TO BIODIVERSITY DATA (Adopted by GBIF Governing Board on Jan. 1 2006) • Promote that species and specimen level data and associated metadata that are generated in funded projects are made publicly available through mechanisms cooperating with GBIF, within a specified period after completion of the supported research. GBIF – 公開生物多樣性資料之建言 由公務預算調查所得之物種及標本層級之資料在完成研究之一定期限內應予公開
    • 10. 最近 EU ( 歐盟 ) 正籲請科學家簽署響應 「公務預算所完成之科學研究調查資料應予公開使用」 Petition for guaranteed public access to publicly-funded research results -- Our mission of disseminating knowledge is only half complete if the information is not made widely and readily available to society. Berlin Declaration, October 2003 27,629 signatories since January 17th, 2007. http://www.ec-petition.eu/
    • 11. <ul><li>生物多樣性資料不易取得的原因 –需有分類或生態專家的知識及經驗 , 才能鑑別物種並取得樣本及資料 </li></ul><ul><li>Why difficult to collect biodiversity data – 1. needs taxonomists’ or ecologists’ knowledge and experience to identify species and get samples or data from the filed. </li></ul>
    • 12. 生物多樣性資料 vs. DNA 資料或環境因子資料 -- 2. 後者可經由儀噐 at lab or 自環境中連續監測、自動擷取即記錄得到,甚至可由軟 體分析。 Biodiversity data vs. molecular data or environmental data -- 2. The genetic or DNA data or the ordinary environmental data which can be obtained by using instrument, automatic monitoring equipment or analytic software. 故 生物多樣性資料 更需尊重資料提供者之著作權。 Biodiversity data calls for more serious respect for intellectual property rights.
    • 13. 譬如沿岸水文水質之自動監測網 The Coastal Environmental Monitoring Network of Taiwan <ul><li>The data are transmitted to the data center in the Coastal Ocean Monitoring Center in National Cheng Kung University in real-time via GSM, Radio or Iridium satellite. </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement Items </li></ul><ul><li>Waves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wave height, period, direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directional Spectrum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current profile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-D currents by ADCP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marine Meteorological factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barometric Pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind speed/direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolved Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turbidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll a </li></ul></ul>2.5m Disc Data buoy Total Station 1m Water Quality Buoy
    • 14. 政府 出版品方面 ,過去委託單位在與作者簽約時,均只載明著作權係屬於原作者,而委託單位只有使用權,且未明載可授權給第三者使用,或是創用 (cc) 授權。 3. Photo has more commercial values than text With respect to government publications , the commissioning party in the past when signing with an author merely specified that the original author holds the copyright and the commissioning party holds the right of use. The right for the commissioning party to authorize third party users was not spelt out, nor was the use of Creative Commons (CC) authorized. As a result, most of government publications, even if there are electronic files of them, can not be uploaded to the web for public use; a very regrettable practice. Therefore, government agencies in the future should request an author to sign the CC Attribution License so that publications can be made publicly available online.
    • 15. The 1st Official “Catalog of Life of Taiwan”, native species checklist will be published with the CD-ROM in Dec. 2008 – Totally 50000+ native species 出版台灣物種名錄及物種多樣性研究 (97/12)
    • 16. Automatic taxa counts
    • 17. 只有名錄,少照片;但照片取得不易。除非委辦單位或主管要求。但品質好的照片拍攝者常不願提供 Only species list, few photos, difficult to get photos unless boss request. People always reluctant to provide good photos.
    • 18. 提供上網公開的照片可給低解析度者 Can provide low resolution images to the web <ul><li>以數位典藏為例: </li></ul><ul><li>典藏級 - 原始圖檔 解析度最佳 檔案可能非常大 </li></ul><ul><li>瀏覽級 - 公開給大眾 解析度較低 方便瀏覽 </li></ul><ul><li>Image resolution: </li></ul><ul><li>For digital archives – original image file; resolution highest; file size may be large </li></ul><ul><li>For website browsing – open to the public; resolution lower; run faster </li></ul>
    • 19. 整合資料的好處 The benefit of data integration: <ul><li>協助資料備份(異地備份) </li></ul><ul><li>Assist with data backup (data stored in different places) </li></ul><ul><li>回饋社會,學術服務,納稅人的權利 ( 公帑 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Repay society; academic services; rights of taxpayers </li></ul><ul><li>您的資料被點閱的機會愈多 </li></ul><ul><li>Increase hits of the data </li></ul><ul><li>協助將政府所投資之龐大科學研究及調查經費落實,將原始資料建檔保存,不致於在計劃結束後,無法取得原始數位檔案資料,或只是取得文件式報告 </li></ul><ul><li>Assist government in the implementation of scientific research results which the government investigates huge funding in; preserve raw data so that they, and not just the document reports, are available to the government after a project ends </li></ul><ul><li>資料可再利用與分析,如使用 EML , Ecological Niche Model………… </li></ul><ul><li>Re-utilize and -analyze raw data, such as applying EML, Ecological Niche Model, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>資源保育及永續利用,經營管理政策之重要工具,如生物多樣性量化指標 </li></ul><ul><li>As essential tools for resource conservation and sustainable use as well as management policies, e.g. biodiversity quantitative indicator </li></ul>
    • 20. 2005 年雖己頒佈 政府資訊公開法 ,公務預算之資料及政府出版品仍 多 無法上網公開 <ul><li>(1) 著作權或智財權的問題難以釐清; </li></ul><ul><li>The difficulty in clarifying copyright or IPR questions , </li></ul><ul><li>(2) 政府機構的本位主義; </li></ul><ul><li>The departmentalism of government agencies, </li></ul><ul><li>(3) 未要求委辦計畫之資料應授權公開; </li></ul><ul><li>The negligence of government to request commissioned projects to grant it the authorization to release data, </li></ul><ul><li>(4) 提供資料或建置資料庫者沒有研究的成績; </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of giving research credit to people who provide primary data or build databases, </li></ul><ul><li>(5) 多數研究人員均不願公開自己尚未分析及發表的資料 </li></ul><ul><li>The reluctance of researchers to release not-yet-analyzed or -published data; </li></ul>Although government had announced the “Government information Disclosure Policy” in 2005 , the amount of open accessed information and government publications on the internet are still limited
    • 21. Digital contents produced are requested to upload to the Union Catalog. 資料需繳聯合目錄 The Union Catalog planned to use the Creative Commons license model. 聯合目錄用 cc To use CC in the Union Catalog, content producers’ agreements in using CC is required. TELDAP then started IPR inventory, found that not all properties are CC suitable. 但發現並非所有資料均可 cc 授權,只好重新盤點 The Union Catalog now uses a page describing its copyright notices. 只好用自己方式授權 The Culture Portal naturally wanted to derive contents from the Union Catalog. But content producers only license to the Union Catalog. 資料只授權聯合目錄,卻不能給同計劃的國際入口網用 The Culture Portal then requests licenses on a per-project basis. 只好重簽授權書 The Culture Portal is now composing its copyright notices. 雖己簽妥,但所給資料很有限,品質亦不佳 資料不能在同一計劃的不同網站上使同
    • 22. <ul><li>1. 在委辦計劃合約中增加要求提供分類及生態分布之數位化原始資料檔,並作為考核之依據。 ( 各部會 ) </li></ul>1. The raw materials of research projects on taxonomic or ecological investigation granted by government agencies need to be digitized, archived and submitted, which should be regulated by relevant regulations or contracts. 解决辦法 Possible solutions
    • 23. 已向行政院永續會提案 Proposal submitted to Executive Yuan, Sustainability Committee <ul><li>議案名稱 : </li></ul><ul><li>應積極推動生物多樣性資料跨部會之整合,並要求公部門所委託計劃之主持人於計劃結束後,應將原始分布資料建檔繳交,以避免資料流失,亦利於未來生物資源之研究、保育與管理之分析及應用。 </li></ul><ul><li>Motion title: </li></ul><ul><li>Actively promote cross-institution integration of biodiversity information; call for the directors of commissioned projects to submit primary species-occurrence data when a project ends to avoid data loss, and to facilitate analysis and application of future research, conservation and management of biological resources. </li></ul>
    • 24. <ul><li>要求各部會能訂定期程逐步完成下列工作: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) 政府各機構在各類與生物多樣性調查相關之計畫執行同意書中,加入於計畫結束後應繳交 原始資料數位檔 的條款。。 </li></ul><ul><li>(2) 至於資料 應公開之期限、交換平台、交換機制資料之倉儲及維護,以及各部會內如何分工、整合及共享資料 等,均可再作進一步之研議。 </li></ul><ul><li>Request government agencies to set up timeline to complete the following tasks step by step: </li></ul><ul><li>( 1) Various government agencies, when signing execution agreements on biodiversity investigation-related work, should add a term demanding the surrender of digitized raw data after a project ends. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) As to how long the data should remain open to the public; what the exchange platform and mechanism for data storage and maintenance should be; and how to divide and integrate the work and to share data ; they can all be discussed and decided later on. </li></ul>
    • 25. NSC 研究計劃委託合約書第三點擬修正 <ul><li>生物處計劃之合約 </li></ul><ul><li>如係生物多樣性調查相關計畫(野外採集、觀測、樣本戶問卷),乙方應將調查所獲得之時空分布原始資料( raw data ),包含調查方法、欄位定義及監測數據等資料及授權同意書,依規定格式上傳至甲方所委託之資料庫及網站 (上傳資料格式及授權同意書,詳見該網站) </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of biodiversity survey-related projects (field collection, observation, sampling questionnaire), Party B should upload, in accordance with the agreed formats, the temporal and spatial distribution raw data which include survey methodology, field definition and monitoring data as well as License Agreement to the database and website commissioned by Party A (see the website for uploading format and License Agreement). </li></ul>
    • 26. 討論題綱 Issues <ul><li>1. 如何蒐集並要求調查者繳交原始資料 </li></ul><ul><li>How to collect raw data and submit them </li></ul><ul><li>2. 資料公開之期限(智財權問題) </li></ul><ul><li>When to make data available to the public (the IPR </li></ul><ul><li>issue) </li></ul><ul><li>3. 資料之格式、交換平台 </li></ul><ul><li>What are the format and exchange platform of data </li></ul><ul><li>4. 資料之倉儲及維護(分散或集中式) </li></ul><ul><li>How to store and maintain data (distributed or </li></ul><ul><li>centralized) </li></ul><ul><li>5. 部會間如何分工、整合,共享資料 </li></ul><ul><li>How to cooperate among institutions and how to </li></ul><ul><li>integrate and share data </li></ul>Database Policy Meeting at NSC Proposed by GBIF-ROC Committee
    • 27. <ul><li>2. 己 組成「生物多樣性資訊整合委員」,含各機構代表及學者專家,如此方可相互分工、凝聚共識、齊心協力、格式統一、永續經營。 ( 中研院 ) </li></ul>2. An inter-agency committee (GBIF-ROC) on biodiversity data integration has been set up to work out a unified database format and technology to facilitate database integration in the future.
    • 28. 己在 2008 年 3 月成立 GBIF 中華民國委員會 <ul><li>目的:推動跨部會跨資料庫之整合及公開,並與國際接軌 </li></ul><ul><li>當然委員: </li></ul><ul><li>中研院 (AS) 、國科會 (NSC) 、農委會 (COA) 、內政部 (MOI) 、經濟部 (MOEc) 、原民會 (COAb) 、教育部 (MOEd) 、環保署 (EPA) 及交通部 (MOT) 各一位代表,共 9 人。 </li></ul><ul><li>聘任委員: 共 16 人 </li></ul><ul><li>張清風 ( 國科會生物處 ) 方國運(農委會林務局保育組組長 ) </li></ul><ul><li>邵廣昭 (TaiBIF & TaiBNET) 嚴漢偉 ( 中研院計中 ) </li></ul><ul><li>李文雄 ( 中研院多樣中心) 李德財 ( 中研院資訊所 ) </li></ul><ul><li>湯曉虞 ( 農委會特生中心主任 ) 廖啓成 ( 食品工業發展研究所副所長 ) </li></ul><ul><li>高秋芳 ( 國研院資策中心組長 ) 邱祈榮 ( 台大森林環境暨資源學系) </li></ul><ul><li>林朝欽 ( 農委會林試所研究員 ) 呂學榮 ( 海大環漁系副教授 ) </li></ul><ul><li>周文豪 ( 科博館副館長 ) 劉靜怡 ( 臺大國家發展研究教授 ) </li></ul><ul><li>謝長富 ( 台大生態與演化所教授 沈怡玲 ( 農委會林務局森林企劃組) </li></ul>
    • 29. 3. In addition to SCI reports and indicators of impact factors, digitized material such as number of records (of specimen collected, ecological distribution and DNA sequence) archived and uploaded to the Internet, i.e., “Repository Impact Factor” should also be considered in the merit system and research performance evaluation. 3. 研究成果考核除依據 SCI 期刋報告之篇數及影響因子外,數位化資訊之筆數,如典藏標本數、生態分布資料、 DNA 序列及上網公開等,此即 ”典藏影響因子” ,亦應列入考核研究表現評比之指標。
    • 30. 4. It is necessary to discuss and decide on how to collect and open access to data under the existing IPR regulations in order to remove obstacles to data collection and to build up mutual trust. The organization in charge of data integration should have only the custody but not the ownership of the data until data provider retired . The data and genetic materials must not be provided to any third party without the consent of the original owners. 4. 在現有之智財權規範下應速研訂資料收集及開放之機制,以消弭整合資料之阻力及建立互信。 在資料提供者退休前 , 負責資料整合之機構應只有 監護權 而非 所有權 。在未經原提供者之同意或授權下不能逕自提供他人使用。
    • 31. Biodiversity Data
    • 32.  
    • 33. Ecosystem
    • 34. Persistent ? digital and physical data stores, moderately accessible 80% ? digital Ecological & Ecosystem Data accessible with difficulty <5% digital Species- & Specimen Data Persistent digital universally accessible data stores 95% digital Molecular Sequence & Gene/Genome Data Subdomain Digital Status Common Use Licensing Data Status Status of Biodiversity Scientific Data Persistent physical data stores
    • 35. (Michener et al. 1997) Problem of Common Use-Data Entropy Information Content Time Time of publication Specific details General details Accident Retirement or career change Death Data Entropy
    • 36. Problem of Common Use-Lack of Tools Raw data Information/ Knowledge Management, Archiving, & Curation Discovery, Retrieval, & Integration Analysis, Synthesis, & Forecasting
    • 37.  
    • 38. 臺灣物種名錄 Catalog of Life in Taiwan , TaiBNET http://TaiBNET.sinica.edu.tw
    • 39.  
    • 40.  
    • 41.  
    • 42. Promotion and Communication of Submitting and Opening Data for Public by NSC
    • 43. The End

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