LIBYA Yes! This green side is the national flag. Not the best place for flag designers.
Key Statistics Population: 6.6 Million Median Age: 24.5 Years Religion: 97% Sunni GDP: $89.03 Billion ($13,800 per capita) Leader: <-- this guy! Mohammar Quadaffi Years in Power: 42 years Time Left in Power: 42 minutes?
Modern Economy OIL! (95% of export earnings, 25% of GDP, 80% of government earnings) 98th in world for Soverign debt Qadaffi is worth close to $70 billion all stolen from the country Small amounts of agriculture Refines own oil Exports petrochemicals
History (prehistoric) 1000’s of years ago Sahara used to be lush green land Land settled by Berbers after the nomadic tribes settled Domesticated cattle Cultivated crops Society dates backs 12,000 years No written language therefore little is known about them Phoenician’s established trading relations with the Berber tribes by the 5th century BCE The Phoenician state of Carthage occupied part of current day Libya
Roman Libya 74 BC - 642 AD Tripolitania becomes a state after the fall of Carthage and asks for protection from the Romans Annexed in 74 BC and added to province of Crete Economically successful in its golden age in 2nd century AD Full of merchants and artisans and exported olive oil and cereals Coastal regions became incredibly Romanized
Tripolitania = “three polis” area Oea = current day Tripoli Sabratha Leptis Magna
Rome’s Split During the split Libya goes to Byzantine empire. High taxes imposed to pay for wars Minimized legitimacy of the empire in Libya In 642 AD the armies of Islam capture the province with 40,000 soliders Tribal resistance surfaces but is put down in next 20 years
Arab Islamic Rule 642-1551 Exports salt, wool, and leather Normans of Italy invade setting off a long war Turks and Bedouins reclaim Libya in 1174 Libya becomes a center of art, architecture, and literature
Ottoman Rule 1551-1911 Invaded and conquered by the Ottomans Run by janissaries 18th century - lapsed into military anarchy due to lack of central government Coup takes power from Ottoman’s but deal is quickly reached to nominally rejoin with Ahmed as new governor Ahmed improves economy by employing pirates on central shipping lanes Fights the Barbary Wars with the US in 19th century
Italian Colonialism 1911 - 1951 Known as Italian North Africa 150,000 Italians settled in the county 1934 Libya becomes official name Uprising arises between two world wars Under fascism Italy takes a hard line against rebels After WWII the Brits and French control Libya
Independent State The UN General Assembly sets up a constitutional monarchy in 1952 Islam declared religion of state Constitution protects individual rights and public obligations Discovery of oil in 1959 helps Libya no longer be one of the world’s poorest states
Qaddafi Coup in 1969 by 27 year old Qaddafi (took 2 hours) Suspended constitution and implemented Sharia Purged country of “politically sick” Created people’s militia to protect revolution Extensive intelligence network - 10 - 20% of Libyans in its employ Executed dissidents Assassinated international refugees
Qaddafi Attacks Egypt because of Sadat’s peace with Israel Egypt destroys all Libyan armor leaving 400 dead Once more becomes impoverished from Qaddafi’s economic policy Long history of state sponsored terrorism