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Practical Applications of Digital Audio Networking
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Practical Applications of Digital Audio Networking

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There are dozens of audio networking protocols, most of which are not interoperable, meaning you need specific brands or lots of interfaces to connect them together. Bob Vanden Burgt of Link USA ...

There are dozens of audio networking protocols, most of which are not interoperable, meaning you need specific brands or lots of interfaces to connect them together. Bob Vanden Burgt of Link USA discusses the evolution of networking in the live audio industry including the transport protocol "wars", remote control and monitoring, and the challenges facing the audio industry today and tomorrow from a networking standpoint.

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Practical Applications of Digital Audio Networking Practical Applications of Digital Audio Networking Presentation Transcript

  • Practical Applications for Digital Audio NetworkingUmberto Zanghieri - ZP Engineering srl(The Smart Guy who is not here today and would be happy to talk about thistopic for two days)Bob Vanden Burgt - Link USA/Link Italy(The Not So Smart Guy doing the Presentation who promises to be done inone hour) People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Practical Applications forDigital Audio Networking History of Digital Audio Networking AES & Evolution of OSI Layers The Current State of the Industry (fragmented at best) Transport Protocol Wars Remote Control & Monitoring Today’s Digital Challenge & Examples Where are We Going from Here? People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Moving Audio Around in a Live Production Environment Things to Care About Quality (Fidelity) Speed & Priority (Latency - milliseconds/ microseconds, QoS) Synchronization (Clocking) Distance (Coax, CAT6, MMF, SMF) Flexibility / Compatibility (Topologies / Sharing Hardware) Cost Reliability / Redundancy Compatibility / Standards AES, IEEE People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • History of Digital Networking Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) & Sampling In 1924 while working for AT&T Harry Nyquist studied this sampling technique and developed the Nyquist Sampling Theorem. This theorem states that an analog signal can be uniquely reconstructed, without error, from samples taken at equal time intervals if the sampling rate is equalSampling Rate = 2(BW) = 2(3300 Hz) = to, or greater than, twice the highest 6600 Samples per Second frequency component in the analog signal. People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • History of Digital NetworkingPublic Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) Coder-Decoder (CODEC) or ADC / DAC People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • History of Digital Networking Pulse Code ModulationPublic Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) CODECs use a method called Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) to convert the analog signals to digital bit streams. PCM uses a technique called sampling to obtain instantaneous voltage values at specific times in the analog signal cycle. This sample generates a Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) signal. People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Pro Audio & PCMLinear PCM (uncompressed), typ. Wordlength (bit depth) from 16 to 24 bits with sampling frequencies between 44-192kHzPulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analogsignals. It is the standard form for digital audio in computers and various Blu-ray, DVD andCompact Disc formats, as well as other uses such as digital telephone systems. A PCMstream is a digital representation of an analog signal, in which the magnitude of the analogsignal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, with each sample being quantized to thenearest value within a range of digital steps.PCM streams have two basic properties that determine their fidelity to the original analogsignal: the sampling rate, which is the number of times per second that samples aretaken; and the bit depth, which determines the number of possible digital values thateach sample can take. People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Audio-over-EthernetLinear PCM (Reference – CD is 16 bit resolution, 44.1kHz) People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • History of Digital Networking Recording in the 1990’s • Digital Audio Workstations • Token Ring Networks for moving audio data (not real time) • Evolution of the DSP > Why shouldn’t the transport be digital? People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • History of Digital Networking AES Standards • 1985 AES3 – AES/EBU (RS422 Derived) 2 Channels @ 192kHz • 1991 AES10 – MADI (FDDI – Fibre Disrtib Data Interface) 56 > 64 Channels @ 96kHz • 2005 AES50>SuperMAC/ HyperMAC (Midas-KT) 24 Ch @ 96kHz/192 Ch @ 96kHz People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Ethernet – Evolution of OSI Drawing Courtesy of Pro AVLayer 1 Protocols i.e. A-Net, REAC, Rocknet, AES50Layer 2 Protocols i.e.EtherSound, CobraNetLayer 3/4 Protocols i.e. Dante, Livewire, Q-Lan / Q-Sys, RAVENNA,Emerging Standards - Avnu & AVB People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Audio-over-Ethernet What is it?Deployment of an Ethernet network to transfer digital audio streams in real-timeLinear PCM (uncompressed), typ. Wordlength (bit depth) from 16 to 24 bits with sampling frequencies between 44-192kHz • multichannel, high channel count (~60 channels in each direction) • audo channels are generally bundled in clusters • low latency (< 6 ms) but with DSP transport expectations = <1ms • no packet loss in normal operating conditions People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Audio-over-Ethernet(AoE) – why?Larger maximum distance (60-70 m with analog cables, ~ 100 m AoE on copper , ~2km AoE on fibre)rerouting and splitting are now possible(without manual changes to connections, without manual patch bays)redundancy at reasonable costscontrol data and audio transport can be combined on a single connectioncables are less expensvie and less bulky 64-channel balanced analog multicore (data from Eurocable) Weight ! around 1,3 kg/m Cost ! around20 times the cost of a ruggedized CAT5e cable People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Audio-over-EthernetEthernet transport (IEEE 802.3) 1980  Ethernet 1985  IEEE 802.3 1990  10 Mbps (10baseT) Used for first AoE implementations CobraNet Enough bandwidth for reasonable multichannel 1995  100 Mbps (100baseTX) operation 1999  1000 Mbps (1000baseT) Hundreds of channels can be allocated 2002-2008  10 Gbps (10GbaseT) 2007-2011  40/100 Gbps 2010/11  Ethernet AVB People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Audio-over-Ethernet People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Linear PCM requirements ANALOG SIGNAL One audio channel 48 kHz 96 kHz 192 kHz 24-bit PCM ADC 1.15 Mbps 2.30 Mbps 4.60 Mbps Protocol Bit rate (48 Bit rate (96 format Channels overhead kHz) kHz)AES/EBU 2 (48, 96, 192 kHz) 25% 3 Mbps 6 MbpsADAT 8 (48 kHz) 25% 12.3 Mbps 24.5 Mbps People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Audio-over-Ethernet Ethernet transport is packet-based At layer/2 level, in order to ensure compatbility with Ethernet devices (such as switches, fomat converters) and with electronic devices it is required to generate frames starting from audio data Compromise between latency, max channel count and cluster size People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Audio-over-Ethernet The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) provides a very efficient, message oriented encapsulation for data. It is well suited to real time applications and forms the basis for the Realtime Transport Protocol (RTP) People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Audio-over-Ethernet Fewer channels and low latency  optimal bandwidthMore Channelsand higher latency  usage People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Audio-over-Ethernet People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Audio-over-EthernetCobranet• designed on 10 Mbps networks in the 90s, compatible with modern networks• sync propogation (audio clock) with beat packets• over 1 million nodes installed worldwide• designed in USA by Peak Audio• available as an OEM module• the technology has been acquired by a silicon foundry• now available on a single chip• switch-compatible protocol• non-audio data traffic can interfere• latency = 1.33-5 ms, allows routing of low-channel count clusters (bundles) People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Audio-over-EthernetEthersound• designed for 100 Mbps networks• uses all the available bandwidth, to transfer the maximum number of channels• designed for maximum reliability and minimum latency (125 us)• designed in France by Digigram• available and an OEM module and under license• compatiile with some switches (verified by the technology provider)• does not allow simultaneous non/audio data traffic People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Audio-over-EthernetAES50, HyperMAC• designed by Sony Oxford labs• adopted by Midas / Klark Teknik• now promoted by Midas/KlarkTeknik• AES50: audio and clock transmission over cat5 and 100BaseT• 48x48 ch @ 48 kHz• 24x24 ch @ 96 kHz• HyperMAC: 256x256 ch on 1000BaseT People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Audio-over-EthernetDante• designed for 1 Gbps networks, external branches can go at 10 Mbps• clock recovery is based on packet timestamping (IEEE-1588)• compatible with non-audio traffic (switches need management configuration)• designed in Australia by Audinate• available as an OEM module• native driver on host• high-performance PCI-Express card available (128x128 ch at 96 kHz) People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • AudVidBridge & Dante People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • How Many More RJ45 Jacks…? People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Digital Networking Today The Current State of the Industry Transport Protocol Wars, It’s a Mess! Many are Proprietary Lack of easy digital interoperability Require multiple cabling topologies and disparate signal types Non Standard or Specialized Equipment Remote Control & Monitoring for Devices is a Completely Separate Issue (Open Control Alliance) People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • The Digital Challenge AES-EBU MADI CobraNet EtherSound Dante 75 Ohm With SD Digico x Coax Rack Avid 75 Ohm Venue x Profile CoaxSoundcraft x CAT5/7 CAT5 CAT 5 Vi Yamaha x x CAT5 CAT5/6 CAT6 M7 CL People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • The Digital Challenge People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Solution Examples AES/EBU Drive + Canbus D&B PM1D, Link Yamaha system Midas Pro6 AES50 & HyperMAC Avid Venue with 6x75 Cable PM5D, Dante, Dglink, M7CL ES, EtherSound / Dante DGLink, LabGruppen Digico SD7, SD Rack, 6 x75 CablePeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • AES Drive & Remote  6 / 12 / 24 AES-EBU  2 CAT6  LKA 54 or 85 Pin Connector People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • CS1D/DSP1D  50 Ohm Coax Control  75 Ohm Coax Word Clock  8 – AES-EBU  34 Pair 26 AWG SCSIPeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • MADI with Multicore People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • AES50 & HyperMAC People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • AES50 & HyperMACNobel Peace Prize 2008, Oslo People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Redundant Dante with LabGruppen PLM Series Amplifiers Sender Switch Switch Primary Secondary Receiver Link LinkPeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Solution ExamplesPeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Dual PM5D Ethersound People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • LS9-32 DantePeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • M7CL Hybrid ES/Dante People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • What to Expect• AVB / AVnu Alliance will Move Forward• Open Control Alliance (OCA)• Dante is a Solution Available Today and Future Compatible with AVB• Link will Continue to Track & Support Multiple Options People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • One Perspective from the Real World People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • One Perspective from the Real World People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
  • Practical Applications forDigital Audio Networking THANK YOUUmberto Zanghieri – ZP Engineering S.r.l.Bob Vanden Burgt - Link USASlides & References www.linkusa-inc.comAdditional Questions Link at Booth 322 People and Products connecting the world of entertainment