The Myers-Briggs TypeIndicator: Overview, Refresher,and UpdateSponsored by the Santa Clara County PsychologicalAssociationBobbi Emel, MFTPresented by (Bobbi’stype)
The MBTI®Instrument2was developed byKatharine C. Briggsand her daughterIsabel Briggs Myersbased on the work of Swiss psychologistC. G. Jung, who presented his psychologicaltype theory in his book Psychological Types(published 1921, translated into English 1923).
Jung’s Theory3Jung believed that preferences are innate—―inborn predispositions.‖He also recognized that our innate preferencesinteract with and are shaped by environmentalinfluences: Family Country Education and many others
About the MBTI®Instrument4 An indicator—not a test Looks only at normal behavior Forced-choice questions Takes about 20–40 minutes to complete No right or wrong answers—answer asyou see fit Your results are confidential
About the MBTI®Instrument (cont.)5 There are no good or bad types—all typeshave some natural strengths and somepossible pitfalls or blind spots. The instrument gives practical results you canuse: In teamwork In communication In decision making
Jung’s Theory6 We will look at four pairs of opposites—likeour right and left hands. We all use bothsides of each pair, but one is our naturalpreference. Jung believed that our preferences do notchange—they stay the same over ourlifetime. What changes is how we use ourpreferences and often the accuracy withwhich we can measure the preferences. The confounding variable—environment!
Extraversion or Introversion8The direction in whichwe focus our attentionand energySource: I. B. Myers, Introduction to Type®, 6th ed. (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 1998), p. 9.
E–I9People who prefer Extraversion: Focus their energy and attention outward Are interested in the world of people and things Draw energy from being around peoplePeople who prefer Introversion: Focus their energy and attention inward Are interested in the inner world of thoughts and reflections Draw energy from being aloneWe all use both preferences, but usuallynot with equal comfort.
People Who PreferExtraversion10 Are attracted to the outer world of people andevents Are aware of who and what is around them Enjoy meeting and talking with new people Are friendly, often verbally skilled, and easy toknow Tend to speak out easily and often at meetings May not be as aware of what is going on insidethemselves
People Who Prefer Introversion11 Are attracted to the inner world of thoughts,feelings, and reflections Are usually very aware of their inner reactions Prefer to interact with people they know Are often quiet in meetings and seemuninvolved Are often reserved and harder to get to know May not be as aware of the outer world aroundthem
People Who PreferExtraversion12 Do their thinking as they speak May act and/or speak first, then (possibly) think Tell you about themselves, speaking rapidly Give breadth to life Can get bored and restless if they’re alone toolong Can seem shallow and intruding to Introverts Need Introversion for balance
People Who Prefer Introversion13 Need time to gather their thoughts beforespeaking Reflect and think before (possibly) acting Want to know you before self-disclosing Become drained and tired interacting withpeople (particularly strangers) Give depth to life Can seem withdrawn and secretive to Extraverts Need Extraversion for balance
Extraversion or Introversion14Source: N. J. Barger & L. K. Kirby, Introduction to Type® and Change (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 2004), p. 4.
Some Key Words Associatedwith15ExtraversionActionOutwardPeopleInteractionManyExpressiveDo-Think-DoIntroversionReflectionInwardPrivacyConcentrationFewQuietThink-Do-Think
Sensing or Intuition16The way we take ininformation and the kind ofinformation we like and trustSource: I. B. Myers, Introduction to Type®, 6th ed. (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 1998), p. 9.
S–N17People who prefer Sensing: Prefer to take in information using their five senses—sight, sound, smell, touch, and tastePeople who prefer Intuition: Go beyond what is real or concrete and focus on meaning,associations, and relationshipsWe all use both ways of perceiving, but wetypically prefer and trust one more.
People Who Prefer Sensing18 See and collect facts and details Are practical and realistic Start at the beginning and take one step at atime Are specific and literal when speaking, writing,and listening Live in the present, dealing with the here andnow Prefer reality to fantasy
People Who Prefer Intuition19 See patterns, possibilities, connections, andmeanings in information Are conceptual and abstract Start anywhere and may leap over basic steps Speak and write in general, metaphorical terms Live in the future—the possibilities Prefer imagination and ingenuity to reality
People Who Prefer Sensing20 Like to work with the parts to see the overalldesign Like set procedures, established routines Prefer practical, concrete problems and disliketheoretical or abstract problems Can seem materialistic and too literal to Intuitivetypes Need Intuition for balance
People Who Prefer Intuition21 Study the overall design to see how the parts fit Thrive on change, new ideas, and variety Prefer imaginative new solutions to problemsand become impatient with details Can seem impractical dreamers to Sensingtypes Need Sensing for balance
Sensing or Intuition22Source: N. J. Barger & L. K. Kirby, Introduction to Type® and Change (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 2004), p. 4.
Some Key Words Associatedwith23SensingFactsRealisticSpecificPresentKeepPracticalWhat isIntuitionIdeasImaginativeGeneralFutureChangeTheoreticalWhat could be
Thinking or Feeling24The way we make decisionsSource: I. B. Myers, Introduction to Type®, 6th ed. (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 1998), p. 10.
T–F25People who prefer Thinking: Make their decisions based on impersonal, objective logicPeople who prefer Feeling: Make their decisions with a person-centered, values-basedprocessBoth processes are rational and we use bothoften, but usually not equally easily.
People Who Prefer Thinking26 Use logic to analyze the problem, assess prosand cons Focus on the facts and the principles Are good at analyzing a situation Focus on problems and tasks—not relationships May not include the impacts on people orpeople’s emotions in their decision making
People Who Prefer Feeling27 Use their personal values to understand thesituation Focus on the values of the group or organization Are good at understanding people and theirviewpoints Concentrate on relationships and harmony May overlook logical consequences of individualdecisions
People Who Prefer Thinking28 Take a long-term view, seeing things as anonlooker Are good at spotting flaws and inconsistenciesand stating them clearly When required, can reprimand or fire people Believe fairness, justice, and equitability arevery important May seem cold and detached to Feeling types Need Feeling for balance
People Who Prefer Feeling29 Take an immediate and personal view ofsituations Like to show appreciation and caring for others Have difficulty telling people unpleasant things Believe fairness means treating each individualas a whole person May seem overly emotional and irrational toThinking types Need Thinking for balance
Thinking or Feeling30Source: N. J. Barger & L. K. Kirby, Introduction to Type® and Change (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 2004), p. 4.
Some Key Words Associatedwith31ThinkingHeadDistantThingsObjectiveCritiqueAnalyzeFirm but fairFeelingHeartPersonalPeopleSubjectivePraiseUnderstandMerciful
Judging or Perceiving32Our attitude toward theexternal world and how weorient ourselves to itSource: I. B. Myers, Introduction to Type®, 6th ed. (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 1998), p. 10.
J–P33People who prefer Judging: Want the external world to be organized and orderly Look at the world and see decisions that need to be madePeople who prefer Perceiving: Seek to experience the world, not organize it Look at the world and see options that need to be exploredWe all use both attitudes, but usuallynot with equal comfort.
People Who Prefer Judging34 Like to make plans and follow them Like to get things settled and finished Like environments with structure and clear limits Enjoy being decisive and organizing others Handle deadlines and time limits comfortably Plan ahead to avoid last-minute rushes
People Who Prefer Perceiving35 Like to respond resourcefully to changingsituations Like to leave things open, gather more information Like environments that are flexible; dislike rulesand limits May not like making decisions, even when pressed Tend to think there is plenty of time to do things Often have to rush to complete things at the lastminute
People Who Prefer Judging36 Like rapidly getting to the bottom line anddeciding Dislike being interrupted on a project, even for amore urgent one May make decisions too quickly, or cling to aplan May not notice new things that need to be done May seem rigid, demanding and inflexible toPerceiving types Need Perceiving for balance
People Who Prefer Perceiving37 Want to explore all the options before deciding May start too many projects and have difficultyfinishing them May have trouble making decisions, or have noplan May spontaneously change plans May seem disorganized and irresponsible toJudging types Need Judging for balance
Judging or Perceiving38Source: N. J. Barger & L. K. Kirby, Introduction to Type® and Change (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 2004), p. 4.
Some Key Words Associatedwith39JudgingOrganizedDecisionControlNowClosureDeliberatePlanPerceivingFlexibleInformationExperienceLaterOptionsSpontaneousWait
The Type TableISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJISTP ISFP INFP INTPESTP ESFP ENFP ENTPESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJISTJ11.6%ISFJ13.8%INFJ1.5%INTJ2.1%ISTP5.4%ISFP8.8%INFP4.4%INTP3.3%ESTP4.3%ESFP8.5%ENFP8.1%ENTP3.2%ESTJ8.7%ESFJ12.3%ENFJ2.5%ENTJ1.8%
Understanding the 16 TypesNot necessarily E + S + F + P = TypeISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJISTP ISFP INFP INTPESTP ESFP ENFP ENTPESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJSTs: The ―bottom-line‖people.―Who, what, where, when,why, just tell me what Ineed to know.‖SFs: The―customerservice‖ people―Who, what,when, where,why, how can Ihelp everyone?‖NFs:―Possibilities forpeople‖―I see interestingpotential forpeople’sdevelopment andgrowth.‖NTs: ―Possibilities forsystems‖―I can develop strategiesfor making the systemwork better.‖
Understanding the 16 TypesISTJ ISFJISTP ISFPISs: ―Thoughtfulrealists‖Careful, dependable,preserve what is rightand what is working.ESTP ESFPESTJ ESFJESs: ―Action-orientedrealists‖Readily take action tomake things happen in thehere and nowINFJ INTJINFP INTPINs: ―Thoughtful innovators‖Think through the big picture,develop complexunderstandings.ENFP ENTPENFJ ENTJENs: ―Action-orientedinnovators‖Brainstorm ideas, makeconnections, see new ways.
Type DynamicsValue added:Dynamics . . .1. Identifies and describes the dominantfunction – the core of the personality2. Clarifies what we extravert – how others seeus, our communication style3. Makes clear that every type has a part thatis introverted – not seen
Type DynamicsDominant – our favorite, most usedfunctionAuxiliary – our second favorite functionTertiary - not in our typeInferior - not in our type, the function we are leastcomfortable using
Type DynamicsDominantAuxiliaryTertiaryInferiorE N F PE IJEII
Type DynamicsEssential things to know:Extraverts extravert their dominant function and introverttheir auxiliary functionIntroverts introvert their dominant function andextravert their auxiliary functionWhat this means:With extraverts – what you see is what you get!With introverts – what you see is not their most preferredfunction.
Type DynamicsGeneral = DominantfunctionAide = AuxiliaryfunctionExtraverts: General is out front, Aide ishelpingIntroverts: General is in the tent, Aide is outfront
Type DynamicsBeing ―In the Grip‖Moderate stress: Tendency toexaggerate the dominant functionExtreme stress: May cause an eruptionof the inferior function
Development of type dynamicsthrough the lifespan•The focus of the first half of life is on directing energyinto the dominant and auxiliary functions, developingself-knowledge and competent ways to be in the worldand in relationships.•Midlife brings confusions and opportunities. The wayone has always been becomes less satisfying andidentity itself is questioned.•Finally comes increased access to previouslyunacknowledged parts of the self, associated with thetertiary and inferior functions – the possibility ofintegration, wholeness, individuation.――Briggs Myers, I. (1985). Introduction to Type,p. 35
MBTI FormsForm M - Profile• 2 pages- Reported type- Clarity of reported preferences- Type descriptionForm M - Complete• 5 pages- Profile information- More extensive type description: descriptors,characteristics of type, type with others, type atwork, potential blind spots for type
MBTI FormsForm M Interpretive Report• 5 pages-Similar to the Form M Complete, except hasmore detail about type description- Information about type dynamics
MBTI FormsForm Q Step IIExplores 20 facets – 5 for each preference – that gives more informationabout type. May answer questions like, ―Why am I an introvert if I enjoy talkingso much?‖
Applications in clinical practiceIncrease clinician’s informationregarding:• Behavior in the therapeutic setting• Which preferences may be underdeveloped• Client behaviors when ―In the Grip‖• How to help clients become morecomfortable with their preferences• Your own preferences and how they informyour therapeutic style
Other applicationsRelationships• Understand and respect differences• Recognize differing styles of focus of attention,where energy is drawn, how information is takenin, how decisions are made, and relationships tothe outside worldParenting• Become more aware of child’s own emergingpreferences• Recognize that parent’s type may be different thanchild’s and guards against assumption that whatworks for the parent will work for the child
Other applicationsLearning styles• May help clients understand how they besttake in information in a number of differentsettings: work, school, interests.Problem-solving• Help clients learn which function they tend touse in problem-solving. May encourage growthof other, less-used functions.
Other applicationsCareers• May help clients narrow fields of interest tothemBusiness/teamwork• Handling:- Conflict- Change- Communication difficulties• Increase teamwork
Accessing the MBTI forms andreportsCPP, Inc.• Formerly Consulting Psychologists Press• Sole publisher of the MBTIAccessing Materials• www.cpp.com• www.capt.org