Leadership Theories
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Leadership Theories






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  • Today we will present information about four different leadership styles and theories. We will examine their characteristics, strengths, weaknesses, and implications, as well as consider the impact each type of leader has on society; because as Fullan ed. (2007) reported, the notion of leadership is universal and pervades all forms of society. This is Leadership Theories by:
  • “So, what makes a good leader?”Write down 5 characteristics of a good leader.“Today we will look at a few different leadership theories and the characteristics the theorists contend every great leader must have.
  • The first leadership theory we will look at today is servant leadership.
  • Read slide
  • Servant leadership was first…. (bullet 1)And was … (bullet 2)
  • Servant leadership has a long history. Read slide
  • Read slide… (They…)
  • Listed here are traits and qualities of a servant leaderListens intently to others as well as one’s own inner voice, and reflection.People are recognized for their own uniquenessHealing oneself and othersGeneral and self-awarenessUses persuasion rather than positional authorityLooking at problems beyond day-to-day realitiesUnderstanding lessons from the past, realities of the present, and consequences for decisions in the futureHolding something in trust for anotherGrowth of oneself as well as others.Among all who work within an institution.Qualities of a servant leader include… read slide
  • Dominant leadership model or power model is not popular anymore. This leadership was all about the attainment, exercise, and retention of power.Power model follows the principle of divide and overcome. And is focused on taking. The need has come for a leadership model with a more giving and productive approach.The service model is a more harmonious management style.Power is not seen as irrelevant but is consciously used in order to serve.The service model works on mutual trust: a commonality that all share. The service model is only possible when people are capable and motivated. The employee must understand that there is more to work than just earning money, and meaning and advancement are sought. And lastly, employees are given the chance to exercise their talents and abilities
  • Furthermore, Read slide
  • As we have seen, servant leadership is Read Slide... Which can be seen as strengths of this type of leadership; But there are also limitations. For instance,Servant leadership is not a quick-fix to problems in an organization. It can not be quickly instilled in others.Some may say servant leadership is a soft approach to leadership. Listening and empathizing too much with others may lead to indecisiveness or a lack of vision.
  • In regards to education, servant leadership is… read slide
  • Lastly, Greenleaf stated: Read slide
  • Continuing on, our second leadership style is Instructional Leadership

Leadership Theories Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Jennifer Wright
    Suzette henry
    Kate kalnes
    Walden University
    EDUC 8140-1
    Leadership Theories
  • 2. What Makes a Good Leader?
  • 3. Servant Leadership
  • 4. Servant Leadership
    “The servant-leader is servant first…It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first…Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead” (Greenleaf, 1970).
    What is servant leadership?
    According to Robert K. Greenleaf (1970) Servant leadership is the process of enabling individuals to grow healthier, wiser, freer, and more autonymous through the art of servant-hood.
  • 5. Description of Servant Leadership
    Introduced and developed by Robert K. Greenleaf in 1970 who was the Director of Management Research for AT&T for 38 years.
    He was known as AT&T’s “Kept Revolutionary.”
    Based on the theory that leaders lead best by serving their followers rather than by commanding them.
  • 6. Origins of Servant Leadership
    In the East, a philosopher named Chanakya wrote in his 4th century book Arthashastra:
    “The King shall consider as good, not what pleases himself but what pleases his subjects.”
    In the West, the concept is thought to go back to Jesus:
    “Those that are rulers are taught to lord it over others. Not so with you. If you want to be great you must be a servant, and slave to all. Even the son of man did not come to be served, but to serve” (Mark 10:42-45).
  • 7. What do Servant Leaders do?
    The servant leader is a servant first
    Differs from those who choose to lead first for power or gain
    Makes sure other people’s needs are being served
    The least privileged in society will benefit, or at least not be further deprived
  • 8. Traits
    Commitment to the growth of people
    Building community
    Servant Leadership
  • 9. Power Leadership
    Service Leadership
    Attainment, exercise, and retention of power
    Principle of divide and overcome
    Power is consciously used in order to serve
    Mutual trust: a commonality that all share
    Only possible when people are capable and motivated.
    Employees are given the chance to exercise their talents and abilities
    Power vs. Service Model
  • 10. The Servant Leader
    The servant leader knows that his/her own growth is facilitated by the growth of others.
    Servant leadership is a reaction: the most important job being to find out what the needs of the community are and fulfilling them.
    Servant leadership overcomes opposites, and works towards reconciliation. Opposites exist to be combined, and seen as not what separates people, but what brings them together.
    Servant leadership does not see cultural differences as a problem. It is seen as opportunities to create something together that is stronger than two parts.
    Servant leadership focuses on what you share and ways which resemble each other leads to a sense of connection, humanity, and compassion.
  • 11. Strengths
    A long-term, transformational approach to life and work.
    A way of being
    Concerned with service to their followers
    Not a quick-fix to problems in an organization. Cannot be quickly instilled in others.
    Soft approach to leadership.
    Listening and empathizing too much with others may lead to indecisiveness or a lack of vision.
    Servant Leadership
  • 12. Implications for Servant Leadership in Education
    Community friendly.
    It looks to take care of the needs of all involved.
    Promotes students, parents, and teachers to be their best while looking out for the interests of one another.
    When the needs of others are met then the abilities, talents, and achievements can be realized.
  • 13. Servant Leadership
    “If a better society is to be built, one that is more just and more loving, one that provides greater creative opportunity for its people, then the most open course is to raise both the capacity to serve and the very performance as servant of existing major institutions by new regenerative forces operating within them” (Greenleaf, 1970).
  • 14. Instructional Leadership
  • 15. Instructional Leadership
    Instructional quality is one of the most important factors in effective teaching. Without it, school reform is impossible.
    How can leaders develop and implement strategies to improve faculty quality and then manage the process of school reform in today's complex school environments?
  • 16. What is instructional leadership?
    “Those actions that a principal takes, or delegates to others, to promote growth in student learning”
    In practice, this means that the principal encourages educational achievement by making instructional quality the top priority of the school and brings that vision to realization.
  • 17. Role of the Instructional Leader
    Different and not as common to that of a traditional/conventional administrator
    Where a conventional principal spends the majority of his/her time dealing with strictly administrative duties, a principal who is an instructional leader is charged with redefining his/her role to become the primary learner in a community striving for excellence in education
  • 18. Descriptions of duties of an instructional leader
    In instructional leadership, it is the principal’s responsibility to:
    work with teachers to define educational objectives.
    set school-wide or district wide goals.
    provide the necessary resources for learning.
    create new learning opportunities for students and staff.
  • 19. Benefits of Instructional Leadership
    Collaborative learning environment
    Learning is not confined to the classroom
    Is the objective of all educators.
    Instructional leadership is an important departure from the ancient model of administrator as authoritarian
    Clear sense of direction for their schools
    Prioritize and focus attention on the things that really matter in terms of the work of students.
  • 20. Professional Development
    The National Association of Secondary School Principals is one type of association that offers workshops to help educators acquire the skills necessary to become an effective instructional leader.
  • 21. Catalysts in education
    Instructional leaders increase student achievement by becoming actively involved in the curriculum with teachers and students.
    These actions cause a TOP(admin)-DOWN( teachers/students) effect on achievement and catalyze student achievement.
  • 22. Transformational Leadership
  • 23. Based on:
    Interpersonal relationships between leader and follower
    Shared motives
    Shared values
    Transformational Leadership
  • 24. James M. Burns
    Political Scientist
  • 25. Power
    Essential Elements of Transformational Leadership
  • 26. Transformational Leader
    Mohandas Gandhi
    Political, Spiritual Leader of India
    IdiAmin Dada
    African Dictator
  • 27. Leadership
    Act in response to the motives and values they share with the leader
    Unleashes energy, sets the vision so we do the right thing
    Builds upon good management skills to facilitate the work of others
    Practice of applying power and using incentives to maintain control of situations or call people to action
    Controls, arranges, does things right
    Directs work of others
    Leadership vs. Management
  • 28. Behavior Characteristics of Transformational Leaders
    Individual consideration
    Intellectual stimulation
    Inspirational motivation
    Idealized influence
  • 29. Individual Consideration
    Personal attention
    Emphasize the importance of frequent, open, and honest 2-way communication
    Explore prior knowledge, beliefs, and customs
  • 30. Intellectual Stimulation
    Encourage followers to see old problems in a different way
    Risk-taking, innovation, creativity, critical thinking, problem solving
    Goals represent values and motivations, wants and needs, aspirations and expectations
  • 31. Inspirational Motivation
    Communicate high performance expectations
    Model exemplary practices
    Team Spirit
    Identify key values and motives
  • 32. Idealized Influence
    Exemplary personal achievements, character, and behavior
    Up-front and visible
    Motivate students
    Evaluating, remediating, and enriching students
  • 33. Implications for Teaching and Learning
    Fosters positive interpersonal relationships with students.
    Students experience intrinsic motivation to achieve.
    Teachers and students share values and motives.
  • 34. Goleman’s Leadership Theory
  • 35. Emotional Intelligence
    Managing feelings so that they are expressed appropriately and effectively, enabling people to work together smoothly towards their common goal
  • 36. Emotional Intelligence and Leadership
    IQ is not enough!
    High EQ makes effective leaders!
    Great leaders are made not born!
  • 37. 4 Domains of Emotional Intelligence
    Social Awareness
    Relationship Management
  • 38. Self-Awareness
    Having a deep understanding of one's emotions, strengths, weaknesses, needs, and drives.
    Being neither overly critical nor unrealistically hopeful.
    Being honest - with themselves and with others
    Recognizing how their feelings affect them, other people, and their job performance.
    Knowing where he/she is headed and why
  • 39. Self-Management
    Controlling one's emotions and impulses
    Adapting to changing circumstances
    Being trustworthy and conscientious
    Ready to seize opportunity and strive for excellence
  • 40. Social Awareness
    Ability to sense, understand, and react to others' emotions while comprehending social networks.
    Ability to build rapport
    Organizational Awareness
    Service Orientation
  • 41. Relationship Management
    Ability to inspire, influence, and develop others while managing conflict
    Building Bonds
  • 42. Resonance
    Resonare…to resound
    Attuned to other people’s feelings
    Move people in a positive emotional direction
    Values, direction and priorities spoken
    Mutual comfort level
  • 43. Six Leadership Styles
  • 44. Six Leadership Styles
  • 45. Six Leadership Styles
  • 46. Six Leadership Styles
  • 47. Six Leadership Styles
  • 48. Six Leadership Styles
  • 49. Six Leadership Styles
  • 50. Emotional Intelligence
    “Nice to have” vs. “Need to have“
    Remember, emotional intelligence can be learned!
  • 51. Conclusion
    Relationship Theories
    Connections formed between leaders and followers
    Motivate and inspire
    Focused on performance of group
    High ethical and moral standards
    Management Theories
    Supervision, organization, group performance
    Reward and punishment
    Behavioral Theories
    Leaders are made, not born
    Actions of leaders
    People can learn to become leaders
  • 52. Resources for instructional leadership training
    Principles of Effective Administrative Leadership and Examples of Descriptors (http://www.doe.mass.edu/lawsregs/603cmr35.html?section=ted)
    What School Principals Need to Know about Curriculum and Instruction(http://www.sreb.org/programs/hstw/publications/pubs/PrincipalsNeedToKnow.asp)
    Teacher Working Conditions Toolkit (http://www.teacherworkingconditions.org/index.html)
    Leadership for Student Success. (2009). Retrieved November 6, 2009, from e-Lead : http://www.e-lead.org/resources/resources.asp?ResourceID=14
  • 53. References
    Frick, D. 2004. Robert K. Greenleaf: A life of Servant Leadership. Barrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc. San Francisco,Ca.
    Levine, M., Jossey-Bass Inc. (2007). The Jossey-Bass reader on educational leadership (2nd Ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Oostinga, I. 2009. Servant-leadership (Robert K. Greenleaf). 12Manage The Executive Fast Track. September, Vol. 10.3. Retrieved 27 September 2009 from Walden University Library Database, Ebscohost. http//www.12manage.com/methods.
    Taylor, T., Martin, B., Hutchinson, S., & Jinks, M. (2007). Examination of leadership practices of principals identified as servant leaders. International Journal of Leadership in Education. October-December, Vol. 10, No. 4, 401-419. Retrieved 27 September 2009 from Walden University Library Database, Ebscohost. http//www.tandf.co.uk/journals.
    Trompenaar, F. & Voerman, E., (2008). Power to the people. Engineering & Technology. Retrieved 27 September 2009 from Walden University Library Database, Sage.
  • 54. Barger, R. (2000). A summary of lawrencekohlberg’s stages of moral development. Retrieved October 10, 2009 from, http://www.csudh.edu/dearhabermas/kohlberg01bk.htm.
    Bass, B. & Riggio, R. (2006). Transformational leadership (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
    Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: Strategies for Taking Charge. New York: Harper & Row.
    Burns, J. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
    Fairholm, M. (2001). The themes and theory of leadership: jamesmacgregor burns and the philosophy of leadership. Washington, DC: The Center for Excellence in Municipal Management. Retrieved October 10, 2009 from, http://www.dccpm.org/scripts/files/dl.php?fn=burnsandleadership.pdf.
    Huitt, W. (2004). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved October 10 from,http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/regsys/maslow.html.
    Leithwood, K. & Jantzi, D. (2005). Transformational school leadership in a transactional policy world. In B. Davies (Ed.), The essentials of school leadership (pp. 31-40). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • 55. References
    Goleman, D. (2004). What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review (82),1. 82-91. Retrieved September 9, 2009 from Ebsco Host database.
    Goleman, D. (2004). Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review (78)2. 78-90. Retrieved September 9, 2009 from Ebsco Host database.
    Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: Realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.
    Teleos Leadership Institute. (2002). Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee discuss their book, Primal leadership: Realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Retrieved September 8, 2009 from www.teleosleaders.com