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Lp 4 joints 2008

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  • Know ab and adduction
  • ** Know for practical
  • Transcript

    • 1. Joints Anatomy & Pathology
    • 2. Joints A union or junction between two or more bones.  Articulation
    • 3. Joint Classification Joints can be classified by several criteria- Simple or Compound- by the number of bones articulating with each other.  Simple- articulations united by two bones.  Compound- articulations united by more than two bones.
    • 4. Joint Classification Structural Classification- classified by their uniting medium.  Fibrous- an articulation united by fibrous tissue allowing little or no movement.  Cartilagenous- an articulation united by fibrocartilage, hyline cartilage, or both as in a symphysis.  Synovial- an articulation united by a synovial joint capsule, these joints are freely movable.
    • 5. Joint Classification Functional Classification- indicates the degree of motion possible.  Synarthrosis- the tight, fixed union allowing little or no movement and having great strength. Ex. Skull bones  Amphiarthrosis- connected by CT or fibrocartilage allowing slight motion. Ex. Vertebrae  Diarthrosis- united by a joint capsule and are freely moveable- synovial joints.  Gomphosis- the name for fibrous implantation of teeth into the jaw.
    • 6. Synovial Joints Characterized by their mobility, joint cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and fibrous capsule. This is the most common type of joint. Functionally, it is freely moveable.
    • 7. Synovial Joints Joint capsule- the 2 layered structure surrounding the joint. Fibrous layer- the white & yellow elastic fibrous part of the joint capsule.  It attaches to the periosteum on or near the margin of the articular cartilage. Synovial membrane- the inner lining of the fibrous layer.  It is highly vascular, nerve rich, and produces synovial fluid.
    • 8. Synovial Joints Synovial fluid- the viscous liquid that lubricates the joint and supplies nutrients. Articular cartilage- the translucent cartilage covering the ends of bones.  It reduces the effects of friction. Ligaments- strong bands of white fibrous CT uniting bones.  They function to keep joint surfaces in apposition and still allow movement.
    • 9. Synovial Joints Meniscus or Disc- a plate of fibrocartilage partially or completely dividing a joint cavity.  It functions to allow a greater variety of motion and alleviate friction. Bursa- a sac-like structure between different tissue that reduces friction between these tissues.
    • 10. Classification of Synovial Joints By movement- the contraction of muscles crossing a joint and the shape of a joint produce its characteristic movements.  Plane- arthroidal joint having flat articular surfaces allowing a gliding or sliding motion.  Ball & Socket- a spheroidal joint consisting of a spheroidal head fitting into a pit or socket.
    • 11. Classification of Synovial Joints By movement…  Hinge- a joint allowing movement at right angles.  Pivot- allows rotation around a longitudinal axis of a bone.  Condylar- formed by 2 condyles of one bone fitting into the cavities of another bone.
    • 12. Movement of Synovial Joints Flexion- decreasing the angle between 2 bones. Extension- increasing the angle between 2 bones. Abduction- moving a part away from the medial plane. Adduction- moving a part toward the medial plane. Circumdunction- movement circumscribing a cone shape accomplished by combining flexion, abduction, extension, & adduction. Rotation- movement around the long axis of a part. Universal- all of the above movements.
    • 13. Shoulder Joint
    • 14. Humeroradioulnar
    • 15. Humeroradioulnar Head of the radius- articulates with the hureral condyle & the ulna. Trochlear notch of the Ulna- articulates with the trochlea of the humeral condyle. Anconeal process of the Ulna- fits into the olecranon fossa of the humerus.
    • 16. Humeroradioulnar
    • 17. Carpal Joints A hinge joint allowing flexion and extension with some lateral movement. It consists of 3 main joints: antebrachiocarpal, middle carpal, & carpometacarpal.
    • 18. Antebrachiocarpal Radiocarpal joint Between the distal radius & ulna and the proximal row of carpal bones. Lots of movement.
    • 19. Middle Carpal Joint Between the 2 rows of carpal bones. It communicates with the carpometacarpal joint. Lots of movement.
    • 20. Carpometacarpal Joint Between the distal row of carpal bones and the metacarpal bones. Very little movement.
    • 21. Intercarpal Joints Plane joints between the individual carpal bones. Articulations between the proximal ends of the metacarpal bones.
    • 22. Metacarpaophalangeal Joints The articulation between the metacarpals & the proximal phalanges including the palmar sesamoid bones. A modified hinge joint allowing flexion & extension.
    • 23. Phalangeal Joints Proximal Interphalangeal joints- synovial joints between the proximal and middle phalanges. Distal Interphalangeal Joints- between the middle and distal phalanges.
    • 24. Pelvic Joints relatively immovable articulation between the wings of the sacrum & the ilium.  This is a combined cartilagenous and synovial joint.
    • 25. Pelvic Joints Pelvic Symphysis- a slightly moveable joint between the 2 hip bones. Coxofemoral- the ball & socket type synovial joint between the head of the femur and the acetabulum of the pelvis.
    • 26. Stifle A condylar joint which acts like a hinge joint with a little rotation.
    • 27. Stifle **Patellar Ligament- the part of the tendon insertion of the quadriceps muscle between the patella and tibial tuberosity.
    • 28. Stifle Medial & Lateral Menisci- the crescent, fibrocartilagenous discs between the tibial & femoral articulating condyles.
    • 29. Stifle Cranial & Caudal Cruciate Ligaments- intra-articular ligaments named for their tibial attachments.  **Cranial CL- inserts cranially on the tibia.  **Caudal CL- inserts caudally on the tibia.
    • 30. Tibiofibular Joint
    • 31. Tarsus “Hock” A compound hinge joint allowing for flexion & extension.
    • 32. Skull Joints Mandibular Symphysis- cartilagenous joint joining the left & right mandibular bodies.
    • 33. Vertebral Column Intervertebral articulations consist of 2 types of joints:  Cartilagenous- are formed by interveterbral disks joining adjacent vertebral bodies.  Synovial- are formed by caudal and cranial articular processes of adjacent vertebrae.
    • 34. Vertebral Column Costovertebral Joints- the 2 distinct articulations between most ribs and the vertebral column.  The head of each rib forms a ball & socket joint with the vertebrae.  The tubercle of each rib forms a joint with the transverse process of the vertebrae.  Each has a joint capsule.
    • 35. Vertebral Column Atlanto-occipital Joint- the “yes” joint. Atlanto-axial Joint- the “no” joint.  A pivot joint between the axis & atlas. Intervertebral Disks-  The layers of fibrocartilage between bodies of adjacent vertebrae each consisting of an outer fibrous ring and an inner pulpy nucleus.
    • 36. Vertebral ColumnCostochondral Junction or Joints- the fibrous joints between the ribs and costal cartilages.
    • 37. Joint Pathology
    • 38. Osteochondrosis Dessicans A failure of cartilage maturation. Pressure on such defective cartilage may cause a piece (joint mouse) to be separated and float free in the synovial space.
    • 39. Pathology… Arthritis-  Inflammation of a joint Bursa-  Small, fluid-filled sac in places where friction might occur Bursitis-  Inflammation of the bursa
    • 40. Pathology… False Joints- a joint formed in an unreduced (unhealed) fracture, having all the structures of a synovial joint. Luxation or Dislocation- an articular separation usually due to injury or degenerative changes.
    • 41. Hip Dysplasia A malformed hip joint resulting in a progressive degenerative disease having a high incidence in some breeds.
    • 42. Hip Dysplasia
    • 43. Cranial Cruciate Ligament Ruptureand Repair When the cruciate ligament is torn or stretched, instead of moving like a hinge, the knee joint will actually make a sliding motion. This abnormal motion and instability creates trauma within the joint that leads to wearing of cartilage, increased synovial fluid production and inflammation.
    • 44. CCLR A torn cruciate ligament can occur in any dog if just the right (or wrong!) forces impact the knee joint. Most commonly seen in larger breeds of dogs and in dogs that are overweight The ACL surgical procedure does not actually repair the torn ligament but rather replaces the ligament with artificial material that takes over the function of the Cruciate Ligament.
    • 45. Cranial Drawer Test
    • 46. Patellar Luxation Patellar luxation is usually a congenital condition in which the kneecap, or patella, dislocates outside of its normal trochlear groove. Dislocation, clinically referred to as luxation, can occur on either the medial, or inside surface, or the lateral, or outside surface, of the knee. There are varying degrees of patellar luxation that are graded depending on whether the patella is intermittently or constantly luxated. This abnormal displacement of the kneecap results in pain, cartilage damage, and arthritis. There are varying degrees of severity of this disease, and surgery may be needed.
    • 47. Joint Fluid Analysis
    • 48. Indications Helps determine the cause of pain or swelling in a joint Synovial fluid is collected for cytological, bacterial or biochemical analysis
    • 49.  Normal synovial fluid has a low cellularity, with virtually no red blood cells & only small numbers of leukocytes. The main functions of synovial fluid are nutritive support, lubrication, and “cushioning” of the articular cartilage.
    • 50.  In addition to cytologic evaluation, the fluid should be assessed for:  Volume obtained  Turbidity  Mucin quality/concentration  Protein concentration  Color  Viscosity
    • 51. Sample Handling & Test Priorities Normal synovial fluid does not clot.  However, with hemorrhage or blood contamination, samples may clot unless processed immediately or placed in an anticoagulant tube.  EDTA is preferred for cytologic examination, while heparin is recommended for the mucin clot test.
    • 52. Color & Turbidity Normal synovial fluid is clear to straw yellow and non-turbid.  Turbidity, when present, is caused by cells, protein (or fibrin), or cartilage.
    • 53. Viscosity Viscosity is frequently decreased in joints with bacterial inflammation.
    • 54. Synovial Fluid
    • 55. Synovial Fluid
    • 56. The End!!

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