Renewable Energies And Solar Power


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Renewable Energies And Solar Power

  1. 1. Renewable Energy and Solar Technologies Robert Meyers Lawrence Technological University Graduate Program Study Masters in Engineering Management Dr. Daw Alwerfalli, Ph. D. Lawrence Technological University Professor, Mechanical Engineering Director, Engineering Management Graduate Program consumption or total city consumption, typically in the ABSTRACT 10–20 percent range. Some cities have established carbon dioxide reduction targets. Many cities are The effort in this paper is to focus on renewable energy enacting policies to promote solar hot water and solar sources in place of traditional coal for commercial and Photovoltaic (PV), and are conducting urban planning residential markets. The implementation of renewable that incorporates renewable energy. [1] energies provides: a. Reduction in green house gas emissions caused by Investment flows became more diversified and coal. mainstreamed during 2006/2007, including those from b. Reduce the impact of global warming. major commercial and investment banks, venture capital c. Creates competition in the market place for reduced and private equity investors, multilateral and bilateral energy costs. development organizations, and smaller local financiers. Over 65 countries instituted goals for their own renewable There are many other forms of policy support for energy futures, which have created positive actions on many renewable power generation, including capital policies to meet these goals. Many renewable technologies investment subsidies or rebates, tax incentives and and industries have seen growth rates of 20 to 60 percent credits, sales tax and value-added tax exemptions, per year, acquiring the interest of the largest global energy production payments or tax credits, net metering, companies. More than $100 billion was invested in 2007 for public investment or financing, and public competitive renewable energy production assets, manufacturing, bidding. research and development. RENEWABLE ENERGY OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION The various forms of Renewable Energy are those that use natural resources which are naturally replenished such as: Policies to promote renewables have grown in recent years. At least 60 countries have some type of policy to Bio fuels Geothermal Solar Power Wave Power promote renewable power generation. These consist of Biomass Hydro Power Tidal Power Wind Power 37 developed and/or transition countries, and 23 developing countries. The most common policy is the About 13 percent of the world’s primary energy comes from feed-in law, which allows renewables to be integrated renewables of primarily traditional biomass such as wood- with current power systems such as traditional coal. By burning. Hydro Power is second providing 2-3% and the 2007, at least 37 countries and 9 states/provinces had remaining coming from Geothermal, Wind, Solar, and adopted feed-in policies, more than half of which have Marine energy which together comprise less than 1% of total been enacted since 2002. Strong momentum for feed-in world energy demand. tariffs continues around the world as countries enact new feed-in policies or revise existing ones. Below the national and state/provincial level, municipalities around the world are setting targets for future shares of renewable energy for government
  2. 2. 220 Source: REN21 Renewables 2007 Global Status Report, 200 180 )Solar PV (grid Geothermal 160 Biomass 140 Wind G ig a w a tts 120 Small hydro 100 80 60 40 20 0 World Developing EU-25 China Germany United States Spain India Japan World Note: Excludes large hydropower Renewable Energy Share of Global Final Energy Consumption, 2006 [1] Renewable Power Capacities, Developing World, EU, and Top Six Countries, 2006 [1] RECENT ACCOMPLISHMENTS • Renewable electricity generation capacity Renewable electricity generation capacity reached an estimated 240 gigawatts (GW) worldwide in 2007, an increase of 50 percent over 2004. Renewables represent 5 percent of global power capacity and 3.4 percent of global power generation. [1] • Wind Power Share of Global Electricity from Renewable Energy, The largest component of renewables generation 2006 [1] capacity is wind power, which grew by 28 percent worldwide in 2007 to reach an estimated 95 GW. While renewable energy is not currently utilized to its Annual capacity additions increased even more: 40 technical potential, much has been accomplished as shown percent higher in 2007 compared to 2006. [1] by the following capacities: a. Wind Power has a worldwide installed capacity of 74,223 MW. It has wide use in several European 22,000 countries and the USA. Source: REN21 Renewables 2007 Global Status Report, 20,000 Added in 2006 2,230 Added in 2005 b. Manufacturing output for the Photovoltaic (PV) industry Added in 2004 18,000 is just beyond 2,000 Mega Watts (MW) per year, with, 16,000 PV power plants being very popular in Germany. 14,000 - Solar thermal power stations are currently in Megawatts 12,000 1,590 operation in the USA and Spain, with the largest 2,450 10,000 installation of a 354 MW SEGS power plant in the 8,000 Mojave Desert. 6,000 1,840 c. The Geysers in California holds the world’s largest 4,000 10 Geothermal Power Plant with a rated capacity 750 MW. 420 630 690 1,350 2,000 810 0 To place a relation on the above capacity figures, a typical Germany Spain US India Denmark China Italy UK Portugal France Automobile manufacturing facility draws anywhere from 20 MW to 30 MW of power during production. Wind Power Capacity Represented by the Top 10 Countries, 2006 [1]
  3. 3. • Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaics INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS The fastest growing energy technology in the world is grid-connected solar photovoltaics (PV), with 50 Several International efforts have taken place to pursue percent annual increases in cumulative installed the objective of utilizing renewable energies: capacity in both 2006 and 2007, to an estimated 7.7 GW. This translates into 1.5 million homes with a. January, 2008 rooftop solar PV feeding into the grid worldwide. [1] The European Energy Commission put forth an integrated proposal for Climate Action. This includes a directive that sets an overall binding target for the European Union of 20% renewable energy by 2020 and a 10% minimum target for the market share of biofuels by 2020, to be observed by all Member States. b. November, 2007 Achieving Europe's 2020 and 2050 targets on greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy and energy efficiency will require action on standards, support mechanisms and putting a price on carbon emissions. Europe's potential to develop a new generation of decarbonised energy technologies, such as off-shore wind, solar technology, or 2nd generation biomass, is enormous. c. March, 2007 Solar PV, Existing World Capacity, 1995-2007 [1] European Union leaders agreed on an aggressive set of targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and • pledged that a fifth of the bloc's energy will come from Solar Heat Collectors green power sources, such as wind turbines and solar Rooftop solar heat collectors provide hot water to panels, by 2020. The plan requires greenhouse gas nearly 50 million households worldwide, and space emissions to be cut by at least 20 percent from 1990 heating to a growing number of homes. Existing levels by 2020, and to ensure 20 percent of its power solar hot water/heating capacity increased by 19 comes from renewable energy. percent in 2006 to reach 105 gigawatts-thermal (GWth) globally. [1] d. 2007 The U.S. House of Representatives passed a Federal Renewables Portfolio Standards (RPS), however the bill was unable to pass out of the U.S. Senate. Conversely, India Australia United States South Africa Brazil 1.1% 1.2% 1.7% 0.2% 2.1% 4 states established new RPS policies, 11 states Other Israel 1.9% significantly revised pre-existing RPS programs (mostly 3.6% Japan to strengthen them), and 3 states created non-binding 4.5% Turkey renewable energy goals. 6.3% d. March, 2006 European Union Spain instituted a national building ordinance that 12.8% China 64.5% requires solar hot water and solar PV in new Total = 105 gigawatts-thermal construction and renovation for larger buildings. Source: REN21 Renewables 2007 Global Status Report, e. 1996 to 2004 “Net metering” policies were enacted in 33 states, Share of Solar Hot Water/Heating Capacity of bringing the total number of states with net metering to Existing, Selected Countries, 2006 [1] 39. These policies allow two-way power exchange between a utility and individual homes and businesses with their own renewable power sources. • Biomass and Geothermal Energy Biomass and geothermal energy are commonly employed for both power and heating, with recent increases in a number of countries, including uses for district heating. More than 2 million ground source heat pumps are used in 30 countries for building heating and cooling. [1]
  4. 4. 3. Overall in 2007 there was $71 billion invested for renewable energy capacity. The total likely exceeded $100 billion if the following approximate flows are considered: [2] • $10 billion in plant and equipment for solar PV manufacturing • $4 billion in plant and equipment for biofuels production • $16 billion in research and development (both public and private) • $15-20 billion for large hydro power 4. 2007 investments were up from $55 billion in 2006 and $40 billion in 2005. Almost all of the increase was due to increased investment in solar PV and wind power. Overall renewables investments [1] Global Market Development 1. Of the total global power capacity of approximately 4,300 GW, the current power capacity of about 240 GW in 2007 for renewables (ex. large hydro) Global Funding and Countries Concentration [1] represents almost 6% and continues to increase. 2. Offshore wind power projects of the 100-300 MW Investment Progress range grew significantly in 2006-2007, by several projects in progress throughout Europe and the 1. The countries having the greatest commitment to United States. investing in renewables for year 2007 are: • 3. The Solar PV market growth is primarily Germany with just over $14 Billion concentrated in Germany, Japan, Spain, Italy, South • China with $12 Billion Korea, California, and New Jersey, and the market continues to expand to more countries and states • United States with $10 Billion (such as France). 2. Global investment capacity is dominated by the following renewables in approximate percentages: 4. Rooftop solar collectors provide hot water to over 50 million households worldwide, most in China, who • Wind Power at 47 % now represents 75% of global annual additions of solar hot water. • Solar PV at 30 % • Solar Hot Water 9%
  5. 5. 5. The first group of commercial-scale solar thermal Horace de Saussure quoted: quot;It is a known fact, and power plants since the 1980s started operation in a fact that has probably been known for a long time, 2006-2007, including in Nevada (USA) and Spain. that a room, a carriage, or any other place is hotter Plans for more plants are in progress. when the rays of the sun pass through glass.quot; Illustration Courtesy of Kevin Porter, Solar Cookers, International 4. In 1839 French physicist Edmond Becquerel discovered the photovoltaic effect while experimenting with an electrolytic cell made up of Average Annual Growth Rates of Renewable Energy two metal electrodes placed in an electricity- Capacity, 2002–2006 [1] conducting solution. Further work proved that electricity generation increases when exposed to light. SOLAR ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES 5. In 2000 production begins at Fist Solar’s photovoltaic manufacturing plant in Perrysburg, History Ohio, estimating it can produce enough solar panels each year to generate 100 megawatts of power. 1. The use of Solar Energy dates back as early as 7th This is one of the world’s largest photovoltaic Century B.C. where magnifying glasses were used facilities. to concentrate the sun's rays on a fuel and light a fire for the basic purposes of light, warmth, and During approximately the same time, PowerLight cooking. Corporation integrated the world's largest hybrid solar-wind power system to the grid in Hawaii. It 2. During the 13th Century in North America, the provides capacities of: ancestors of Pueblo people also known as Anasazi, • built south-facing dwellings off cliffs that would utilize Solar energy of 175 kilowatts the warmth of the winter sun. • Wind power energy of 50 kilowatts The large ratio of Solar over Wind is particularly unusual for hybrid power systems of these types. 6. Two years later in 2002, PowerLight continues progress with installing the largest rooftop solar power system in the United States — a 1.18- megawatt system at the Santa Rita Jail in Dublin, California. This is the largest U.S. solar rooftop system installed, helping Alameda County reduce and stabilize energy costs. The jail uses 30% less utility- Anasazi dwellings utilizing passive solar design, generated electricity with this solar array that covers Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park. [4] 3 acres. 3. In 1767 Swiss scientist Horace de Saussure was credited with building the world's first solar collector, and then later revised by Sir John Herschel to cook food during his South African expedition in the 1830s.
  6. 6. 2. Concentrating Solar Power Systems The power plants of today use fossil fuels to heat water to a boiling point. The steam from the boiling water rotates a large turbine, which activates a generator that produces electricity, much like portable gas generators. The use of solar power takes advantage of the sun for a heat source. There are three types of concentrating solar power systems: parabolic- trough, dish/engine, and power tower all utilizing their methods to drive generators. Parabolic-trough systems concentrate the sun's energy through long rectangular, curved (U-shaped) mirrors. The mirrors are tilted toward the sun, PowerLight Solar system atop the Santa Rita Jail in focusing sunlight with a pipe that installed through Dublin, California. [4] the center of the trough, which heats the oil flowing through the pipe. The hot oil then is used to boil water which in turn drives a generator. 7. Also in 2002 Automation Tooling Systems Inc. (ATS) in Canada begins commercializing spheral solar A dish/engine system uses a mirrored dish (similar technology. This solar-cell technology uses much to a very large satellite dish). The dish-shaped less silicon than conventional multicrystalline silicon surface collects and concentrates the sun's heat solar cells, thus potentially reducing costs. The onto a receiver, then absorbs the heat and transfers technology was first introduced and promoted in the it to fluid within the engine. The heat will expand the early 1990s by Texas Instruments, but TI later fluid against a piston or turbine to produce discontinued work on it. mechanical power, driving a generator or alternator to produce electricity. This is exciting news as ATS was dependent on automotive automation systems, however A power tower system uses a large field of mirrors to strategically found a use for their technology in the concentrate sunlight onto the top of a tower, where a Solar market with great demand. receiver sits. This heats molten salt flowing through the receiver, then the salt's heat is used to generate electricity through a conventional steam generator. Molten salt retains heat efficiently, so it can be stored for days before being converted into electricity. This is where solar energy can be stored for cloudy days or even several hours after sunset. An ATS complete automated solution for the testing and sorting of photovoltaic cells & panels of a variety of types and sizes [4] Solar thermal power plant in Kramer Junction, California, Technology Types using parabolic troughs to collect the sun's energy. [4] 1. There are 5 Solar system technologies: • Concentrating Solar Power Systems 3. Passive Solar Heating • Passive Solar Heating Passive Solar Heating is having buildings designed to take advantage of the natural sunlight for internal • Photovoltaic Systems illumination and passive heating. This technology is • very similar to that of a green house. Solar Hot Water • The building’s south side will naturally receive the Solar Process Heat most sunlight. Buildings designed for passive solar heating usually have large windows facing south.
  7. 7. The floors and walls materials will heat up during the throughout the day. 10 to 20 PV arrays can provide day and slowly release heat at night, when the heat enough power for a household. Large electric utility is needed most. This passive solar design feature is or industrial applications will contain hundreds of called direct gain. arrays interconnected to form a single, large PV system. Other passive solar heating design features include sunspaces and trombe walls. A sunspace is built on The first solar cells made in the 1950s had the south side of a building. As sunlight passes efficiencies of less than 4%. Today’s commercial through glass or other glazing, the sunspace will be solar cell has an efficiency of 15%, meaning about heated. Specially designed ventilation allows the one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates heat to circulate into the building. Conversely, a electricity. trombe wall is a very thick wall facing the south as The array sizes depend on several factors, such as well, which is painted black and made of a material the amount of sunlight available in a particular to absorb heat. A pane of glass or plastic glazing is location and the needs of the consumer. The installed a few inches in front of the wall to retain the modules of the array make up the majority of a PV heat. The wall is heated up slowly during the day, system. Also included are a multitude of electrical and then as it cools gradually during the night, it connections, mounting hardware, power- gives off its heat inside the building. conditioning equipment, and batteries that store Daylighting is popular with passive solar heating. solar energy for use when the sunlight is not Daylighting uses the natural sunlight to increase the available. brightness of the interior of a building. As most of the sunlight is available to south of a building, clerestories (rows of windows near the peak of the roof) help lighten up the upper level rooms facing north. Bavaria Solarpark, Germany a 10 MW system installed by SunPower [4] SIEEB Solar Energy Efficient Building in Beijing Photo by Daniele Domenicali [4] 5. Solar Hot Water 4. Photovoltaic Systems The purpose of Solar Hot Water is providing a means to heat water for commercial or residential Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells convert sunlight directly uses. It is similar to the theory how shallow lake into electricity. We are familiar with this technology waters are heated where the sun can heat the that often powers calculators and watches, with the bottom of the lake and the heat retained by the apparent visual exposed semiconductor like water. material. A process called the photovoltaic (PV) effect converts light (photons) to electricity (voltage) There are two primary parts for building heaters when sunlight is absorbed by these materials, which which are a solar collector and a storage tank. Most then activates electrons loose from their atoms, commonly found solar collectors are flat plate allowing the electrons to flow through the material to collectors which are mounted on the roof with a thin, produce electricity. flat rectangular box with a transparent cover that faces the sun. The boxes contain small tubes filled Solar cells are typically combined into modules that with water or antifreeze which are then heated. The hold cells which are mounted in PV arrays up to tubes are attached to a black painted (to absorb several meters on a side. Creating a flat plate, the heat) absorber plate. While heat is built up in the arrays are mounted at a fixed angle facing south. collectors, it is transferred to the fluids passing Other applications will be installed on a tracking through the tubes. device that follows the sun, to capture the sunlight
  8. 8. The tube feed a storage tank which then holds the panel mounted on a south-facing wall to absorb the hot liquid. It will sometimes be modified water sun's heat. As air passes through the many small heater, but it is typically larger and very well- holes in the panel, a space behind the perforated insulated. The systems utilizing water will then be wall allows the air streams from the holes to mix used for a variety of purposes that need hot water. together. The heated air is then drawn out from the The systems using fluids other than water will top of the space into the ventilation system. usually have a heat exchanger to convert the heat to This system can also be used for cooling of usable hot water... buildings, by using the solar heat as an energy Solar water heating systems can be either active or source. The use of solar absorption coolers passive, however the most common being active. incorporate desiccant cooling which uses the energy Pumps move the liquid between the collector and to power cooling systems. the storage tank, while passive systems use gravity and design the water to naturally circulate as it is heated. A transpired collector installed at a FedEx facility in Denver. [4] CASE STUDY – SOLAR INTEGRATION OF A MANUFACTURING PLANT A combination of solar electric arrays and pool-heating Facility: Chrysler Marysville solar collectors were used to provide power and heat to Axle Plant the Georgia Tech University Aquatic Center, site of the Production Start: May 2009 1996 Olympic swimming competition. (Credit: Heliocol) [4] Plant Data: 607,500 Square Feet 6. Solar Process Heat 16 MW Anticipated Solar ventilation systems that use process heat are Calculated Power intended to provide large quantities of hot water or space heating for nonresidential buildings. A typical Detroit Axle Plant (reference) system includes solar collectors that work along with Average Hour Usage for 2007: 5.64 MWH a pump, a heat exchanger, and/or one or more large storage tanks. Estimated Available Two main types of solar collectors are used; an Roof Space: 486,000 Square evacuated-tube collector and a parabolic-trough Feet collector. An evacuated-tube collector is a shallow Desired Solar Power: 1.4 MW box full of many glass, double-walled tubes and reflectors to heat the fluid inside the tubes. A Solar Cost Materials vacuum between the two walls insulates the inner And Labor: $7.00 per watt tube, holding in the heat. Parabolic troughs are long, rectangular, curved (U-shaped) mirrors tilted to focus sunlight on a tube, which runs down the center TOTAL INVESTMENT: $ 9,870,000.00 of the trough. This in turn heats the fluid within the Pay back period: 13 Years tube. These types of systems may use transpired collectors, which consists of a thin, black metal Potential LEED Points = 2 to 4
  9. 9. The author would like to thank Charles M. Seremjian, Electrical Controls Engineering Manager, Design Systems Inc. for editing this paper. Basic Configuration of On-Grid Solar The author would like to thank the following for their Integration [7] contributions in the Chrysler Marysville Axle Plant case study: 1. Reda Hanna, Chrysler LLC Building Group Management 2. Tom Gablowski, Chrysler LLC Marysville Axle Plant Program Manager 3. Terry Cavric, Design Systems Inc., Project Manager. 4. John Cernak, Inovateus Solar The author would like to thank the following for their financial support of continuing education in the Field of Engineering. 1. Dale Chiara, Design Systems Inc., Managing Partner 2. Mark Yanalunas, Design Systems Inc., Managing Partner REFERENCES 1. REN21 Renewables 2007 Global Status Report 2. Global Renewable Energy Trends, Policies, and Scenarios, Dr. Eric Martinot, February 21, 2008 3. U.S. Department of Energy – Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5. CONCLUSION 6. European Commission on Energy: Further financial analysis of the benefits of renewable 7. energy to the end user is vital to validate the 8. Inovateus Development, LLC, representing Uni- advantages. While there is a strong desire to improve Solar the environment by the reduction of coal generated 9. Chrysler LLC Building Group electricity, there needs to be strong financial incentives. 10. Design Systems Inc. Anticipation of higher costs for coal provided electricity is difficult to predict, however with pressure to contain coal CONTACT emissions, the associated costs will be passed on to the consumers. Thus investing in renewable energy early, Robert Meyers, Design Systems Inc. cost containment can be achieved prior to any possible Assistant Group Manager, Electrical Controls escalation in traditional coal energies. Engineering ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 248 489-4300 The author would like to thank the following for their support and guidance with assembling information for 38799 W. 12 Mile Road this paper. Farmington Hills, MI 48331 1. Dr. Daw Alwerfalli, Lawrence Technological University, Director, Engineering Management Graduate Program