NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM
THE MENINGESBoth the spinal cord and brain arecovered in three continuous sheets ofconnective tissue, the Meninges.From ou...
White Matter vs. GrayMatterBoth the spinal cord and thebrain consist of whitematter = bundles of axonseach coated with a s...
The Spinal Cord31 pairs of spinal nerves arise along the spinal cord.These are "mixed" nerves because each contain bothsen...
DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES OF NERVOUSSYSTEM
SKULL X RAYS
SPINE X RAYS
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID(CSF) ANALYSIS
CT = X-ray ComputedTomographyThis is an imaging techniquethat uses a series of X-rayexposures taken fromdifferent angles. ...
MRI = MagneticResonance ImagingThis imaging techniqueuses powerful magnets todetect magneticmolecules within thebody. Thes...
TheElectroencephalograph(EEG)This device measureselectrical activity (brain"waves") that can bedetected at the surfaceof t...
CEPHALALGIA
HEADACHE
HEADACHE IS PROBABLY THE MOSTCOMMON TYPE OF PAIN EXPERIENCED BYHUMANSHEADACHE IS A COMMON SYMPTOM OF MANY NEUROLOGIC COND...
CAUSES OR ETIOLOGY
Types of headachesThere are three major categories of headaches:primary headaches,secondary headaches, andcranial neura...
What are primary headaches?Primary headaches include migraine, tension, and cluster headaches, as well as a variety of ot...
Tension headaches are the most common type of primary headache. Up to 90% of adults have had or will have tension headach...
Migrane headaches are the second most common type of primary headache. An estimated 28 million people in the United State...
Cluster headaches are a rare type of primary headache affecting 0.1% of the population (1 in a 1,000 people). It more com...
What are secondary headaches?Secondary headaches are thosethat are due to an underlyingstructural problem in the head orne...
Others causesFeverCarbon monoxide exposureChronic lung diseasesHypothyroidismBirth control pills
Risk factorsFamily historyPrecipitating factors in headache includes Substances containing amines Ripened cheeses Yeast ...
pathophysiologyextra cranial blood vessels dilates       these vascular changes may be secondary to  neuronal discharges i...
Clinical manifestations Migrane =atleast 5 attacks to two attacksTension type headache=duration30 minsTo 7 daysCluster hea...
Other associated sympyomswith headacheRhinorrheaLacrimationNasal congestionEye lid edema
DiagnosticsObtain complete headache historyObtain complete medical historyPhysical assesment for checking muscle tightn...
Clinical managementProvide symptomatic relief of headacheCheck the following baseline investigationsNON PHARMACOLOGICAL...
PHARMACOLOGICALMainly pain killersDiclofenac sodiumAspirinAnxiolyticsThe treatment of the headache depends on the typ...
Health educationEnsure that the person and family members know the type of headache and treatment strategiesAvoid the pr...
Neurological system
Neurological system
Neurological system
Neurological system
Neurological system
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Neurological system

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Neurological system

  1. 1. NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM
  2. 2. THE MENINGESBoth the spinal cord and brain arecovered in three continuous sheets ofconnective tissue, the Meninges.From outside in, these arethe Dura materthe Arachnoidthe Pia materThe region between the Arachnoidand Pia mater is filled withcerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
  3. 3. White Matter vs. GrayMatterBoth the spinal cord and thebrain consist of whitematter = bundles of axonseach coated with a sheath ofmyelin gray matter =masses of the cell bodies anddendrites — each covered withsynapses.In the spinal cord, thewhite matter is at the surface,the gray matter inside.In the brain of mammals, thispattern is reversed.
  4. 4. The Spinal Cord31 pairs of spinal nerves arise along the spinal cord.These are "mixed" nerves because each contain bothsensory and motor axons.The spinal cord carries outtwo main functions:•It connects a large part of the peripheral nervoussystem to the brain. Information (nerve impulses)reaching the spinal cord through sensory neurons aretransmitted up into the brain. Signals arising in the motorareas of the brain travel back down the cord and leave inthe motor neurons.•The spinal cord also acts as a minor coordinating center
  5. 5. DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES OF NERVOUSSYSTEM
  6. 6. SKULL X RAYS
  7. 7. SPINE X RAYS
  8. 8. CEREBROSPINAL FLUID(CSF) ANALYSIS
  9. 9. CT = X-ray ComputedTomographyThis is an imaging techniquethat uses a series of X-rayexposures taken fromdifferent angles. Computersoftware can integrate theseto produce a three-dimensional picture of thebrain (or other body region).CT scanning is routinely usedto quickly diagnose strokes
  10. 10. MRI = MagneticResonance ImagingThis imaging techniqueuses powerful magnets todetect magneticmolecules within thebody. These can beendogenous molecules ormagnetic substancesinjected into a vein
  11. 11. TheElectroencephalograph(EEG)This device measureselectrical activity (brain"waves") that can bedetected at the surfaceof the scalp. It candistinguish between, forexample, sleep andexcitement. It is alsouseful in diagnosingbrain disorders such as atendency to epilepticseizures
  12. 12. CEPHALALGIA
  13. 13. HEADACHE
  14. 14. HEADACHE IS PROBABLY THE MOSTCOMMON TYPE OF PAIN EXPERIENCED BYHUMANSHEADACHE IS A COMMON SYMPTOM OF MANY NEUROLOGIC CONDITIONS AND IS ALSO A SEPERATE DISEASE PROCESSA headache or cephalasia is the pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck, pericranial muscles,eyes and jaw
  15. 15. CAUSES OR ETIOLOGY
  16. 16. Types of headachesThere are three major categories of headaches:primary headaches,secondary headaches, andcranial neuralgias, facial pain, and other headaches
  17. 17. What are primary headaches?Primary headaches include migraine, tension, and cluster headaches, as well as a variety of other less common types of headache.Some primary headaches can be triggered by lifestyle factors, including:Alcohol, particularly red wineCertain foods, such as processed meats that contain nitratesChanges in sleep or lack of sleepPoor postureSkipped mealsStress
  18. 18. Tension headaches are the most common type of primary headache. Up to 90% of adults have had or will have tension headaches. Tension headaches occur more commonly among women than men.
  19. 19. Migrane headaches are the second most common type of primary headache. An estimated 28 million people in the United States (about 12% of the population) will experience a migraine headache. Migraine headaches affect children as well as adults. Before puberty, boys and girls are affected equally by migraine headaches, but after puberty, more women than men are affected. It is estimated that 6% of men and up to 18% of women will experience a migraine headache in their lifetime
  20. 20. Cluster headaches are a rare type of primary headache affecting 0.1% of the population (1 in a 1,000 people). It more commonly affects men in their late 20s though women and children can also suffer these types of headache.
  21. 21. What are secondary headaches?Secondary headaches are thosethat are due to an underlyingstructural problem in the head orneck. There are due to numerouscauses such as bleeding in thebrain, tumor, or meningitis
  22. 22. Others causesFeverCarbon monoxide exposureChronic lung diseasesHypothyroidismBirth control pills
  23. 23. Risk factorsFamily historyPrecipitating factors in headache includes Substances containing amines Ripened cheeses Yeast extractsChocolateRed wineAlchocolMenstrual period
  24. 24. pathophysiologyextra cranial blood vessels dilates these vascular changes may be secondary to neuronal discharges in the affected area of pain results in abnormal neuronal activities in brain due to abnormality in hypothalamus chemo receptors become dysfunctional
  25. 25. Clinical manifestations Migrane =atleast 5 attacks to two attacksTension type headache=duration30 minsTo 7 daysCluster headache=duration 15 to180 minutes if not treated
  26. 26. Other associated sympyomswith headacheRhinorrheaLacrimationNasal congestionEye lid edema
  27. 27. DiagnosticsObtain complete headache historyObtain complete medical historyPhysical assesment for checking muscle tightness and tendernessCt scanMRIXrays
  28. 28. Clinical managementProvide symptomatic relief of headacheCheck the following baseline investigationsNON PHARMACOLOGICAL1. AVOID THE PRECIPITATING FACTORS2. ELIMINATE UNNECCESARY MEDICATIONS SUCH AS ANTI HYPERTENSIVES,VASODIALATORS AND CONTRACEPTIVES3. RELAXATION TRAINING4. PROMOTE SLEEP IN SILENT ENVIRONMENT
  29. 29. PHARMACOLOGICALMainly pain killersDiclofenac sodiumAspirinAnxiolyticsThe treatment of the headache depends on the type and severity of the headache and on other factors such as the age of the patient
  30. 30. Health educationEnsure that the person and family members know the type of headache and treatment strategiesAvoid the precipitating factorsYoga

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