Libya

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Libya

  1. 1. LIBYA Yes! This green side is the national flag. Not the best place for flag designers.
  2. 2. Key Statistics Population: 6.6 Million Median Age: 24.5 Years Religion: 97% Sunni GDP: $89.03 Billion ($13,800 per capita) Leader: <-- this guy! Mohammar Quadaffi Years in Power: 42 years Time Left in Power: 42 minutes ?
  3. 3. Modern Economy <ul><li>OIL! (95% of export earnings, 25% of GDP, 80% of government earnings) </li></ul><ul><li>98th in world for Soverign debt </li></ul><ul><li>Qadaffi is worth close to $70 billion all stolen from the country </li></ul><ul><li>Small amounts of agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Refines own oil </li></ul><ul><li>Exports petrochemicals </li></ul>
  4. 4. History (prehistoric) <ul><li>1000’s of years ago Sahara used to be lush green land </li></ul><ul><li>Land settled by Berbers after the nomadic tribes settled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domesticated cattle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultivated crops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Society dates backs 12,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>No written language therefore little is known about them </li></ul><ul><li>Phoenician’s established trading relations with the Berber tribes by the 5th century BCE </li></ul><ul><li>The Phoenician state of Carthage occupied part of current day Libya </li></ul>
  5. 5. Roman Libya 74 BC - 642 AD <ul><li>Tripolitania becomes a state after the fall of Carthage and asks for protection from the Romans </li></ul><ul><li>Annexed in 74 BC and added to province of Crete </li></ul><ul><li>Economically successful in its golden age in 2nd century AD </li></ul><ul><li>Full of merchants and artisans and exported olive oil and cereals </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal regions became incredibly Romanized </li></ul>
  6. 6. Tripolitania = “three polis” area <ul><li>Oea = current day Tripoli </li></ul><ul><li>Sabratha </li></ul><ul><li>Leptis Magna </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rome’s Split <ul><li>During the split Libya goes to Byzantine empire. </li></ul><ul><li>High taxes imposed to pay for wars </li></ul><ul><li>Minimized legitimacy of the empire in Libya </li></ul><ul><li>In 642 AD the armies of Islam capture the province with 40,000 soliders </li></ul><ul><li>Tribal resistance surfaces but is put down in next 20 years </li></ul>
  8. 8. Arab Islamic Rule 642-1551 <ul><li>Exports salt, wool, and leather </li></ul><ul><li>Normans of Italy invade setting off a long war </li></ul><ul><li>Turks and Bedouins reclaim Libya in 1174 </li></ul><ul><li>Libya becomes a center of art, architecture, and literature </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ottoman Rule 1551-1911 <ul><li>Invaded and conquered by the Ottomans </li></ul><ul><li>Run by janissaries </li></ul><ul><li>18th century - lapsed into military anarchy due to lack of central government </li></ul><ul><li>Coup takes power from Ottoman’s but deal is quickly reached to nominally rejoin with Ahmed as new governor </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmed improves economy by employing pirates on central shipping lanes </li></ul><ul><li>Fights the Barbary Wars with the US in 19th century </li></ul>
  10. 10. Italian Colonialism 1911 - 1951 <ul><li>Known as Italian North Africa </li></ul><ul><li>150,000 Italians settled in the county </li></ul><ul><li>1934 Libya becomes official name </li></ul><ul><li>Uprising arises between two world wars </li></ul><ul><li>Under fascism Italy takes a hard line against rebels </li></ul><ul><li>After WWII the Brits and French control Libya </li></ul>
  11. 11. Independent State <ul><li>The UN General Assembly sets up a constitutional monarchy in 1952 </li></ul><ul><li>Islam declared religion of state </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution protects individual rights and public obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery of oil in 1959 helps Libya no longer be one of the world’s poorest states </li></ul>
  12. 12. Qaddafi <ul><li>Coup in 1969 by 27 year old Qaddafi (took 2 hours) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspended constitution and implemented Sharia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purged country of “politically sick” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created people’s militia to protect revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extensive intelligence network - 10 - 20% of Libyans in its employ </li></ul><ul><li>Executed dissidents </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated international refugees </li></ul>
  13. 13. Qaddafi <ul><li>Attacks Egypt because of Sadat’s peace with Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt destroys all Libyan armor leaving 400 dead </li></ul><ul><li>Once more becomes impoverished from Qaddafi’s economic policy </li></ul><ul><li>Long history of state sponsored terrorism </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Protest Timeline </li></ul>

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