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Libya

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  • 1. LIBYA Yes! This green side is the national flag. Not the best place for flag designers.
  • 2. Key Statistics Population: 6.6 Million Median Age: 24.5 Years Religion: 97% Sunni GDP: $89.03 Billion ($13,800 per capita) Leader: <-- this guy! Mohammar Quadaffi Years in Power: 42 years Time Left in Power: 42 minutes ?
  • 3. Modern Economy
    • OIL! (95% of export earnings, 25% of GDP, 80% of government earnings)
    • 98th in world for Soverign debt
    • Qadaffi is worth close to $70 billion all stolen from the country
    • Small amounts of agriculture
    • Refines own oil
    • Exports petrochemicals
  • 4. History (prehistoric)
    • 1000’s of years ago Sahara used to be lush green land
    • Land settled by Berbers after the nomadic tribes settled
      • Domesticated cattle
      • Cultivated crops
    • Society dates backs 12,000 years
    • No written language therefore little is known about them
    • Phoenician’s established trading relations with the Berber tribes by the 5th century BCE
    • The Phoenician state of Carthage occupied part of current day Libya
  • 5. Roman Libya 74 BC - 642 AD
    • Tripolitania becomes a state after the fall of Carthage and asks for protection from the Romans
    • Annexed in 74 BC and added to province of Crete
    • Economically successful in its golden age in 2nd century AD
    • Full of merchants and artisans and exported olive oil and cereals
    • Coastal regions became incredibly Romanized
  • 6. Tripolitania = “three polis” area
    • Oea = current day Tripoli
    • Sabratha
    • Leptis Magna
  • 7. Rome’s Split
    • During the split Libya goes to Byzantine empire.
    • High taxes imposed to pay for wars
    • Minimized legitimacy of the empire in Libya
    • In 642 AD the armies of Islam capture the province with 40,000 soliders
    • Tribal resistance surfaces but is put down in next 20 years
  • 8. Arab Islamic Rule 642-1551
    • Exports salt, wool, and leather
    • Normans of Italy invade setting off a long war
    • Turks and Bedouins reclaim Libya in 1174
    • Libya becomes a center of art, architecture, and literature
  • 9. Ottoman Rule 1551-1911
    • Invaded and conquered by the Ottomans
    • Run by janissaries
    • 18th century - lapsed into military anarchy due to lack of central government
    • Coup takes power from Ottoman’s but deal is quickly reached to nominally rejoin with Ahmed as new governor
    • Ahmed improves economy by employing pirates on central shipping lanes
    • Fights the Barbary Wars with the US in 19th century
  • 10. Italian Colonialism 1911 - 1951
    • Known as Italian North Africa
    • 150,000 Italians settled in the county
    • 1934 Libya becomes official name
    • Uprising arises between two world wars
    • Under fascism Italy takes a hard line against rebels
    • After WWII the Brits and French control Libya
  • 11. Independent State
    • The UN General Assembly sets up a constitutional monarchy in 1952
    • Islam declared religion of state
    • Constitution protects individual rights and public obligations
    • Discovery of oil in 1959 helps Libya no longer be one of the world’s poorest states
  • 12. Qaddafi
    • Coup in 1969 by 27 year old Qaddafi (took 2 hours)
      • Suspended constitution and implemented Sharia
      • Purged country of “politically sick”
      • Created people’s militia to protect revolution
    • Extensive intelligence network - 10 - 20% of Libyans in its employ
    • Executed dissidents
    • Assassinated international refugees
  • 13. Qaddafi
    • Attacks Egypt because of Sadat’s peace with Israel
    • Egypt destroys all Libyan armor leaving 400 dead
    • Once more becomes impoverished from Qaddafi’s economic policy
    • Long history of state sponsored terrorism
  • 14.
    • Protest Timeline