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Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
Lp 17 endocrinology 2009
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Lp 17 endocrinology 2009

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  • Be able to list glands
  • Needs to be done in conjunction with estrogen
  • Transcript

    • 1. EndocrinologyHopefully made easy!
    • 2. Introduction/General Info Endocrine glands- secrete hormones. Exocrine glands- produce secretions that are released via ducts. Hormones- chemical messengers carried by plasma.  Regulates the activity of the target organ. Not all hormones are secreted by endocrine glands, some are produced in tissue from another organ.  Like EPO – produced by kidney
    • 3. Introduction/General Info Major Endocrine Glands-  Pituitary  Thyroid glands  Parathyroids  Pancreas  Ovaries  Testes  Adrenal glands
    • 4. The Pituitary Gland
    • 5. Pituitary Gland Divided into 2 lobes, each of which acts as a separate gland.  Anterior  Posterior Mainly influenced by the Hypothalamus.
    • 6. Anterior Pituitary Gland “Master Endocrine Gland” Develops from glandular tissue. Hormones-1. Growth Hormone (GH)-  Promotes body growth  Regulates metabolism  Encourages protein synthesis
    • 7. Anterior Pituitary Gland…2. Prolactin (PRL)-  Triggers and maintains lactation.3. Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH)-  Stimulates the growth and development of the thyroid gland.4. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
    • 8. Anterior Pituitary Gland…5. Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)-  Stimulates the growth & development of the ovarian follicles.  Stimulates the follicle lining to produce & secrete ESTROGEN.  Stimulates spermatogenesis.
    • 9. Anterior Pituitary Gland…6. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)-  Completes the follicle development process.  Can cause OVULATION.  Can cause the development of the CORPUS LUTEUM-  Which produces PROGESTERONE, which maintains pregnancy.  Can stimulate the testes to develop & produce TESTOSTERONE.
    • 10. Posterior Pituitary Gland Develops from the nervous system. Does not produce any hormones. Stores ADH & Oxytocin
    • 11. Posterior Pituitary Gland…1. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)-  Prevents diuresis-  Conserves water  Urine is more concentrated  The release of ADH is inhibited by alcohol and caffeine.
    • 12. Posterior Pituitary Gland…2. Oxytocin-  Has 2 targets-  The uterus & mammary glands  Can cause uterine contractions to:  Aid in the transport of sperm to the oviducts.  Aid in the delivery of the fetus.
    • 13. The Thyroid Gland
    • 14. The Thyroid Gland Produces:  Thyroid hormones  T3- has 3 iodine atoms  T4- has 4 iodine atoms  Calcitonin
    • 15. Parathyroid Glands Produces parathyroid hormone (PTH) Works opposite to calcitonin to maintain blood calcium levels. Mobilizes calcium from bones to the bloodstream.  Negative feedback loop.
    • 16. The Adrenal Glands
    • 17. The Adrenal Glands… Actually 2 glands-  Adrenal cortex  Adrenal medulla
    • 18. The Adrenal Glands… Adrenal Cortex-  Develops from glandular tissue.  Under the influence of ACTH, it produces steroids:  Glucocorticoids  Mineralocorticoids  Sex hormones  Chemicals derived from cholesterol.
    • 19. The Adrenal Glands… Adrenal Cortex…1. Glucocorticoids-  Cortisone, Cortisol, & Corticosterone a. Cortisol- aka hydrocortisone, influences the metabolism of sugars and has a anti-inflammatory effect. b. Cortisone- similar to Cortisol, and can be prepared synthetically. Useful in treating inflammatory conditions.  Causes a hyperglycemic effect.  Causes blood glucose levels to rise.
    • 20. The Adrenal Glands… Adrenal Cortex…2. Mineralocorticoids-  Regulates electrolyte levels.  The primary one is ALDOSTERONE.  Reabsorbs sodium, excretes potassium.3. Sex Hormones-  Androgens- male  Estrogens- female  Maintain secondary sex characteristics (beard & breast development)  These hormones are also produced in
    • 21. The Adrenal Glands… Adrenal Medulla-  Develops from nervous tissue.  Produces (catecholamines):  Epinepherine  Norepinepherine  Chemicals derived from amino acids  Along with the sympathetic nervous system, these catecholamines stimulate the “Fight or Flight”
    • 22. The Adrenal Glands… Adrenal Medulla…1. Epinepherine-   heart rate, dilates bronchioles, and stimulates the production of glucose for energy.1. Norepinepherine-  Constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure.
    • 23. The Pancreas
    • 24. The Pancreas… Controls metabolism Secretes: 1. Somatostatin- inhibits the secretion of insulin & glucagon. 2. Insulin-  glucose 3. Glucagon-  glucose
    • 25. Pathology
    • 26. Hyperthyroidism The most commonly seen endocrine disorder in cats. Very rare in dogs except as a result of neoplasia. Bilateral thyroid gland enlargement occurs in 70% of cases.
    • 27. Hyperthyroidism… Signs include:  Weight loss  Polyphagia  Vomiting  Increased appetite  Tachycardia (with or without murmurs)
    • 28. Hyperthyroidism… Treatment options include:  Surgical removal of the thyroid gland  Radioactive iodine treatment  Antithyroid drug therapy
    • 29. Hypothyroidism Commonly seen in the dog. Clinical signs include:  Weight gain with no change in diet.  Bilateral symmetric alopecia & loss of hair on the tail (“rat tail”).  66-75% of dogs will have an increased cholesterol level.
    • 30. Parathyroid Hyperparathyroidism-   production of parathormone.  Causes hypercalcemia.  Etiology is often a parathyroid tumor. Hypoparathyroidism-   production of parathormone.  Causes hypocalcemia.  This leads to a condition called tetany-  Constant muscle contraction.
    • 31. Adrenal Cortex Hyperadrenocorticoidism-  “Cushing’s Disease”  Produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex. Hypoadrenocorticoidism-  “Addison’s Disease”  Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex.
    • 32. Pancreas Hyperinsulinism-  Excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia.  A problem of ferrets.  Etiology may be a pancreatic tumor or an overdose of insulin.
    • 33. Pancreas Diabetes mellitus-  Lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin to promote sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells.  Symptoms include: PU/PD, glucosuria, and +/- ketoacidosis.  Ketoacidosis- fats are improperly burned leading to an accumulation of ketones in the
    • 34. Pancreas Type I Diabetes-  Insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus (IDDM)  Onset is usually in young animals.  A complete deficiency of insulin.  Patients require injections of insulin for treatment. Type II Diabetes-  Non-insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)  A separate disease from type I.  Still has a deficiency of insulin.  Usually in older, obese animals.  Treatment is with diet and oral medications.
    • 35. Laboratory Analysis
    • 36. Lab Analysis… Glucose tolerance Thyroid tests- T3, T4, Free T4, TSH ACTH Stim. Dexamethasone Suppression-  LDDS  HDDS Urine Cortisol : Creatinine
    • 37. THE END!

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