Lp 17 endocrinology 2009

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  • Be able to list glands
  • Needs to be done in conjunction with estrogen
  • Lp 17 endocrinology 2009

    1. 1. EndocrinologyHopefully made easy!
    2. 2. Introduction/General Info Endocrine glands- secrete hormones. Exocrine glands- produce secretions that are released via ducts. Hormones- chemical messengers carried by plasma.  Regulates the activity of the target organ. Not all hormones are secreted by endocrine glands, some are produced in tissue from another organ.  Like EPO – produced by kidney
    3. 3. Introduction/General Info Major Endocrine Glands-  Pituitary  Thyroid glands  Parathyroids  Pancreas  Ovaries  Testes  Adrenal glands
    4. 4. The Pituitary Gland
    5. 5. Pituitary Gland Divided into 2 lobes, each of which acts as a separate gland.  Anterior  Posterior Mainly influenced by the Hypothalamus.
    6. 6. Anterior Pituitary Gland “Master Endocrine Gland” Develops from glandular tissue. Hormones-1. Growth Hormone (GH)-  Promotes body growth  Regulates metabolism  Encourages protein synthesis
    7. 7. Anterior Pituitary Gland…2. Prolactin (PRL)-  Triggers and maintains lactation.3. Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH)-  Stimulates the growth and development of the thyroid gland.4. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
    8. 8. Anterior Pituitary Gland…5. Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)-  Stimulates the growth & development of the ovarian follicles.  Stimulates the follicle lining to produce & secrete ESTROGEN.  Stimulates spermatogenesis.
    9. 9. Anterior Pituitary Gland…6. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)-  Completes the follicle development process.  Can cause OVULATION.  Can cause the development of the CORPUS LUTEUM-  Which produces PROGESTERONE, which maintains pregnancy.  Can stimulate the testes to develop & produce TESTOSTERONE.
    10. 10. Posterior Pituitary Gland Develops from the nervous system. Does not produce any hormones. Stores ADH & Oxytocin
    11. 11. Posterior Pituitary Gland…1. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)-  Prevents diuresis-  Conserves water  Urine is more concentrated  The release of ADH is inhibited by alcohol and caffeine.
    12. 12. Posterior Pituitary Gland…2. Oxytocin-  Has 2 targets-  The uterus & mammary glands  Can cause uterine contractions to:  Aid in the transport of sperm to the oviducts.  Aid in the delivery of the fetus.
    13. 13. The Thyroid Gland
    14. 14. The Thyroid Gland Produces:  Thyroid hormones  T3- has 3 iodine atoms  T4- has 4 iodine atoms  Calcitonin
    15. 15. Parathyroid Glands Produces parathyroid hormone (PTH) Works opposite to calcitonin to maintain blood calcium levels. Mobilizes calcium from bones to the bloodstream.  Negative feedback loop.
    16. 16. The Adrenal Glands
    17. 17. The Adrenal Glands… Actually 2 glands-  Adrenal cortex  Adrenal medulla
    18. 18. The Adrenal Glands… Adrenal Cortex-  Develops from glandular tissue.  Under the influence of ACTH, it produces steroids:  Glucocorticoids  Mineralocorticoids  Sex hormones  Chemicals derived from cholesterol.
    19. 19. The Adrenal Glands… Adrenal Cortex…1. Glucocorticoids-  Cortisone, Cortisol, & Corticosterone a. Cortisol- aka hydrocortisone, influences the metabolism of sugars and has a anti-inflammatory effect. b. Cortisone- similar to Cortisol, and can be prepared synthetically. Useful in treating inflammatory conditions.  Causes a hyperglycemic effect.  Causes blood glucose levels to rise.
    20. 20. The Adrenal Glands… Adrenal Cortex…2. Mineralocorticoids-  Regulates electrolyte levels.  The primary one is ALDOSTERONE.  Reabsorbs sodium, excretes potassium.3. Sex Hormones-  Androgens- male  Estrogens- female  Maintain secondary sex characteristics (beard & breast development)  These hormones are also produced in
    21. 21. The Adrenal Glands… Adrenal Medulla-  Develops from nervous tissue.  Produces (catecholamines):  Epinepherine  Norepinepherine  Chemicals derived from amino acids  Along with the sympathetic nervous system, these catecholamines stimulate the “Fight or Flight”
    22. 22. The Adrenal Glands… Adrenal Medulla…1. Epinepherine-   heart rate, dilates bronchioles, and stimulates the production of glucose for energy.1. Norepinepherine-  Constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure.
    23. 23. The Pancreas
    24. 24. The Pancreas… Controls metabolism Secretes: 1. Somatostatin- inhibits the secretion of insulin & glucagon. 2. Insulin-  glucose 3. Glucagon-  glucose
    25. 25. Pathology
    26. 26. Hyperthyroidism The most commonly seen endocrine disorder in cats. Very rare in dogs except as a result of neoplasia. Bilateral thyroid gland enlargement occurs in 70% of cases.
    27. 27. Hyperthyroidism… Signs include:  Weight loss  Polyphagia  Vomiting  Increased appetite  Tachycardia (with or without murmurs)
    28. 28. Hyperthyroidism… Treatment options include:  Surgical removal of the thyroid gland  Radioactive iodine treatment  Antithyroid drug therapy
    29. 29. Hypothyroidism Commonly seen in the dog. Clinical signs include:  Weight gain with no change in diet.  Bilateral symmetric alopecia & loss of hair on the tail (“rat tail”).  66-75% of dogs will have an increased cholesterol level.
    30. 30. Parathyroid Hyperparathyroidism-   production of parathormone.  Causes hypercalcemia.  Etiology is often a parathyroid tumor. Hypoparathyroidism-   production of parathormone.  Causes hypocalcemia.  This leads to a condition called tetany-  Constant muscle contraction.
    31. 31. Adrenal Cortex Hyperadrenocorticoidism-  “Cushing’s Disease”  Produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex. Hypoadrenocorticoidism-  “Addison’s Disease”  Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex.
    32. 32. Pancreas Hyperinsulinism-  Excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia.  A problem of ferrets.  Etiology may be a pancreatic tumor or an overdose of insulin.
    33. 33. Pancreas Diabetes mellitus-  Lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin to promote sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells.  Symptoms include: PU/PD, glucosuria, and +/- ketoacidosis.  Ketoacidosis- fats are improperly burned leading to an accumulation of ketones in the
    34. 34. Pancreas Type I Diabetes-  Insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus (IDDM)  Onset is usually in young animals.  A complete deficiency of insulin.  Patients require injections of insulin for treatment. Type II Diabetes-  Non-insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)  A separate disease from type I.  Still has a deficiency of insulin.  Usually in older, obese animals.  Treatment is with diet and oral medications.
    35. 35. Laboratory Analysis
    36. 36. Lab Analysis… Glucose tolerance Thyroid tests- T3, T4, Free T4, TSH ACTH Stim. Dexamethasone Suppression-  LDDS  HDDS Urine Cortisol : Creatinine
    37. 37. THE END!

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