Chapter 17 2 Pp


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Chapter 17 2 Pp

  1. 1. Chapter 17.2 pgs. 395-402 How did the North and the South move closer to conflict?
  2. 2. Franklin Pierce <ul><li>14 th President </li></ul><ul><li>1853-1857 </li></ul><ul><li>Democrat </li></ul><ul><li>Key events: Gadsden Purchase, Kansas-Nebraska, Republican party started </li></ul><ul><li>Died October 8, 1869 </li></ul><ul><li>Lawyer, Senator, brigadier general in Mexican War </li></ul>
  3. 3. Peace and Prosperity <ul><li>After the Compromise of 1850 and Fugitive Slave Act tempers were cooled </li></ul><ul><li>Peace lasted for awhile </li></ul><ul><li>Certain events over the next 10 year period changed that </li></ul>
  4. 4. Northerners defy <ul><li>Northerners thought FSL was a great evil </li></ul><ul><li>Law made it risky for slaves to flee South </li></ul><ul><li>Slave-Catchers loved it because they made lots of money </li></ul><ul><li>Some catchers even took free blacks </li></ul><ul><li>Abolitionists still housed runaways </li></ul><ul><li>URR still going strong </li></ul><ul><li>Some Northern states passed laws forbidding citizens to cooperate with slave catchers </li></ul>
  5. 5. Written word becomes weapon <ul><li>Harriet Beecher Stowe </li></ul><ul><li>1852 “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” </li></ul><ul><li>Talked about treatment of slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Tom had 3 owners (2 nice 1 evil) </li></ul><ul><li>Beecher drew on own experiences when writing the book. Her family helped runaways in Cincinnati </li></ul>
  6. 6. Uncle Tom <ul><li>Book outsold every book except the bible in the years leading up to the Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Sold about 300,000 copies </li></ul><ul><li>Translated into more than 20 languages </li></ul><ul><li>Became a play 1n 1852 written by George Aiken </li></ul><ul><li>Stirred northerners against slavery like nothing else </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners thought the book was misleading </li></ul>
  7. 7. Kansas-Nebraska Act <ul><li>Slavery issue in West also </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen A. Douglas drafts a bill to organize territorial governments for the Nebraska Territory </li></ul><ul><li>Felt it should be divided into 2 territories – Kansas and Nebraska </li></ul><ul><li>Land part of Louisiana Purchase – lies north of the Missouri Compromise line (36 30 N) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Kansas-Nebraska <ul><li>Land was supposed to be closed to slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas, to gain Southern support for the bill, suggested the decision about slavery be settled by popular sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Popular Sovereignty – system where the residents vote to decide an issue </li></ul><ul><li>The act would allow these territories to be sovereign – self-governed – with the regard to slavery </li></ul>
  9. 9. Douglas’s motive <ul><li>Douglas had hoped to be president someday </li></ul><ul><li>He felt this would win him support in both the North and the South </li></ul><ul><li>He felt the bill did equal and exact justice to the whole union. It violated the rights of no territory. Instead it allowed people free enjoyment of all their rights under the Constitution </li></ul>
  10. 10. Kansas-Nebraska <ul><li>Act passed by Congress in May 1854– President Pierce supported it </li></ul><ul><li>South rejoices, North felt betrayed </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>North had agreed to Missouri Compromise to limit slavery, now they had no guarantee slavery would stay out of the West. </li></ul><ul><li>South felt Compromise of 1850 applied popular sovereignty to New Mexico and Utah </li></ul>
  11. 11. Trouble in Kansas <ul><li>Douglas had no idea he just lit a powder keg </li></ul><ul><li>Kansas became a bitter struggle for slavery vs anti-slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Each group sent settlers to Kansas to fight for control of the territory </li></ul><ul><li>Most arrivals were farmers looking for cheap land. Few owned slaves. Abolitionists brought in more than 1,000 settlers from New England </li></ul>
  12. 12. Kansas <ul><li>Proslavery settlers moved in as well to ensure antislavery forces didn’t overrun Kansas </li></ul><ul><li>Proslavery bands from Missouri known as Border Ruffians often rode across the border battling antislavery forces in Kansas </li></ul>
  13. 13. Kansas Government <ul><li>1855 Kansas held elections to choose lawmakers </li></ul><ul><li>5,000 Border Ruffians crossed and voted illegally. They helped to elect a proslavery legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Legislature quickly passed laws to support slavery </li></ul>
  14. 14. Laws <ul><li>One law said that people could be put to death for helping slaves escape </li></ul><ul><li>Another made speaking out against slavery a crime punishable by two years of hard labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Antislavery settlers refused these laws </li></ul><ul><li>Elected their own governor and legislature </li></ul>
  15. 15. Bleeding Kansas <ul><li>Kansas in chaos with two governments </li></ul><ul><li>Armed gangs roamed the territory looking for trouble </li></ul><ul><li>Band of Proslavery men raided the town of Lawrence in 1856 </li></ul><ul><li>They destroyed homes including that of the governor of the antislavery government and smashed the press of the Free-Soil newspaper </li></ul>
  16. 16. John Brown <ul><li>John Brown, extreme abolitionist, strikes back </li></ul><ul><li>He led a band of men to Pottawatomie Creek </li></ul><ul><li>Dragged 5 proslavery settlers from their beds and murdered them. Claimed he had been sent by God to punish slavery supporters </li></ul>
  17. 17. More violence <ul><li>The killings at Pot. Creek led to both sides engaging in guerrilla warfare – hit and run tactics </li></ul><ul><li>By 1856 more than 200 people had been killed and millions of dollars of property destroyed, which is how Kansas became known as “Bleeding Kansas” according to the newspapers </li></ul>
  18. 18. Violence in Senate <ul><li>May 1856, Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts blamed Southerners for the trouble in Kansas </li></ul><ul><li>He especially blamed South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler </li></ul><ul><li>The day after his speech Peter Brooks, nephew of Butler, broke into Sumner’s office and beat him with a heavy cane </li></ul>
  19. 19. Senate <ul><li>Brooks beat Sumner until he was bloody and fell unconsciously to the floor </li></ul><ul><li>It took Sumner over 3 years to recover and return to Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners supported Brooks, felt Sumner got what he deserved. They even sent canes to Brooks to show support. Northerners felt it was just another example of slavery leading to violence </li></ul>
  20. 20. Senate/Kansas <ul><li>Northerners began using rallying cries such as “Bleeding Kansas” and “Bleeding Sumner” to fight against slavery </li></ul><ul><li>They also became slogans for a new Republican Party </li></ul><ul><li>Struggle for slavery in Kansas went on until 1861 when the antislavery numbers greatly outnumbered slavery supporters. Kansas entered the Union as a free state </li></ul>
  21. 21. Republican Party <ul><li>Party formed in 1854 </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Whigs split from Southern Whigs and met with antislavery Democrats and Free-Soilers in Ripon, Wisconsin </li></ul><ul><li>Party’s leaders shared one goal: keep slavery out of the territories </li></ul><ul><li>Got their name from old Democratic-Republican party founded by Thomas Jefferson </li></ul>
  22. 22. Republicans <ul><li>Party gained many northern members </li></ul><ul><li>In 1856 election, 2/3 of northern states voted for the Republican candidate John C. Fremont </li></ul><ul><li>However, Southerners were Democrats and had enough votes to elect James Buchanan </li></ul><ul><li>Whigs break up North become Rep. South Dem., Republicans stay positive hope to send candidate to 1860 election </li></ul>
  23. 23. James Buchanan <ul><li>15 th President </li></ul><ul><li>1857-1861 </li></ul><ul><li>Never married </li></ul><ul><li>Lawyer, senator, Secretary of State, ambassador to Russia and England </li></ul><ul><li>Died June 1, 1868 </li></ul><ul><li>Key events: Dred Scott case, Panic of 1857, John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry, and Minnesota and Oregon become states </li></ul>
  24. 24. Dred Scott Case <ul><li>With Congress and the nation in an uproar over slavery, many Americans looked for the Supreme Court to help restore peace </li></ul><ul><li>1857 the Court ruled on Dred Scott case </li></ul><ul><li>However, instead of harmonizing their decision further divided North and South </li></ul>
  25. 25. Scott <ul><li>Scott was a slave from Missouri </li></ul><ul><li>His owner had taken him north of the slave line in 1834 </li></ul><ul><li>4 years they lived in free territory in Illinois and Wisconsin </li></ul><ul><li>Then returned to Missouri, where his owner died </li></ul>
  26. 26. Scott <ul><li>Filed a lawsuit to gain his freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Claimed he was free due to living in a free territory for several years </li></ul><ul><li>Case eventually made it to Supreme Court – Dred Scott v. Sandford </li></ul>
  27. 27. Issues <ul><li>Three issues at hand </li></ul><ul><li>Was Dred Scott a U.S. citizen with the right to sue in federal court? </li></ul><ul><li>Did living in free territory make him free? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the Missouri Compromise constitutional? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Decision <ul><li>Chief Justice Roger B. Taney gave the majority decision (Taney hated slavery and in fact freed his own slaves) </li></ul><ul><li>Court ruled Scott had no claim to freedom because he was living in Missouri, a slave state, when he began his suit and his time in free territory had no bearing. He was considered a slave and as an enslaved person he was not a citizen and could not file a lawsuit. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Decision <ul><li>Court also said Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress could not forbid slavery in any part of the territories. Doing so would interfere with slaveholders’ right to own property, a right protected by the 5 th Amendment </li></ul>
  30. 30. Reaction to decision <ul><li>Southerners cheered </li></ul><ul><li>Northerners stunned </li></ul><ul><li>Striking down the Missouri Compromise cleared the way for the extension of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Northerners hoped Republicans could keep slavery in check </li></ul>
  31. 31. Republicans voice <ul><li>After Dred Scott, Republicans charged Democrats wanted to legalize slavery everywhere territories and all states </li></ul><ul><li>Started challenging individual Democrats </li></ul><ul><li>Main target Stephen A. Douglas sponsor of the Kansas-Nebraska Act </li></ul><ul><li>1858 Illinois Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln to challenge Douglas for his U.S. Senate seat </li></ul>
  32. 32. Lincoln/Douglas debates <ul><li>The two met for 7 debates between August 21 and October 15, 1858 </li></ul><ul><li>The two had extreme differences </li></ul><ul><li>Especially on slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln believed it was the national government’s role to prevent expansion of slavery. Douglas argued popular sovereignty was the best way but this was a problem for Douglas. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Lincoln/Douglas <ul><li>Dred Scott decision made popular sovereignty unconstitutional. It said that people could not vote to ban slavery, because doing so would take away slaveholders’ property rights </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln asked Douglas if he thought people in a territory who were against slavery could legally prohibit it – despite the Dred Scott decision </li></ul>
  34. 34. Lincoln/Douglas <ul><li>Douglas replied that it did not matter what the Supreme Court might decide about slavery because “the people have the lawful means to introduce it or exclude it as they please.” </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas won reelection. Lincoln became a national figure and strengthened his standing in the Republican Party </li></ul>
  35. 35. John Brown Raids again <ul><li>John Brown went unpunished for his earlier attacks </li></ul><ul><li>1859 Brown and 18 followers seized the federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to arm slaves to start a revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Buchanan sent troops to capture Brown. Troops led by Robert E. Lee </li></ul><ul><li>Brown captured, tried, found guilty of treason and hung </li></ul>
  36. 36. Brown <ul><li>Northerners considered him a martyr – someone who dies or suffers for a cause. </li></ul><ul><li>Became a hero to many northerners </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners thought it was outrageous. They thought northerners were out to destroy slavery and the South along with it. </li></ul><ul><li>Nation is now poised for a violent crash </li></ul>
  37. 37. Questions?? <ul><li>What events split the North and South in the 1850’s? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did antislavery groups form the Republican party? </li></ul>
  38. 38. Answers <ul><li>Uncle Tom’s Cabin, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott case, John Brown’s raid </li></ul><ul><li>To keep slavery out of the territories </li></ul>