Servant Leadership “The servant-leader is servant first…It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first…Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead” (Greenleaf, 1970). What is servant leadership? According to Robert K. Greenleaf (1970) Servant leadership is the process of enabling individuals to grow healthier, wiser, freer, and more autonymous through the art of servant-hood.
Description of Servant Leadership Introduced and developed by Robert K. Greenleaf in 1970 who was the Director of Management Research for AT&T for 38 years. He was known as AT&T’s “Kept Revolutionary.” Based on the theory that leaders lead best by serving their followers rather than by commanding them.
Origins of Servant Leadership In the East, a philosopher named Chanakya wrote in his 4th century book Arthashastra: “The King shall consider as good, not what pleases himself but what pleases his subjects.” In the West, the concept is thought to go back to Jesus: “Those that are rulers are taught to lord it over others. Not so with you. If you want to be great you must be a servant, and slave to all. Even the son of man did not come to be served, but to serve” (Mark 10:42-45).
What do Servant Leaders do? The servant leader is a servant first Differs from those who choose to lead first for power or gain Makes sure other people’s needs are being served The least privileged in society will benefit, or at least not be further deprived
Traits Qualities Listening Empathy Healing Awareness Persuasion Conceptualization Foresight Stewardship Commitment to the growth of people Building community Respect Responsibility Humility Love Compassion Commitment Patience Servant Leadership
Power Leadership Service Leadership Attainment, exercise, and retention of power Principle of divide and overcome Taking Power is consciously used in order to serve Giving Mutual trust: a commonality that all share Only possible when people are capable and motivated. Employees are given the chance to exercise their talents and abilities Power vs. Service Model
The Servant Leader The servant leader knows that his/her own growth is facilitated by the growth of others. Servant leadership is a reaction: the most important job being to find out what the needs of the community are and fulfilling them. Servant leadership overcomes opposites, and works towards reconciliation. Opposites exist to be combined, and seen as not what separates people, but what brings them together. Servant leadership does not see cultural differences as a problem. It is seen as opportunities to create something together that is stronger than two parts. Servant leadership focuses on what you share and ways which resemble each other leads to a sense of connection, humanity, and compassion.
Strengths Limitations A long-term, transformational approach to life and work. A way of being Concerned with service to their followers Not a quick-fix to problems in an organization. Cannot be quickly instilled in others. Soft approach to leadership. Listening and empathizing too much with others may lead to indecisiveness or a lack of vision. Servant Leadership
Implications for Servant Leadership in Education Community friendly. It looks to take care of the needs of all involved. Promotes students, parents, and teachers to be their best while looking out for the interests of one another. When the needs of others are met then the abilities, talents, and achievements can be realized.
Servant Leadership “If a better society is to be built, one that is more just and more loving, one that provides greater creative opportunity for its people, then the most open course is to raise both the capacity to serve and the very performance as servant of existing major institutions by new regenerative forces operating within them” (Greenleaf, 1970).
Instructional Leadership Instructional quality is one of the most important factors in effective teaching. Without it, school reform is impossible. How can leaders develop and implement strategies to improve faculty quality and then manage the process of school reform in today's complex school environments? 15
What is instructional leadership? “Those actions that a principal takes, or delegates to others, to promote growth in student learning” (http://www.e-lad.org/resources/resources.asp?ResourceID=14) In practice, this means that the principal encourages educational achievement by making instructional quality the top priority of the school and brings that vision to realization. 16
Role of the Instructional Leader Different and not as common to that of a traditional/conventional administrator Where a conventional principal spends the majority of his/her time dealing with strictly administrative duties, a principal who is an instructional leader is charged with redefining his/her role to become the primary learner in a community striving for excellence in education 17
Descriptions of duties of an instructional leader In instructional leadership, it is the principal’s responsibility to: work with teachers to define educational objectives. set school-wide or district wide goals. provide the necessary resources for learning. create new learning opportunities for students and staff. 18
Benefits of Instructional Leadership Collaborative learning environment Learning is not confined to the classroom Is the objective of all educators. Instructional leadership is an important departure from the ancient model of administrator as authoritarian Clear sense of direction for their schools Prioritize and focus attention on the things that really matter in terms of the work of students. 19
Professional Development The National Association of Secondary School Principals is one type of association that offers workshops to help educators acquire the skills necessary to become an effective instructional leader. 20
Catalysts in education Instructional leaders increase student achievement by becoming actively involved in the curriculum with teachers and students. These actions cause a TOP(admin)-DOWN( teachers/students) effect on achievement and catalyze student achievement. 21
Based on: Interpersonal relationships between leader and follower Shared motives Shared values Transformational Leadership
James M. Burns Historian Political Scientist Author
Power Purpose Relationship Essential Elements of Transformational Leadership
Transformational Leader Power-Wielder Mohandas Gandhi Political, Spiritual Leader of India IdiAmin Dada African Dictator Comparison
Leadership Management Act in response to the motives and values they share with the leader Unleashes energy, sets the vision so we do the right thing Builds upon good management skills to facilitate the work of others Practice of applying power and using incentives to maintain control of situations or call people to action Controls, arranges, does things right Directs work of others Leadership vs. Management
Individual Consideration Personal attention Emphasize the importance of frequent, open, and honest 2-way communication Explore prior knowledge, beliefs, and customs
Intellectual Stimulation Encourage followers to see old problems in a different way Risk-taking, innovation, creativity, critical thinking, problem solving Goals represent values and motivations, wants and needs, aspirations and expectations
Inspirational Motivation Communicate high performance expectations Model exemplary practices Team Spirit Identify key values and motives
Idealized Influence Exemplary personal achievements, character, and behavior Up-front and visible Motivate students Evaluating, remediating, and enriching students
Implications for Teaching and Learning Fosters positive interpersonal relationships with students. Students experience intrinsic motivation to achieve. Teachers and students share values and motives.
Goleman’s Leadership Theory
Emotional Intelligence Managing feelings so that they are expressed appropriately and effectively, enabling people to work together smoothly towards their common goal
Emotional Intelligence and Leadership IQ is not enough! High EQ makes effective leaders! Great leaders are made not born!
4 Domains of Emotional Intelligence Self-Awareness Self-Management Social Awareness Relationship Management
Self-Awareness Having a deep understanding of one's emotions, strengths, weaknesses, needs, and drives. Being neither overly critical nor unrealistically hopeful. Being honest - with themselves and with others Recognizing how their feelings affect them, other people, and their job performance. Knowing where he/she is headed and why
Self-Management Controlling one's emotions and impulses Adapting to changing circumstances Being trustworthy and conscientious Ready to seize opportunity and strive for excellence
Social Awareness Ability to sense, understand, and react to others' emotions while comprehending social networks. Ability to build rapport Organizational Awareness Service Orientation Empathy
Relationship Management Ability to inspire, influence, and develop others while managing conflict Teamwork Collaboration Building Bonds
Resonance Resonare…to resound Attuned to other people’s feelings Move people in a positive emotional direction Values, direction and priorities spoken Mutual comfort level
Six Leadership Styles Visionary Coaching Affiliative Democratic Pace-Setting Commanding
Six Leadership Styles
Six Leadership Styles
Six Leadership Styles
Six Leadership Styles
Six Leadership Styles
Six Leadership Styles
Emotional Intelligence “Nice to have” vs. “Need to have“ Remember, emotional intelligence can be learned!
Conclusion Relationship Theories Connections formed between leaders and followers Motivate and inspire Focused on performance of group High ethical and moral standards Management Theories Supervision, organization, group performance Reward and punishment Behavioral Theories Leaders are made, not born Actions of leaders People can learn to become leaders
Resources for instructional leadership training Principles of Effective Administrative Leadership and Examples of Descriptors (http://www.doe.mass.edu/lawsregs/603cmr35.html?section=ted) What School Principals Need to Know about Curriculum and Instruction(http://www.sreb.org/programs/hstw/publications/pubs/PrincipalsNeedToKnow.asp) Teacher Working Conditions Toolkit (http://www.teacherworkingconditions.org/index.html) Leadership for Student Success. (2009). Retrieved November 6, 2009, from e-Lead : http://www.e-lead.org/resources/resources.asp?ResourceID=14 52
References Frick, D. 2004. Robert K. Greenleaf: A life of Servant Leadership. Barrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc. San Francisco,Ca. Levine, M., Jossey-Bass Inc. (2007). The Jossey-Bass reader on educational leadership (2nd Ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Oostinga, I. 2009. Servant-leadership (Robert K. Greenleaf). 12Manage The Executive Fast Track. September, Vol. 10.3. Retrieved 27 September 2009 from Walden University Library Database, Ebscohost. http//www.12manage.com/methods. Taylor, T., Martin, B., Hutchinson, S., & Jinks, M. (2007). Examination of leadership practices of principals identified as servant leaders. International Journal of Leadership in Education. October-December, Vol. 10, No. 4, 401-419. Retrieved 27 September 2009 from Walden University Library Database, Ebscohost. http//www.tandf.co.uk/journals. Trompenaar, F. & Voerman, E., (2008). Power to the people. Engineering & Technology. Retrieved 27 September 2009 from Walden University Library Database, Sage.
Barger, R. (2000). A summary of lawrencekohlberg’s stages of moral development. Retrieved October 10, 2009 from, http://www.csudh.edu/dearhabermas/kohlberg01bk.htm. Bass, B. & Riggio, R. (2006). Transformational leadership (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: Strategies for Taking Charge. New York: Harper & Row. Burns, J. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row. Fairholm, M. (2001). The themes and theory of leadership: jamesmacgregor burns and the philosophy of leadership. Washington, DC: The Center for Excellence in Municipal Management. Retrieved October 10, 2009 from, http://www.dccpm.org/scripts/files/dl.php?fn=burnsandleadership.pdf. Huitt, W. (2004). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved October 10 from,http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/regsys/maslow.html. Leithwood, K. & Jantzi, D. (2005). Transformational school leadership in a transactional policy world. In B. Davies (Ed.), The essentials of school leadership (pp. 31-40). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. References
References Goleman, D. (2004). What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review (82),1. 82-91. Retrieved September 9, 2009 from Ebsco Host database. Goleman, D. (2004). Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review (78)2. 78-90. Retrieved September 9, 2009 from Ebsco Host database. Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: Realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing. Teleos Leadership Institute. (2002). Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee discuss their book, Primal leadership: Realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Retrieved September 8, 2009 from www.teleosleaders.com