Emma Delia and Will

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  • Emma Delia and Will

    1. 1. PAST by Emma, Will and Delia
    2. 2. Arthur C. Clarke was quoted in Popular Science in May 1970, in which he predicted that satellites would one day "bring the accumulated knowledge of the world to our fingertips" using an office console that would combine the functionality of the xerox, telephone, TV and a small computer so as to allow both data transfer and video conferencing around the globe. In March 1989, Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal that referenced enquire, a database and software project he had built in 1980, and described a more elaborate information management system. With help from Belgian computer scientist Robert Cailliau, he published a more formal proposal (on November 12, 1990) to build a "Hypertext project" called "WorldWideWeb" (one word, also "W3") as a "web" of "hypertext documents" to be viewed by "browsers" using a client–server architecture. This proposal estimated that a read- only web would be developed within three months and that it would take six months to achieve "the creation of new links and new material by readers, so that authorship becomes universal" as well as "the automatic notification of a reader when new material of interest to him/her has become available." See Web 2.0 and RSS/Atom, which have taken a little longer to mature. The proposal had been modeled after the Dynatext SGML reader by Electronic Book Technology, a spin-off from the Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship at Brown University. The Dynatext system, licensed by CERN, was technically advanced and was a key player in the extension of SGML ISO 8879:1986 to Hypermedia within HyTime, but it was considered too expensive and had an inappropriate licensing policy for use in the general high energy physics community, namely a fee for each document and each document alteration. The World-Wide Web began in March 1989 at CERN. (CERN was originally named after its founding body the "Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire," and is now called "European Laboratory for Particle Physics.") "CERN is a meeting place for physicists from all over the world, who collaborate on complex physics, engineering and information handling projects." Thus, the need for the WWW system arose "from the geographical dispersion of large collaborations, and the fast turnover of fellows, students, and visiting scientists," who had to get "up to speed on projects and leave a lasting contribution before leaving." CERN possessed both the financial and computing resources necessary to start the project. In the original proposal Berners-Lee outlined two phases of the project: • First, CERN would "make use of existing software and hardware as well as implementing simple browsers for the user's workstations, based on an analysis of the requirements for information access needs by experiments." • Second, they would "extend the application area by also allowing the users to add new material." Berners-Lee expected each phase to take three months "with the full manpower complement": he was asking for four software engineers and a programmer. The proposal talked about "a simple scheme to incorporate several different servers of machine- stored information already available at CERN." This "scheme" was to use hypertext to provide "a single user-interface to many large classes of stored information such as reports, notes, data-bases, computer documentation and on-line systems help." Set off in 1989, the WWW quickly gained great popularity among Internet users. For instance, at 11:22 am of April 12, 1995, the WWW server at the SEAS of the University of Pennsylvania "responded to 128 requests in one minute. Between 10:00 and 11:00, it responded to 5086 requests in one hour, or about 84 per minute," Even years after its creation, the Web is constantly maturing: in December 1994 the WWW was "growing at roughly 1 per cent a day -- a doubling period of less than 10 weeks." As popular as it is at the moment, the WWW is not the only possible implementation of the hypertext concept. In fact, the theory behind the WWW was based on a more general project "Xanadu," that is being developed by Ted Nelson. ORIGINS OF THE WEB
    3. 3. People have dreamt of a universal information database since late nineteen forties. In this database, not only would the data be accessible to people around the world, but it would also "easily link to other pieces of information, so that only the most important data would be quickly found by a user." Only recently has the technology caught up to make such systems possible. The most popular system currently in use is the World-Wide Web. The official description defines the WWW as a "wide-area hypermedia information retrieval initiative aiming to give universal access to a large universe of documents." In simpler terms, the Web is an Internet-based computer network that allows users on one computer to access information stored on another through the world-wide network What is the World Wide Web?
    4. 4. The WWW project is based on the principle of universal readership: "if information is available, then any (authorized) person should be able to access it from anywhere in the world." The Web's implementation follows a standard client- server model. In this model, a user relies on a program (the client) to connect to a remote machine (the server), where the data is stored. The architecture of the WWW (see Figure 1) is the one of clients, such as Netscape, Internet Explorer, or Lynx, "which know how to present data but not what its origin is, and servers, which know how to extract data", but are ignorant of how it will be presented to the user. One of the main features of the WWW documents is their hypertext structure (see Figure 2). On a graphic terminal, for instance, a particular reference can be represented by underlined text, or an icon. "The user clicks on it with the mouse, and the referenced document appears." This method makes copying of information unnecessary: data needs only to be stored once, and all referenced to it can be linked to the original document. Structure of the WWW
    5. 5. - The technology to create there interactions was developed by Cern by Tim Burners- Lee in 1989. He wrote a proposal on a memo to create awareness for the problem of collaboration within the company. There were different nations and different hardwares, documentation and software (PC and Linux) all trying to work together but will no success. -Tim Burners Lee was given the go -ahead in September 1990 to test and develop the hypertext model. - He developed a system of links between documents so people could access, any part and found out relevant pieces of information. Cern pushed by Tim Burners Lee, didn’t charge royalties for this service and so the space of the years the server grew to 100 hits a day to 10,000 hits a day Hetrogenerity- Heterogeneous is an adjective used to describe an object or system consisting of multiple items having a large number of structural variations Things to include in the essay
    6. 6. Sir Timothy John "Tim" Berners-Lee is a British engineer and computer scientist and MIT professor credited with inventing the World Wide Web In 1994. It comprised various companies that were willing to create standards and recommendations to improve the quality of the Web. Berners-Lee made his idea available freely, with no patent and no royalties due. The World Wide Web Consortium decided that its standards should be based on royalty-free technology, so that they could easily be adopted by anyone. CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is where it all began in March 1989. The physicist Tim Berners-Lee, wrote a proposal for information management showing how information could be transferred easily over the Internet by using hypertext, the now familiar point-and-click system of navigating through information. The following year, Robert Cailliau, a systems engineer, joined in and soon became its number one advocate. The idea was to connect hypertext with the Internet and personal computers, thereby having a single information network to help CERN physicists share all the computer-stored information at the laboratory. Hypertext would enable users to browse easily between texts on web pages using links. TIM BERNERS- LEE
    7. 7. Web 1.0 (1991-2003) is a retronym which refers to the state of the World Wide Web, and any website design style used before the advent of the Web 2.0 phenomenon. Web 1.0 began with the release of the WWW to the public in 1991, and is the general term that has been created to describe the Web before the "bursting of the Dot-com bubble" in 2001, which is seen by many as a turning point for the internet. Since 2004, Web 2.0 has been the term used to describe the current age of the Internet Web 1.0 trends included worries over privacy concerns resulting in a one-way flow of information, through websites which contained "read-only" material. Widespread computer illiteracy and slow internet connections added to the restrictions of the internet, which characterised Web 1.0. Web 1.0 design elements Some typical design elements of a Web 1.0 site include: ▪ Static pages instead of dynamic user-generated content.[5] ▪ The use of framesets. ▪ Proprietary HTML extensions such as the <blink> and <marquee> tags introduced during the first browser war. ▪ Online guestbooks. ▪ GIF buttons, typically 88x31 pixels in size promoting web browsers and other products.[6] ▪ HTML forms sent via email. A user would fill in a form, and upon clicking submit their email client would attempt to send an email containing the form's details. Now, during Web 2.0, the use of the Web can be characterized as the decentralization of website content, which is now generated from the "bottom-up", with many users being contributors and producers of information, as well as the traditional consumers. Now in Web 2.0 anyone can contribute and distribute there own work over the internet, this was not easily possible with Web 1.0. Web 1.0
    8. 8. Web 1.0 vs Web 2.0
    9. 9. ‘The Web is People’ - Jay Rosen ORIGINS OF THE WEB
    10. 10. http://www.youtube.com/user/WatchMojo#p/search/11/ QYe0fxAjBkg TIM BERNERS LEE

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