Chapter 15 2 Pp

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chapter 15 section 2 power point -- 8th grade SS

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Chapter 15 2 Pp

  1. 1. Chapter 15.2 pgs. 350-354 How did the antislavery movement develop?
  2. 2. Early Efforts Against Slavery <ul><li>Few colonists opposed slavery but the real movement didn’t start until after the Revolutionary War. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1790’s there were several antislavery societies </li></ul><ul><li>An Abolitionist is what? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Early Efforts <ul><li>Abolition – The movement to end slavery, really began in late 1700’s </li></ul><ul><li>1800’s – Abolitionist views begin to spread especially in the North </li></ul><ul><li>Believed it was wrong to own another person </li></ul><ul><li>Believed slavery should be abolished for different reasons </li></ul>
  4. 4. Beliefs for ending Slavery <ul><li>Religious reasons – Since colonial days Quakers were against slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>First public protest against slavery was led by a group of Philadelphia Quakers in 1688 </li></ul><ul><li>Believed all people equal before God </li></ul><ul><li>It was a sin to own another person </li></ul>
  5. 5. Beliefs <ul><li>Political reasons – Declaration of Independence said all people are endowed with unalienable rights-life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. </li></ul><ul><li>Society not democratic if slavery existed </li></ul>
  6. 6. Beliefs <ul><li>Some against slavery due to own experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Black people, slave and free, hated the system </li></ul><ul><li>Believed any system that allowed slavery was unjust and inhumane </li></ul>
  7. 7. North and South <ul><li>By 1804 most North abolished slavery </li></ul><ul><li>1807 Congress banned the importation of African slaves into the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Abolitionist began to demand a law ending slavery in the South </li></ul><ul><li>South still supported it however </li></ul><ul><li>Believed health of Southern economy depended on slave labor </li></ul><ul><li>Believed freeing the slaves would disrupt southern society </li></ul>
  8. 8. Liberia <ul><li>Abolitionists sought ways to free slaves and compensate– pay the slaveholders for their losses </li></ul><ul><li>Groups raised money to pay owners </li></ul><ul><li>Some supported colonization – send former slaves to Africa </li></ul>
  9. 9. Liberia <ul><li>1817 American Colonization Society </li></ul><ul><li>President Monroe helps group buy a strip of land in West Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Liberia established 1822 </li></ul><ul><li>1 st recruited free blacks </li></ul><ul><li>Claimed it was a way for blacks to gain greater freedom and independence </li></ul><ul><li>1827 few owners freed slaves and allowed them to go to Liberia </li></ul>
  10. 10. Liberia <ul><li>Some blacks felt they would be denied their full rights in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Felt colonization was a way to a better life </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Cuffe especially </li></ul><ul><li>Cuffe a wealthy merchant, had sent 38 people to Africa before the ACS was formed </li></ul><ul><li>Died before he could carry out his entire plan of colonization </li></ul>
  11. 11. Blacks Oppose <ul><li>Most blacks opposed idea </li></ul><ul><li>Most ACS’s influential members were southern planters who favored slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Felt these members just wanted to get rid of free blacks to tighten hold on slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Blacks spoke out in speeches and pamphlets stating they were in the United States to stay </li></ul>
  12. 12. Question?? <ul><li>Why was Liberia established? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Abolitionists Evolve <ul><li>Free blacks backbone of antislavery movement </li></ul><ul><li>Antislavery societies formed </li></ul><ul><li>Filed lawsuits, held lectures, gave speeches, printed pamphlets, printed newspapers, submitted petitions to Congress, and even broke the law to reach their goals </li></ul>
  14. 14. Abolitionists <ul><li>Samuel Cornish and John Russworm – 1827 1 st black newspaper “Freedom’s Journal” </li></ul><ul><li>David Walker – 1829 printed a pamphlet urging slaves to revolt. “An Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World”. </li></ul><ul><li>Walker warned whites “We must and shall be Free…” </li></ul><ul><li>Pamphlets made their way in to the south </li></ul>
  15. 15. Abolitionists <ul><li>Southerners offered a reward for Walker’s capture (Georgia Legislature offered $10,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Walker heard his life was in danger but would not run away </li></ul><ul><li>Shortly afterwards, he mysteriously was found dead </li></ul>
  16. 16. More Abolitionists <ul><li>William Lloyd Garrison – 1831 published an abolitionist newspaper “The Liberator” </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed violence, but wanted immediate freeing of slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected the idea of compensating owners </li></ul><ul><li>Famous quote “ … I will be Heard” </li></ul><ul><li>Many people hated his views both north and south </li></ul><ul><li>Was captured and drug to a park to be hung in Boston 1834 until the mayor saved him </li></ul><ul><li>Some blamed Garrison for Nat Turner’s bloody revolt </li></ul>
  17. 17. Still More <ul><li>1833 American Anti-Slavery Society formed by 1840 this group had more than 250,000 members in 15 states </li></ul><ul><li>Grimke Sisters (Sarah and Angelina) </li></ul><ul><li>Led public speeches about antislavery </li></ul><ul><li>Angelina’s husband Theodore Weld also campaigned to end slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Sent petitions to Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Proslavery Congressmen passed gag rules to prevent the reading of his petitions in Congress </li></ul><ul><li>John Q. Adams ignored the gag and read them anyways and introduced an amendment to abolish slavery </li></ul>
  18. 18. And Still More!! <ul><li>J.Q. Adams also defended a group of Africans who rebelled on the slave ship “Amistad”. He successfully argued their case before the Supreme Court in 1841, and in 1842 the Africans returned home </li></ul><ul><li>By 1840 a network of nearly 2,000 societies stretched across the North including black and white members </li></ul>
  19. 19. Eyewitnesses to Slavery <ul><li>Fredrick Douglass – 1838 escaped Maryland and fled to Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Great speaker, people who opposed abolition spread rumors that he was so good there was no way he was ever a slave. </li></ul><ul><li>To prove them wrong in 1845 published an autobiography that vividly narrated his experiences </li></ul><ul><li>After releasing his autobiography he feared recapture so he fled for 2 years to speak in Great Britain and Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Upon returning, bought his freedom and published an antislavery newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>Most effective of all abolitionist speakers </li></ul>
  20. 20. Eyewitness <ul><li>Sojourner Truth– original name Isabella born in New York </li></ul><ul><li>1827 fled her owners to live with Quakers who set her free </li></ul><ul><li>They also helped her win a court case to recover her young son </li></ul><ul><li>Changed her name in 1843 to reflect her work. She was a devout Christian. Believed God had given her a special mission to speak against injustice </li></ul><ul><li>Sojourn means to stay temporarily in a place </li></ul><ul><li>Traveled throughout the north telling her story and vowing for freedom for slaves </li></ul>
  21. 21. Other Eyewitnesses <ul><li>William Wells Brown – famous lecturer and writer also escaped slavery. Like Douglass went to England to speak </li></ul><ul><li>James Forten – born into freedom. Philadelphia businessman owned own sail making company. Contributed large amounts of money to Garrison </li></ul>
  22. 22. Another Key Speaker <ul><li>Theodore D. Weld – Minister who gave moving sermons. Even converted entire communities. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Underground Railroad <ul><li>Abolitionists directly helped slaves escape </li></ul><ul><li>Many escaped on the underground RR </li></ul><ul><li>It was a network of people who helped runaway slaves reach safety </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders on the RR were known as conductors </li></ul><ul><li>Led slaves to stations – homes of people who secretly sheltered the runaways </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves fled in the night house to house. Were helped along the way by other slaves, free blacks, and sympathetic whites with food, shelter, and clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Some say between 30,000 and 100,000 slaves traveled the RR </li></ul>
  24. 24. Conductors <ul><li>Most famous Harriet Tubman </li></ul><ul><li>Born into slavery in Maryland. At 13 she tried saving another slave from punishment and was struck over the head by the master with a two pound weight fracturing her skull. She suffered from drowsiness the rest of her life. </li></ul><ul><li>1849 escaped from her owner before she was to be sold </li></ul>
  25. 25. Tubman’s Crusades <ul><li>Made 19 journeys into the south to help others escape </li></ul><ul><li>Helped more than 300 slaves gain freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Carried a pistol to frighten off slave hunters </li></ul><ul><li>Carried medicine to quiet crying babies </li></ul><ul><li>Enemies offered $40,000 for her capture </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened with death any passenger who thought of surrender or attempted to return </li></ul><ul><li>“ I never run my train off the track and I never lost a passenger” declared Tubman </li></ul>
  26. 26. Tubman and more <ul><li>Tubman helped to guide 6 of her brothers, her elderly parents, and a number of other relatives to freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Civil War, she served as a nurse, scout, and spy for the Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Levi Coffin – Quaker from Indiana </li></ul><ul><li>President of the RR. Often housed runaways in his home when others couldn’t. </li></ul>
  27. 27. RR today <ul><li>The Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Act passed by Congress in 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructed the National Park Service to identify and locate important places along the RR </li></ul><ul><li>By 1999 about 3 dozen sites located. Each marked by a plaque </li></ul>
  28. 28. Question?? <ul><li>How did abolitionists help in the Underground RR?? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Movement is Split <ul><li>Members have different ideas and opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Garrison took an aggressive stand (militant) </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked church leaders and others who didn’t speak against slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Garrison believed North should separate from the South </li></ul><ul><li>Felt abolitionists should refuse to vote, hold office, or take any political action as long as slavery existed </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreed with the Constitution </li></ul>
  30. 30. Split <ul><li>Others felt political action was necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreed with Garrison’s effort to give women equal rights in the Amer. Anti-Slavery Society. </li></ul><ul><li>1839 many broke off and started own organization </li></ul><ul><li>Formed Liberty Party – antislavery political party </li></ul><ul><li>Nominated James G. Birney for president </li></ul><ul><li>Lost election but made abolition important political issue </li></ul>
  31. 31. Militant Action <ul><li>Some even called for militant action such as Henry Highland Garnet. </li></ul><ul><li>Former slave from Maryland </li></ul><ul><li>Believed laws protecting slavery should be defied </li></ul>
  32. 32. Question?? <ul><li>How were William Lloyd Garrison’s activities different from those of the Liberty Party? </li></ul>

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