Asthma is a chronic (long-lasting)
inflammatory disease of the airways that
causes varying degrees of obstructions in the
It is a condition in which the airways narrow
and swell and produce extra mucus. This can
make breathing difficult and trigger
coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath.
Airborne allergens, such as pollen
Allergic reactions to some foods, such as peanuts
Respiratory infections, such as the common cold
Physical activity (exercise-induced asthma)
Air pollutants and irritants, such as smoke
Certain medications, including beta blockers,
Strong emotions and stress
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a
condition in which stomach acids back up into
Having a blood relative (such as a parent or sibling)
Having another allergic condition, such as dermatitis
or allergic rhinitis (hay fever)
Being a smoker
Exposure to secondhand smoke
Having a mother who smoked while pregnant
Exposure to exhaust fumes or other types of
Exposure to occupational triggers, such as chemicals
used in farming,and manufacturing
Low birth weight
Due to etiological factors
Bronchial Smooth Muscle Constriction Occurs
over secreation of mucus
Obstruction of small and large airways
Shortness of breath
A whistling or wheezing sound
Excessive mucus production
Chest x rays
Cortico steroids to reduce inflamation and to
Beta –adrenergic agents to dilate smooth
Monitor pulse oximetry and peak flow.
Demonstrate the proper use of metered dose
Reassure the patient during an asthma attack
Place the patient in semi-fowler position and
encourage breathing and provide nebulisation.
Assist him to relax as much as possible to reduce
Administer bronchodilators and corticosteroids
Adjust oxygen according to the patient’s vital
functions and ABG measurements.
Administer drugs and I.V. fluids as ordered
which will help loosen secretions.
Encourage the patient to express his fears
and concerns about his illness.
Encourage the patient for deep breathing
excercises and chest physiotherapy.
Asthma is an ongoing condition that needs
regular monitoring and treatment.
Identify and avoid asthma triggers.
Get immunizations for influenza and
Advice regarding inhaler use.
Advice to quit smoking.
Advice to take medicines and regular
If asthma is related to exposure at work, take
all precautions, including wearing a mask .
Lack of sleep