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Reconstruction

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  • 1. Reconstruction Era Chapter 19 1865-1877 Pgs 436-452
  • 2. Section 1
    • Civil War has just ended
    • Southern Economy is in ruins
    • Slavery has been abolished
    • Northerners and Southerners feel anger towards one another
    • Everyone is wondering how are we going to rebuild the country
  • 3. Section 1
    • Southerners had to repair the war damage, revive their economy, and return to peaceful living
    • This all had to be done with huge debts and little income
  • 4. Section 1
    • Another big problem was the ties between the seceded states and the national government
    • This had mixed emotions
    • Some Northerners wanted to treat the South generously. Others thought they should be punished as defeated enemies.
    • Americans also questioned whether those who fought against the Union should be able to vote or hold office.
  • 5. Section 1
    • There was also the issue of former slaves
    • They needed homes, jobs, money, clothing, education, etc.
    • What was the government going to do about all these issues.
    • The plan they came up with became known as Reconstruction and it lasted from 1865 to 1877
  • 6. Section 1
    • Lincoln’s Plan
    • Before the War had ended Lincoln began planning a recovery program for the nation
    • President Lincoln offered generous terms to the South
    • He offered all Southern white males, except high Confederate Officials, amnesty (official pardon)
  • 7. Section 1
    • They could regain their full rights as U.S. citizens by taking a simple oath pledging their loyalty to the Union
    • He also agreed to recognize the state governments in the South if they complied with two conditions
    • The states had to accept emancipation of the slaves and at least 10% of the Confederate state’s voters had to take the oath of loyalty
  • 8. Section 1
    • If they complied with those two stipulations then the state could form a new government and adopt a new constitution and send representatives to congress
    • Unfortunately for the U.S. and Lincoln, he was not able to completely carry out his plan for reconstruction. Lincoln’s assassination put an end to his plan
  • 9. Section 1
    • To assist former slaves the Freedmen’s Bureau was established
    • This federal agency set up schools and hospitals for African Americans
    • It also distributed clothes, food, and fuel throughout the South
    • It also helped blacks find jobs and protected their rights
  • 10. Section 1
    • Andrew Johnson
    • 17 th President 1865-1869
    • Democrat
    • Born Dec. 29, 1808 in N.C.
    • Married 5 children
    • Owned his own tailor’s business before politics
    • Wife taught him to read and write
    • Gov. Tenn., represent. and senator from Tenn.
    • Vice Pres under Lincoln
    • Died July 31, 1875
  • 11. Section 1
    • Andrew Johnson
    • Only Southern Senator to stay loyal to the Union during war
    • Honest and stubborn, lacked popularity that Lincoln had
    • Lacked Lincoln’s ability to compromise
    • Only President to be impeached (Nixon resigned in 1974 to avoid impeachment)
    • Key events: Civil War ended, Alaska purchased, 13 th & 14 th Amendments, Tenure of Office Act, Nebraska became a state
  • 12. Section 1
    • Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan
    • Johnson after taking over Presidency decided to continue on with Lincoln’s plan of reconstruction
    • When Johnson took over, Congress was not in session so he decided to carry out Lincoln’s plan himself
    • Johnson believed it was the President’s job to carry out Reconstruction not Congress’
  • 13. Section 1
    • Johnson granted amnesty to most white southerners; he even promised to return their property if they pledged loyalty to the U.S.
    • Initially he did not offer this option to ex-Confederate leaders, top military officers, and large plantation owners, but they too eventually won amnesty
  • 14. Section 1
    • Johnson named temporary governments for the seceded states
    • He ordered the states to hold conventions to draw up new state constitutions
    • He insisted the states accept the federal government as the supreme power
    • He insisted that they ratify the 13 th Amend.( abolish slavery)
    • 2/3 Senate, 2/3 HOR, and ¾ of state legislatures
  • 15. Section 1
    • Johnson’s plan had support of most Republicans in Congress with the exception of the Radical Republicans (those who favored extreme changes)
    • They felt it was Congress’ job for reconstruction, not the Presidents’
  • 16. Questions
    • What challenges did the South face after the civil war?
    • What is reconstruction?
    • What steps were taken to help blacks and to protect their rights after the Civil War?
  • 17. Section 2
    • States and Conflict
    • As the Southern states rebuilt, they set up new state governments much like the old ones
    • Some refused to ratify the 13 th Amend.
    • Some southern states passed laws known as black codes, which limited the freedom of former slaves
  • 18. Section 2
    • Examples of codes
    • In Mississippi, one law said A.A. had to have written proof of employment. Anyone without proof would be put to work on plantations
    • One code required blacks to sign contracts forcing them to work at a job for 1 year
    • Another allowed white employers to whip black workers
    • Other codes limited freedom of speech and travel. Blacks were not allowed to meet in unsupervised groups or carry guns.
  • 19. Section 2
    • Some codes denied blacks right to vote
    • Allowed states to put unemployed blacks in jail
    • Prevented blacks from testifying against whites in court
    • Southern whites used the Black Codes to try to keep the Negroes in almost the same position they had been in as slaves
    • Because of these laws many in the North suspected white Southerners of trying to bring back the “old South”
  • 20. Section 2
    • Radical Republicans felt the President was too generous
    • They wanted to punish anyone who had supported the Confederacy
    • These Republicans were led by Thaddeus Stevens and Henry Davis in the HOR, and Charles Sumner and Benjamin Wade in the Senate
  • 21. Section 2
    • In 1864, while Lincoln was still in office, these Radicals had sponsored the Wade-Davis Bill
    • Under this bill, anyone who had helped the Confederacy would not be allowed to vote or hold office. It also called for a majority not 10%, of voters to pledge an oath of loyalty
    • Lincoln had stopped this bill from becoming law, but it did not weaken the Radicals
  • 22. Section 2
    • In 1865 when Congress met in December, many of the Southern members included former Confederate leaders such as generals and the former V-Pres of the Confederacy Alexander Stephens
    • Northern members were shocked and refused to seat the southern delegations.
    • Congress then set up the Joint Committee on Reconstruction consisting of 6 senators and 9 representatives. Their job was to report on conditions in the South so Congress could make its’ own Reconstruction policies
  • 23. Section 2
    • Republicans outnumbered Democrats in both houses (HOR & Senate)
    • Most Republicans were moderates, who believed the federal government should stay out of affairs of individuals and states
    • The Radicals, however, wanted the fed. Gov’t. to play an active role in remaking Southern politics and society
  • 24. Section 2
    • They demanded full and equal citizenship for A.A.
    • Their aim was to destroy the South’s old ruling class and turn the region into a place of small farms, free schools, respect for labor, and political equality for all citizens
  • 25. Questions
    • What policies of new Southern State governments angered Congress?
    • How did Congress deal with the Southern States?
    • How did the Radical Republicans wish to reorganize the South?
  • 26. Section 3
    • Civil Rights
    • Republicans in Congress were determined to aid the former slaves
    • Urged on by the Radicals, Congress passed a bill promoting Civil Rights (those rights granted to all citizens)
    • The bill was passed to keep funds going to the Freedmen’s Bureau, which in its first year gave out thousands of dollars worth of food and clothing, ran hospitals, started schools, and reunited separated families
  • 27. Section 3
    • The bill had broad support in Congress
    • The Civil Rights Act of 1866 declared all persons born in the U.S. (except Native Americans), were citizens
    • It also stated all citizens were entitled to = rights regardless of race
    • The Republicans were shocked when Johnson vetoed the bill
  • 28. Section 3
    • Johnson felt the Freedmen’s Bureau was a wartime measure and should not continue in peacetime
    • He also argued federal protection of civil rights would lead “towards centralization” of the national government
    • He insisted that making A.A. full citizens would “operate against the white race.”
    • He felt the job of helping blacks belonged to the state and local governments
  • 29. Section 3
    • Congress voted by a 2/3 vote in the HOR and Senate to override the veto and the bill became a law
    • Johnson tried again to veto it but was unsuccessful
    • Johnson’s vetoes angered Congress and he lost much of his support
    • Johnson seemed completely unwilling to consider opposing views. He began making speeches attacking the Radicals. His actions and stubbornness caused other members of Congress to side with the Radicals
  • 30. Section 3
    • Radicals now realized they had challenged the President and won an important victory
    • They proved they had the support to undo Johnson’s Reconstruction policies
    • However, they feared the Civil Rights Act might be repealed or judged unconstitutional, so to guard against this possibility they drew up a new proposal
  • 31. Section 3
    • Congress proposed 14 th Amendment
    • This stated all people born in U.S. were citizens and had the same rights
    • All citizens were to be granted equal protection of the laws
    • However, the amendment did not establish black suffrage. It declared any state that kept A.A. from voting would lose reps in Congress, which meant Southern states would have less power if they did not grant black men the vote.
  • 32. Section 3
    • Another part of the 14 th Amend kept former Confederate officials from holding federal or state office positions unless a 2/3 vote of Congress approved them
    • The amendment also said the debts of the Confederate government were not to be paid, thus Southerners had no way of recovering their financial losses
  • 33. Section 3
    • Johnson refused to support the 14 th Amendment
    • Congress demanded Southern states accept the 14 th as a condition for taking their seats in Congress
    • Johnson urged Southern states not to ratify it
    • Ten Southern states followed his advice, except Tennessee
  • 34. Section 3
    • The defeat of the 14 th Amend outraged both moderates and radicals
    • As a result the two groups joined forces and passed the Reconstruction Acts of 1867
    • The passage of these acts began the period known as Radical Reconstruction
    • From this point on, Congress controlled Reconstruction
  • 35. Section 3
    • Under the Reconstruction Acts, the governments of the 10 states who refused to ratify the 14 th Amendment were declared illegal
    • Congress had total authority over these states
    • The government divided them into 5 military districts and placed them under military rule led by an Army commander
  • 36. Section 3
    • The acts also spelled out steps the Southern states had to follow to rejoin the Union
    • They must approve new state constitutions that gave the vote to all adult men, including A.A.
    • They must also ratify the 14 th Amendment
    • If they complied they could rejoin the Union and their representatives could take their seats in Congress
  • 37. Questions
    • What were the provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the 14 th Amendment?
    • What was the effect of opposition to civil rights legislation?
    • What were the provisions of the Reconstruction Act of 1867?
  • 38. Section 4
    • The new Southern Governments
    • In 1867, Southern voters chose delegates to draft their new state constitutions
    • ¾ of the delegates were Republicans, ½ of them were poor farmers who were angry at the planters for starting the rich mans war and they became known as scalawags
  • 39. Section 4
    • The other ¼ of the Republican delegates were known as carpetbaggers (White northerners who rushed to the South after the war)
    • A.A. made up the rest of the delegates
    • The new constitutions set up public schools and gave the right to vote to all adult males
  • 40. Section 4
    • As much as Johnson disliked the new laws, he had a duty to enforce them
    • Republicans worried that Johnson might find ways to interfere with Reconstruction so they passed the Tenure of Office Act in March 1867 to curb the President’s Power
  • 41. Section 4
    • The act said the President could not remove members of the Cabinet without the Senate’s approval
    • Johnson tried testing the law
    • In February 1868 he fired Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, the only Radical in his Cabinet
    • This was the chance the Radicals had been waiting for. If they could remove the President from office for breaking the law they would have more freedom to enact their policies
  • 42. Section 4
    • Three days after the firing, the HOR voted to impeach the president
    • The case moved to the Senate for a trial and lasted two months
    • When the vote was finally taken, 7 Republicans joined with 12 Democrats to vote against conviction. Johnson stayed in office by one vote
  • 43. Section 4
    • By 1870, voters in all Southern states had approved their constitutions and allowed back in the Union
    • During Reconstruction, more than 600 A.A. served in state legislatures throughout the South
    • 14 of the new U.S. Congressmen from the South were A.A. and 2 U.S. Senators were A.A.
  • 44. Questions
    • What groups controlled the drafting of new state constitutions in the South in 1867?
    • What were the effects of the new state constitutions?
    • Why was President Johnson impeached?
    • What was the verdict in the impeachment?