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Asthma

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  • 1.   Asthma is a chronic (long-lasting) inflammatory disease of the airways that causes varying degrees of obstructions in the air ways. It is a condition in which the airways narrow and swell and produce extra mucus. This can make breathing difficult and trigger coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath.
  • 2. CoughVariant ExerciseInduced Allergic TYPES OF ASTHMA Occupational Asthma Nighttime Asthma)
  • 3.          Airborne allergens, such as pollen Allergic reactions to some foods, such as peanuts or shellfish Respiratory infections, such as the common cold Physical activity (exercise-induced asthma) Air pollutants and irritants, such as smoke Certain medications, including beta blockers, aspirin, ibuprofen Strong emotions and stress Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition in which stomach acids back up into your throat Climatic conditions
  • 4.          Having a blood relative (such as a parent or sibling) with asthma Having another allergic condition, such as dermatitis or allergic rhinitis (hay fever) Being overweight Being a smoker Exposure to secondhand smoke Having a mother who smoked while pregnant Exposure to exhaust fumes or other types of pollution Exposure to occupational triggers, such as chemicals used in farming,and manufacturing Low birth weight
  • 5. Due to etiological factors Asthma triggers(infection,allergens,) Inflamation ,brochopasm Bronchial Smooth Muscle Constriction Occurs over secreation of mucus
  • 6. Mucosal edema Obstruction of small and large airways Air trapping Hypoxia
  • 7.          Coughing Chest tightness Shortness of breath A whistling or wheezing sound Insomnia Common cold Excessive mucus production Tachycardia Cyanosis
  • 8.       History collection Physical examination Chest x rays P FT ABG Spirometry
  • 9.     Cortico steroids to reduce inflamation and to reduce broncho-constriction Antibiotics Beta –adrenergic agents to dilate smooth bronchial muscles Mucolytics
  • 10.        Check vitals. Monitor pulse oximetry and peak flow. Demonstrate the proper use of metered dose inhaler properly. Reassure the patient during an asthma attack Place the patient in semi-fowler position and encourage breathing and provide nebulisation. Assist him to relax as much as possible to reduce anxiety. Administer bronchodilators and corticosteroids
  • 11.     Adjust oxygen according to the patient’s vital functions and ABG measurements. Administer drugs and I.V. fluids as ordered which will help loosen secretions. Encourage the patient to express his fears and concerns about his illness. Encourage the patient for deep breathing excercises and chest physiotherapy.
  • 12.        Asthma is an ongoing condition that needs regular monitoring and treatment. Identify and avoid asthma triggers. Get immunizations for influenza and pneumonia. Advice regarding inhaler use. Advice to quit smoking. Advice to take medicines and regular checkups. If asthma is related to exposure at work, take all precautions, including wearing a mask .
  • 13.      Pneumothorax Respiratory failure Persistant cough Death Lack of sleep