In both the sciences and the arts we strive to weave ourexperiences into coherent bodies of knowledge and to communicate them.
Art…□ enhances daily experiences.□ is linked to quality of life.□ touches everyone.□ is all around us.
The Meaning of the Word Art…1. Ability - The human capacity to make things of beauty and things that stir us.2. Process - The different forms of art such as drawing, painting, sculpting, architecture, and photography.3. Product - The completed workWhatever the definition, it is important to know the vocabulary of art in order to understand it.
Some “Truths” About Art1. There is no agreed-upon definition of art.2. Art does not necessarily have to be beautiful.3. Art can be created for any number of reasons.
The Philosophies About Art:Many philosophers have argued that art serves no function, that it exists for its own sake.Some have asserted that the essence of art transcends the human occupation with usefulness.Others have held that in trying to analyze art too closely, one loses sight of its beauty and wonderment.
Understanding and appreciating art…The questions to ask…□ “Why was this created?”□ “What is its purpose?”
What Are the Purposes of Art?
ART AND BEAUTY□ Art adds beauty to our lives by looking to nature□ Art depicts both Western & Non- Western concepts of beauty
1.1 LEONARDO DA VINCI. Mona Lisa(c. 1503–1505). Oil on wood panel. 30 1/4” x 21”.
1.2 Kenyan woman, Masai tribe.Standards for beauty can differ from culture to culture.
“A Closer Look”A Portrait in the FleshSometimes artists try to improve on nature – thereby creating an alternative standard
1.5 French performance artist Orlan, who has dedicated herself to embodying Western classicbeauty as found in the works of Leonardo, Botticelli, and Boucher through multiple plastic surgeries. Here Orlan is being “prepped” for one in a series of operations.
1.6 SANDRO BOTTICELLI. The Birth of Venus (1486). Detail. Tempera on canvas. 5’8 7⁄8” x 9’1 1⁄7”.
ART AND OUR ENVIRONMENT Used to create pleasing environments. Used as Decoration. Used to transport to another place.
1.37 JOYCE KOZLOFF. Galla Placidia in Philadelphia (1985). Mosaic installation. 13’ x 16’
1.37 DALE CHIHULY. FioridiComo (1998). 70’ x 30’ x 12’.
ART AND TRUTH Truth in art is subjective. True to nature?True to human experience? True to materials?
1.7 FRIDA KAHLO. Diego in MyThoughts (Diego y yo) (1949). Oilon canvas, mounted on Masonite. 24” x 36”.
Art can be used to□ Replicate nature□ Show reality□ Express an artist’s own experiences.
ART AND IMMORTALITYUsed to defy mortality, by staying in theaudiences consciousness for decades. Art can bring people “together” from different periods of time.
1.9 ANDY WARHOL. Four Marilyns (1962). Synthetic polymer paint andsilkscreen ink on canvas. 30" × 23⅞".
ART AND GLORY□ Art immortalizes people and events throughout the ages.□ Art history’s wealthiest patrons commissioned artists to create works that glorified their reigns and accomplishments.
1.11 Column of Trajan, Forum of Trajan, Rome, dedicated 112. 128 feet high.
ART AND RELIGION Humans developed art forms to visually render the unseen.Throughout different societies these depictions include human forms, animals, and composite figures. Art is used to express hope, faithand symbolize religious events and values.
1.13 JESSIE OONARK. A Shaman’sHelping Spirits (1971). Stonecut and stencil. 37 1⁄6” x 25 1⁄6”.
1.14 AARON DOUGLAS.Noah’s Ark (c. 1927). Oil on masonite. 48” x 36”.
ART AND IDEOLOGY Ideologies are an organizedcollection of ideas. They tend to originate from commonly held beliefs within a society. Art uses images to create and reinforce ideology.
1.17 SUZANNE VALADON.Adam and Eve (1909). Oil on canvas. 63¾ × 51⅝.
ART AND FANTASY Some artists use their art as an outlet to vent their imaginary innerlives. These images can be evokedfrom dreams or could simply be theobjects and landscapes conceived in the unconscious mind.
1.18 Marc Chagall I and the Village. (1911). Oil on canvas. 6’3-5/8” x 4’11-5/8”.
Art and PsychoanalyticMany 20th Century artists looked to thepsychoanalytic writings of Sigmund Freudand Carl Jung, who suggested thatprimeval forces are at wok in theunconscious reaches of the mind.Artist’s sought to use their art as an outletfor these unconscious forces.
1.19 Max Beckmann. The Dream(1921). Oil on canvas. 73-1/8” x 35”.
ART, INTELLECT, AND EMOTION Art can make you think, feel, and can trigger associations. The viewer may ponder the purpose of the artist, the emotions or activity of the subject, all while forming one’s own response to the piece.
Conceptual ArtConceptual art does not only represent external objects. It also challenges the traditional view of the artist as creative visionary, skilled craftsperson, and master of one’s media. The “art” lies in the artist’s conception.
ART, ORDER, AND HARMONY Art is harmony. –Georges SeuratArtists and scientists try to find the underlyingorder of nature.A perfect examples is Zen, a Buddhist sect thatseeks inner harmony through introspection andmeditation.
1.21 Ryoanji Zen Temple, Japanese sand garden, Kyoto, Japan.
COMPARE + CONTRASTThe Piano Lesson(s) by Matisse and Bearden
1.23 HENRI MATISSE. Piano Lesson (1916). Oil on canvas. 8’1⁄2” x 6’11 3⁄4”.1.24 ROMARE BEARDEN. Piano Lesson (1983). Oil with Collage. 29» x 22’
1.22 LAURIE SIMMONS. Red Library #2 (1983). Color photograph. 48 1⁄2” x 38 1⁄4”.
ART AND CHAOS On the flipside of order and harmony,artists have also sought to depict chaos. It is often visualized through apocalyptic events, war, and famine, but also merelysuggested even without specific content.
1.25 JAUNE QUICK-TO-SEE SMITH. Eclipse (1987). Oil on canvas. 60” x 60”.
ART, EXPERIENCE, AND MEMORY□ Art has served to record and communicate experiences and events. □ Memorials □ Photographs of momentous occasions□ Art also conveys the personal experience of an artist.
1.26 LOUISA CHASE. Storm (1981). Oil on canvas. 90” x 120”.
1.27 ALFRED STIEGLITZ. TheSteerage (1907). Photograph.
1.28 FAITH RINGGOLD. Tar Beach (1988). Acrylic paint on canvas and pieced fabric. 74” x 68-1⁄2”.
ART IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT While recording experiences, artists frequently note:□ The activities and the objects of their times and places□ Contemporary fashion and beliefs□ The crafts and sciences□ Architecture
1.29 EDWARD HOPPER. Nighthawks (1942). Oil on canvas. 30” x 60”.
1.30 RICHARD HAMILTON. Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (1956). Collage. 10-1⁄4” x 9-3⁄4”.
1.31 ZAHA HADID. Sheikh Zayed Bridge, Abu Dhabi. 2006.
ART AND SOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESSArtists have taken on bitter strugglesagainst the injustices of their timesand have tried to persuade others tojoin them in their causes, and it hasbeen natural for them to use theircreative skills to do so.
1.32 EUGÈNE DELACROIX. Liberty Leading the People (1830). Oil on canvas. 8’6” x 10’10”.
1.33 SUZANNE LACY AND LESLIE LABOWITZ. In Mourning and in Rage (1977). Performance at Los Angeles City Hall.
1.34 BETYE SAAR. The Liberation of AuntJemima (1972). Mixed media. 11-3⁄4” x 8” x 2-3⁄4”.
ART AND POPULAR CULTURE□ Readymade - objects elevated from the commonplace to the position of art.□ Assemblage - art made and assembled from found objects.□ Pop Art - art that utilizes the commonplace objects and visual clichés to make the viewer think twice about the symbols and objects that surround us.
1.35 MIRIAM SCHAPIRO. Wonderland (1983). Acrylic and fabric collage on canvas. 90” x 144” (framed)
1.36 MARCEL DUCHAMP.Fountain (1917). 1951 version after lost original. Porcelain urinal. H: 24".
Some artist create solely for:□ “Self-actualization”□ Novelty□ Exploration□ Understanding□ Aesthetics□ Beauty□ Order□ Emotional or psychological needs
1.39 JOSÉ CLEMENTE OROZCO. Epic of American Civilization: Hispano-America (c. 1932–1934). Fresco. 10” x 9’11”.