Chapter 18 The North and South Fight a Bitter War 1861-1865
Section 1 <ul><li>Fort Sumter </li></ul><ul><li>South had been taking over all federal property including forts after Linc...
Sect. 1 <ul><li>The fort was running low on ammunition and supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln had to decide what to do </l...
Sect. 1 <ul><li>Leaders of the Confederacy decided to prevent the federal government from holding onto the fort by attacki...
Sect. 1 <ul><li>Two days after Fort Sumter, Lincoln asked the Union states to provide 75,000 militiamen for 90 days to put...
Sect. 1 <ul><li>Gov. of Kentucky said, the state would “furnish no troops for the wicked purpose of subduing her sister So...
Sect. 1 <ul><li>Both sides were eager to wear their corresponding colorful uniforms.  North- Blue Army uniforms, South – C...
Sect. 1 <ul><li>With Virginia on its side the Confederacy stood a much better chance to win </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia was...
Sect. 1 <ul><li>Reasons for move </li></ul><ul><li>To get and maintain support of Virginia throughout the war </li></ul><u...
Sect. 1 <ul><li>Virginia is home of Robert E. Lee </li></ul><ul><li>Lee refused the offer by Lincoln to command the armies...
Sect. 1 <ul><li>Lee opposed slavery and the secession but he could not “raise his hand against his birthplace, his home, a...
Sect. 1 Questions <ul><li>Why did Lincoln decide to risk war by resupplying Fort Sumter? </li></ul><ul><li>How did states ...
Section 2 <ul><li>Choosing Sides </li></ul><ul><li>Once Virginia seceded, both Union and Confederacy knew the border state...
Sect. 2 <ul><li>Keeping Maryland in the Union was key for the North </li></ul><ul><li>If Maryland seceded, then Washington...
Sect. 2 <ul><li>Kentucky was important because of its rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Union could use the rivers as a way to inva...
Sect. 2 <ul><li>Missouri and Delaware eventually decided to stay with the Union as well </li></ul><ul><li>Also, in Virgini...
Sect. 2 <ul><li>Strengths and Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>North had huge advantage in manpower and resources </li></ul><u...
Sect. 2 <ul><li>North had double the RR mileage of the South to help move goods and supplies </li></ul><ul><li>North had a...
Sect. 2 <ul><li>Lincoln’s leadership convinced Northerners that democracy depended upon preserving the Union </li></ul><ul...
Sect. 2 <ul><li>Advantage to fighting on own land, people are more apt to fight harder to defend something than those who ...
Section 2 Questions <ul><li>Why were the border states important? </li></ul><ul><li>What were strengths of both sides? </l...
Section 3 <ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Confederate Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>1 st  was a defensive one </li></ul>...
Sect. 3 <ul><li>Confederates planned to wear out their enemies by fighting most of war on their lands </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
Sect. 3 <ul><li>Confederates also hoped to get foreign help by using the “King Cotton” trump card </li></ul><ul><li>South ...
Sect. 3 <ul><li>Europeans also did not want to get involved in the American war </li></ul><ul><li>As war began to get more...
Sect. 3 <ul><li>Union Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>North wanted to bring Southern states back into the Union </li></ul><ul><...
Sect. 3 <ul><li>North planned to blockade the South’s coastline.  This would prevent goods being shipped to or from the So...
Sect. 3 <ul><li>The third part of the North’s plan was to seize control of the Southern capital of Richmond, Virginia. </l...
Sect. 3 <ul><li>Another drawback was the North’s Navy was not large enough initially to completely blockade the ports. </l...
Section 3 Questions <ul><li>What did the Confederacy expect to gain by withholding cotton from the market? </li></ul><ul><...
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Chapter 18 Pp

  1. 1. Chapter 18 The North and South Fight a Bitter War 1861-1865
  2. 2. Section 1 <ul><li>Fort Sumter </li></ul><ul><li>South had been taking over all federal property including forts after Lincoln was elected </li></ul><ul><li>Major Robert Anderson would not relinquish Fort Sumter which was in the harbor of Charleston, SC </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sect. 1 <ul><li>The fort was running low on ammunition and supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln had to decide what to do </li></ul><ul><li>He knew sending troops and weapons would provoke the Confederacy and ordering the troops to leave would be giving in to the rebels </li></ul><ul><li>But, he could not ignore the seizure of federal forts </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln decides, with advice from his cabinet to send ships with food but no other supplies </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Leaders of the Confederacy decided to prevent the federal government from holding onto the fort by attacking before the supply ships arrived </li></ul><ul><li>April 12, 1861 at 4:30 a.m. Confederates attack the fort </li></ul><ul><li>Shore guns opened fire on the fort. For 34 hours fired shells until Anderson finally surrendered </li></ul><ul><li>No one was killed, but this attack marked the beginning of the Civil War </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Two days after Fort Sumter, Lincoln asked the Union states to provide 75,000 militiamen for 90 days to put down the uprising in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens of the North responded with enthusiasm with the exception of the border states of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware </li></ul><ul><li>Upper South, state leaders responded with anger </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Gov. of Kentucky said, the state would “furnish no troops for the wicked purpose of subduing her sister Southern States.” </li></ul><ul><li>In the weeks that followed, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas voted to join the confederacy making 11 total </li></ul><ul><li>Confederate President Jefferson Davis also called for volunteers. He asked for 100,000 for 12 months </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Both sides were eager to wear their corresponding colorful uniforms. North- Blue Army uniforms, South – Confederate Grays </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteers rushed to enlist just like the North. Some feared the war would be over before they got a chance to fight </li></ul><ul><li>Troops marched and drilled with great spirit. Southerners adopted “Dixie” as favorite marching tune and the Northerners “The Union Forever” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sect. 1 <ul><li>With Virginia on its side the Confederacy stood a much better chance to win </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia was wealthy and populous </li></ul><ul><li>May 20, 1861, Confederacy moved its capital from Birmingham, AL to Richmond, VA </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Reasons for move </li></ul><ul><li>To get and maintain support of Virginia throughout the war </li></ul><ul><li>Richmond only 105 miles from the Union capital at Washington (closer to seize and end the war) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Virginia is home of Robert E. Lee </li></ul><ul><li>Lee refused the offer by Lincoln to command the armies of the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Lee wanted to remain loyal to home state of Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>He resigned from the U.S. Army and joined the Confederacy </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Lee opposed slavery and the secession but he could not “raise his hand against his birthplace, his home, and his children” </li></ul><ul><li>He eventually became the commanding general of the Army of Northern Virginia </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sect. 1 Questions <ul><li>Why did Lincoln decide to risk war by resupplying Fort Sumter? </li></ul><ul><li>How did states in the upper South respond to Lincoln’s call-up of militia? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Virginia’s decision to secede improve the South’s chances of winning? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Section 2 <ul><li>Choosing Sides </li></ul><ul><li>Once Virginia seceded, both Union and Confederacy knew the border states would play a key role in the war’s outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri </li></ul><ul><li>Due to their location and resources these border states could tip the scales toward one side or the other </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sect. 2 <ul><li>Keeping Maryland in the Union was key for the North </li></ul><ul><li>If Maryland seceded, then Washington D.C., would be cut off from the Union </li></ul><ul><li>To hold on to Maryland, Lincoln considered arresting Maryland Lawmakers who backed the South, but decided against it – Pro-Union leaders eventually gained control of the Maryland Legislature and kept the state </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sect. 2 <ul><li>Kentucky was important because of its rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Union could use the rivers as a way to invade the South </li></ul><ul><li>South could use the rivers as a barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Kentuckians were deeply divided until a Confederate invasion in 1861 prompted the state to stay in the Union </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sect. 2 <ul><li>Missouri and Delaware eventually decided to stay with the Union as well </li></ul><ul><li>Also, in Virginia, federal troops helped a group of western counties break away </li></ul><ul><li>These counties became known as West Virginia and returned to the Union </li></ul><ul><li>24 Union states, 11 Confederacy </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sect. 2 <ul><li>Strengths and Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>North had huge advantage in manpower and resources </li></ul><ul><li>North had 22 million people and South only 9 million which 3.5 million were slaves and could not serve in Confederate Army </li></ul><ul><li>85-90% of manufacturing in North so they had means to equip their soldiers with weapons, ammunition and clothing </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sect. 2 <ul><li>North had double the RR mileage of the South to help move goods and supplies </li></ul><ul><li>North had almost all the naval power and shipyards </li></ul><ul><li>North had secure banks </li></ul><ul><li>North had a working government with a remarkable leader in Abraham Lincoln </li></ul>
  19. 19. Sect. 2 <ul><li>Lincoln’s leadership convinced Northerners that democracy depended upon preserving the Union </li></ul><ul><li>One would think North had every advantage </li></ul><ul><li>South had great military leaders as well, especially Robert E. Lee and many others who had attended West Point and other military schools </li></ul><ul><li>South decided to fight a defensive battle </li></ul><ul><li>They would let their enemy come to them where they would know the terrain much better </li></ul>
  20. 20. Sect. 2 <ul><li>Advantage to fighting on own land, people are more apt to fight harder to defend something than those who are invading trying to take it </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners also had superior outdoor-living skills </li></ul><ul><li>They grew up learning to ride horses, handle guns, living off the land. They were more equipped than the citified Northerners </li></ul>
  21. 21. Section 2 Questions <ul><li>Why were the border states important? </li></ul><ul><li>What were strengths of both sides? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Section 3 <ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Confederate Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>1 st was a defensive one </li></ul><ul><li>South did not want to conquer North- it only wanted to be independent </li></ul><ul><li>Confederate leaders hoped North would soon tire of the war and accept Southern independence </li></ul>
  23. 23. Sect. 3 <ul><li>Confederates planned to wear out their enemies by fighting most of war on their lands </li></ul><ul><li>They planned to keep their troops in the South and force the North to make the attacks </li></ul><ul><li>They did plan to send a small force to Washington D.C. to capture the capital. They would then march into Maryland and Pennsylvania thus weakening the North by splitting it in two </li></ul>
  24. 24. Sect. 3 <ul><li>Confederates also hoped to get foreign help by using the “King Cotton” trump card </li></ul><ul><li>South grew most of the cotton used in Europe’s textile mills </li></ul><ul><li>When war broke out the South withheld cotton from the market </li></ul><ul><li>They had hoped to force Britain and France to help their cause </li></ul><ul><li>Plan backfired due to Europeans having a surplus of cotton from the previous years large crop </li></ul>
  25. 25. Sect. 3 <ul><li>Europeans also did not want to get involved in the American war </li></ul><ul><li>As war began to get more intense and lasted longer than expected, the Confederacy changed its plan and went on the offensive trying to get big victories hoping to crush Northern morale </li></ul>
  26. 26. Sect. 3 <ul><li>Union Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>North wanted to bring Southern states back into the Union </li></ul><ul><li>Developed an offensive minded plan </li></ul><ul><li>General Winfield Scott came up with a plan known as the Anaconda Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Plan was designed to smother the South’s economy like a giant anaconda snake squeezing its prey </li></ul>
  27. 27. Sect. 3 <ul><li>North planned to blockade the South’s coastline. This would prevent goods being shipped to or from the South </li></ul><ul><li>North also planned to split the South into two parts by gaining control of the Mississippi River. This was the divide and conquer theory. Most of the Confederacy lie west of the Mississippi. By gaining control of the river they could cut off the Western states from the rest of the Confederacy </li></ul>
  28. 28. Sect. 3 <ul><li>The third part of the North’s plan was to seize control of the Southern capital of Richmond, Virginia. </li></ul><ul><li>North was sure Confederacy would surrender once the capital fell. This was the first main goal of the North </li></ul><ul><li>A drawback to this plan was that it would take time to work. People were eager and wanted immediate attacks </li></ul>
  29. 29. Sect. 3 <ul><li>Another drawback was the North’s Navy was not large enough initially to completely blockade the ports. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, Union Army recruits needed training </li></ul><ul><li>Luckily for the North, the South’s defensive strategy gave the Union time to build up its Navy and train its soldiers. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Section 3 Questions <ul><li>What did the Confederacy expect to gain by withholding cotton from the market? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the goal of the Anaconda plan, and what were the drawbacks? </li></ul><ul><li>How did each side’s strategy change as the war continued? </li></ul>
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