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Practical Applications for Digital Audio Networking
 

Practical Applications for Digital Audio Networking

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There are dozens of networking protocols utilized by today's manufacturers of professional audio and video equipment, most of which are not interoperable. Connecting equipment digitally can be ...

There are dozens of networking protocols utilized by today's manufacturers of professional audio and video equipment, most of which are not interoperable. Connecting equipment digitally can be confusing, complicated, and expensive. Bob Vanden Burgt of Link USA discusses the evolution of digital networking in the live audio industry, the transport protocol 'wars', and methods for remote control and monitoring of DSPs. Bob concludes with a 'real world' update on the state of existing protocols, and future directions for AES, the AVnu alliance, and the OCA alliance.

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    Practical Applications for Digital Audio Networking Practical Applications for Digital Audio Networking Presentation Transcript

    • Practical Applications forDigital Audio Networking IIUmberto Zanghieri - ZP Engineering srl(The Smart Guy who is not here today and would be happy to talkabout this topic for two days)Bob Vanden Burgt - Link USA/Link Italy(The Not So Smart Guy doing the Presentation who promises to bedone inone hour) People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Practical Applications forDigital Audio Networking History of Digital Audio Networking AES & Evolution of OSI Layers The Current State of the Industry (fragmented at best) Transport Protocol Wars Remote Control & Monitoring Connectivity Challenges & Practical Examples Where are We Going from Here? People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Analog DistributionPeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Digital DistributionPeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Analog v. Digital Cabling 48-channel balanced analog multicore Weight  approx. 1,3 kg/m; 97 kg for 100m + 25kg cable drum Cost  approx. 20 times the cost of a CAT5e ruggedized cable Outer diameter  28 mm vs 2 x CAT6 + 2 x AES (Eurocable) Weight  approx. 0,38 kg/m Outer diameter  18 mm People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Moving Audio Around Digitally ina Live Production Environment What do we need to care about? Quality (Fidelity) Speed & Priority (Latency - milliseconds/microseconds, QoS) Synchronization (Clocking) Distance (Coax, CAT6, MMF, SMF) Flexibility / Compatibility (Topologies / Sharing Hardware) Cost Reliability / Redundancy Compatibility / Standards AES, IEEE People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • History of Digital Networking Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) & Sampling In 1924 while working for AT&T Harry Nyquist studied this sampling technique and developed the Nyquist Sampling Theorem. This theorem states that an analog signal can be uniquely reconstructed, without error, from samples taken atSampling Rate = 2(BW) = 2(3300 equal time intervals if theHz) = 6600 Samples per Second sampling rate is equal to, or greater than, twice the highest frequency component in the analog signal. People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Pro Audio & PCM Linear PCM (uncompressed), typ. Wordlength (bit depth) from 16 to 24 bits with sampling frequencies between 44-192kHzPulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analogsignals. It is the standard form for digital audio in computers and various Blu-ray, DVD andCompact Disc formats, as well as other uses such as digital telephone systems. A PCMstream is a digital representation of an analog signal , in which the magnitude of the analogsignal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, with each sample being quantized to thenearest value within a range of digital steps.PCM streams have two basic properties that determine their fidelity to the original analogsignal: the sampling rate, which is the number of times per second that samples aretaken; and the bit depth, which determines the number of possible digital values that eachsample can take. People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • History of Digital NetworkingPublic Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) Coder-Decoder (CODEC) or ADC / DAC People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • History of Digital Networking Pulse Code ModulationPublic Switched Telephone Network(PSTN) CODECs use a method called Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) to convert the analog signals to digital bit streams. PCM uses a technique called sampling to obtain instantaneous voltage values at specific times in the analog signal cycle. This sample generates a Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) signal. People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Audio-over-EthernetLinear PCM (Reference – CD is 16 bit resolution, 44.1kHz) People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • History of Digital Networking Recording in the 1990’s •Digital Audio Workstations •Token Ring Networks for moving audio data (not real time) •Evolution of the DSP > Why shouldn’t the transport be digital?People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • History of Digital Networking AES Standards • 1985 AES3 – AES/EBU (RS422 Derived) 2 Channels @ 192kHz • 1991 AES10 – MADI (FDDI – Fibre Disrtib Data Interface) 56 > 64 Channels @ 96kHz • 2005 AES50>SuperMAC/ HyperMAC (Midas-KT) 24 Ch @ 96kHz/192 Ch @ 96kHzPeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Audio-over-Ethernet What is it?Deployment of an Ethernet network to transfer digital audio streams in real-time Linear PCM (uncompressed), typ. Wordlength (bit depth) from 16 to 24 bits with sampling frequencies between 44-192kHz •multichannel, high channel count (~60 channels in each direction) •audo channels are generally bundled in clusters •low latency (< 6 ms) but with DSP transport expectations = <1ms •no packet loss in normal operating conditions People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Audio-over-Ethernet(AoE) – why?Larger maximum distance (60-70 m with analog cables, ~ 100 m AoE on copper , ~2km AoE on fibre)rerouting and splitting are now possible - Splits are Free! (without manual changes to connections, without manual patch bays)redundancy at reasonable costscontrol data and audio transport can be combined on a single connectioncables are less expensvie and less bulky 64-channel balanced analog multicore (data from Eurocable) Weight  around 1,3 kg/m Cost  around20 times the cost of a ruggedized CAT5e cable People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Audio-over-EthernetEthernet transport (IEEE 802.3)1980  Ethernet1985  IEEE 802.31990  10 Mbps (10baseT) Used for first AoE implementations CobraNet Enough bandwidth for reasonable multichannel1995  100 Mbps (100baseTX) operation1999  1000 Mbps (1000baseT) Hundreds of channels can be allocated2002-2008  10 Gbps (10GbaseT)2007-2011  40/100 Gbps 2010 - 12  Ethernet AVB People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) 100 40 Bitrate in Gigabits 10 IEEE 0.1 1 802.3 0.0119 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 73 80 83 90 95 99 06 10 People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) 100 40 Bitrate in Gigabits ARPANET:first msg sent 10 Ethernet TCP specs (Metcalfe (Vint Cerf & Boggs) & Bob Khan) IEEE 0.1 1 802.3 0.01 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 73 80 83 90 95 99 06 10 People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • ISO/OSI protocol layersHOST LAYERS 7 APPLICATION Network to application 6 PRESENTATION Data representation And encryption 5 SESSION Comms setup Between devices End-to-end connection 4 TRANSPORT And reliability 3 NETWORKMEDIA LAYERS Routing of data and Logical addressing 2 DATA LINK Physical Addressing Media, Signals, 1 PHYSICAL Binary Transmission People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Protocol layers1 PHYSICAL LAYERRelated to bit flow (via radio, light or electricpulses), through the network, at the electrical andmechanical level.It includes the definition of cables, cards. People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Protocol layers 2 DATA LINK LAYEREthernet frame  304 bits of overhead (preamble, addresses, type, CRC)  data block: from 46 to 1500 bytesInter frame gap  (IFG) 96 bits of “spacing” between packets (minimum)(100BaseT)Related to aggregation of bits in data packets. It includes error handling at thephysical level and frame synchronization. People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Ethernet frames Bitrate 100% Number of Usage samples in usec payload @48kHzAssumptions:Assumptions: 12 250.0• 100BaseT• 100BaseT 50%• 48 kHz SR• 48 kHz SR• 24-bit samples 3 62.5• 24-bit samples !! 32%• Ethernet frames• Ethernet frames (no IP) (no IP)• NO aux data• NO aux data !! 11% 1 20.8 0% 1 16 32 48 64 80 Number of channels in payload 1-sample buffer, 1 to 15 audio channels need 32% of the bandwidth!! 3-sample buffer, 1 to 5 audio channels need 11% of the bandwidth!! People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Protocol layers3 NETWORK LAYERIt offers data packets switching e routing methods,through the creation of paths to transmit datafrom one node to the other(s).It includes routing, forwarding, addressing,internetworking functionalities, error handling,congestion control. People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Data traffic optimization for AoE Cluster with many  optimal bandwidth usagechannels and low latencyCluster with few channels  optimal bandwidth usage and higher latency People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Ethernet – Evolution of OSILayer 1 Protocols i.e. A-Net, REAC, Rocknet,AES50Layer 2 Protocols i.e.EtherSound, CobraNetLayer 3/4 Protocols i.e. Dante, Livewire, Q-Lan / Q-Sys, RAVENNA,Emerging Standards - AVB People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Linear PCM requirements ANALOG SIGNAL One audio channel 48 kHz 96 kHz 192 kHz 24-bit PCM ADC 1.15 Mbps 2.30 Mbps 4.60 Mbps Protocol format Channels Bit rate (48 kHz) Bit rate (96 kHz) overheadAES/EBU 2 (48, 96, 192 kHz) 25% 3 Mbps 6 MbpsADAT 8 (48 kHz) 25% 12.3 Mbps 24.5 Mbps People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • bitrates -- MADI -- 56 ch 64 ch -------------- AES3 -------------- 192 kHz ADAT 44.1 kHz 48 kHz 96 kHzPeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Linear Video Requirements 3G-SDI raw 720p HD-SDI CC SD CC I R- MADI -S I 60 R- D (PA 60 I 1 64 ch L) 1 @48 kHzPeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Linear Video Requirements 3G-SDI raw 720p HD-SDI CC SD CC I R- MADI -S I 60 R- D (PA 60 I 1 64 ch L) 1 @48 kHzPeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • bitrates 1080p (fullHD) 1920 x 1080 4:4:4, 8-bit, 60 fps 3G-SDI 1280 x 720 4:4:4, 8-bit, 60 fps raw 720p 720 x 486 4:2:2, 8-bit, HD-SDI 29,97 fps CC SD CC I R- MADI -S I 60 R- D (PA 60 I 1 64 ch L) 1 @48 kHzPeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Audio-over-Ethernet People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Audio-over-Ethernet People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Audio-over-EthernetCobranet• designed on 10 Mbps networks in the 90s, compatible with modern networks• sync propogation (audio clock) with beat packets• over 1 million nodes installed worldwide• designed in USA by Peak Audio• available as an OEM module• the technology has been acquired by a silicon foundry• now available on a single chip• switch-compatible protocol• non-audio data traffic can interfere• latency = 1.33-5 ms, allows routing of low-channel count clusters (bundles) People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Audio-over-EthernetEthersound• designed for 100 Mbps networks• uses all the available bandwidth, to transfer the maximum number of channels• designed for maximum reliability and minimum latency (125 us)• designed in France by Digigram• available and an OEM module and under license• compatiile with some switches (verified by the technology provider)• does not allow simultaneous non/audio data traffic People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Audio-over-EthernetAES50, HyperMAC• designed by Sony Oxford labs• adopted by Midas / Klark Teknik• now promoted by Midas/KlarkTeknik• AES50: audio and clock transmission over cat5 and 100BaseT• 48x48 ch @ 48 kHz• 24x24 ch @ 96 kHz• HyperMAC: 256x256 ch on 1000BaseT People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Audio-over-EthernetDante• designed for 1 Gbps networks, external branches can go at 10 Mbps• clock recovery is based on packet timestamping (IEEE-1588)• compatible with non-audio traffic (switches need management configuration)• designed in Australia by Audinate• available as an OEM module• native driver on host• high-performance PCI-Express card available (128x128 ch at 96 kHz) People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Host audio driver(Mac, Win)ASIO / CoreAudioYou need at least one hwdevice in the networkLatency = 4, 6 or 10 ms24-bit audio Max channel countEthernet 48 kHz 96 kHz port 24-bit 24-bit100 Mbit 32x32 16x161 Gigabit 64x64 32x32 People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Audio-over-EthernetPartial List of Dante Implementors Allen & Heath Auvitran BOSCH DiGiCo Dolby EV Focusrite LAB.GRUPPEN Lake Link Media Matrix TEQSAS TurboSound Whirlwind Yamaha People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • How Many More RJ45 Jacks…?People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • The Digital Challenge People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Digital Networking TodayThe Current State of the Industry Transport Protocol Wars, It’s a Mess with HOPE! Many are Proprietary Lack of easy digital interoperability Require multiple cabling topologies and disparate signal types Non Standard or Specialized Equipment Remote Control & Monitoring for is a Completely Separate Issue (Open Control Alliance) People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • The Digital Challenge AES-EBU MADI CobraNet EtherSound Dante AVB 75 Ohm With SD Digico x Demo Coax Rack Avid 75 Ohm Venue x x Profile Coax Soundcraft Vi x CAT5/7 CAT5 CAT 5 x x Yamaha M7 CL ES x MY MY Native MY Yamaha New CL x MY MY MY Native Demo People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Solution Examples People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Some “Real World” Experience AES/EBU Drive + Canbus D&B PM1D, Link Yamaha system Midas Pro6 AES50 & HyperMAC Avid Venue with 6x75 Cable PM5D, Dante, Dglink, M7CL ES, EtherSound / Dante DGLink, LabGruppen Digico SD7, SD Rack, 6 x75 Cable Video solutions People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • CS1D/DSP1D  50 Ohm Coax Control  75 Ohm Coax Word Clock  8 – AES-EBU  34 Pair 26 AWG SCSIPeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • AES Drive & Remote  6 / 12 / 24 AES-EBU  2 CAT6  LKA 54 or 85 Pin Connector People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • MADI with Multicore People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Dual PM5D EthersoundPeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • LS9-32 DantePeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • M7CL Hybrid ES/DantePeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • AES50 & HyperMAC People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • AES50 & HyperMAC Nobel Peace Prize 2008, Oslo People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Redundant Dante with LabGruppen PLM Series AmplifiersPRI SEC People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • What about Video? People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • “Mixed” Environment People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • “Mixed” Environment People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Recent ActivityPeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Olympic Handover, London HP Procurve 2524 switch 24-pt 10/100 Mbit Cisco Catalyst 3500 switch 8-pt Gigabit 40000 people One-day event at The Mall park People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • AudVidBridge & DantePeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Recent AVB Conference• The Live World - Jim Risgin - Onstage Audio • “Talkers & Listeners” • It’s all about “Channels & Stream Reservation” • “Easy & Just Works” • “Instant Discovery” • “We’ve Taken the configuration out of the picture” • “Transport is Easy” DSP Remote Control is a different storyPeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • “Help is on the Horizon!”One Perspective from the Real WorldOne Perspective from the Real World QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. People and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Recent AVB Conference• The Integrator’s World - Vickram Kirby - Thinkwell Designs • Clocking has historically been the biggest challenge • Interfacing & Interoperability without a “per port” license fee • “Learn how to use Wire Shark!” • Still using VLANS to “Harden” our network (53 VLANS of Cobranet) • Configure a spare port for every VLANPeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • What to Expect Hold on for the Ride Hold on for the Ride• Open Control Alliance (OCA) “the other piece of the puzzle”• Dante is a viable Solution Available Today and will be Future Compatible with AVB• AVB / AVnu Alliance will gain traction but may not be as “Open” as reported• Link will Continue to Track & Support Multiple OptionsPeople and Products connecting the world of entertainment
    • Practical Applications forDigital Audio Networking THANK YOU Umberto Zanghieri – ZP Engineering S.r.l. Bob Vanden Burgt - Link USA • bob@linkusa-inc.com Slides & References www.linkusa-inc.com People and Products connecting the world of entertainment