Chapter 14.2 Pp


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chapter 14 section 2 power point -- 8th grade SS

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Chapter 14.2 Pp

  1. 1. Chapter 14.2 pgs. 331-338 What was life like in the South before 1860?
  2. 2. Small Farms <ul><li>Majority of Southerners lived on small farms </li></ul><ul><li>Lived on less fertile soil </li></ul><ul><li>Owned 1 or 2 slaves. Farmed their property with family </li></ul><ul><li>Raised corn, potatoes, vegetables for food </li></ul><ul><li>Some cotton enough to provide cash for family </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mountain Whites <ul><li>Lived apart from rest of population </li></ul><ul><li>Rough frontier life </li></ul><ul><li>Lived on food they grew </li></ul><ul><li>Fishers and hunters to survive </li></ul><ul><li>Proud and independent despite poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Little interest in slavery or other major issues </li></ul>
  4. 4. City Folk <ul><li>Unlike North farming still important </li></ul><ul><li>Few large cities </li></ul><ul><li>1860 only Baltimore and New Orleans ranked in nation’s top 10 largest cities </li></ul><ul><li>Most southern city dwellers were white. </li></ul><ul><li>They were doctors, lawyers, merchants, or skilled labor </li></ul>
  5. 5. Plantation System <ul><li>Rich planters – small group but powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders in their states, social centers </li></ul><ul><li>Used slave labor to help with cotton process </li></ul>
  6. 6. Slavery <ul><li>What is slavery? </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves expensive </li></ul><ul><li>1860 1 white family out of 4 owned slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Price of strong field hand - $1,200 - $1,500 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cotton Process <ul><li>Cotton required more field hands than any other crop </li></ul><ul><li>Planters spent lots of money buying slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton brought political power </li></ul><ul><li>1860 out of 8 million whites, only 10,000 southerners owned 50 or more slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Rich planters were leaders also spoke for the South in Congress </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cotton Process <ul><li>Fields plowed at end of winter and plants planted </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves tended plants day by day keeping out weeds and insect damage </li></ul><ul><li>Fall – slaves carried bags and picked cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves in fields from daylight to dark with only a brief lunch </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cotton Process Continued <ul><li>After picking, cotton went to gin </li></ul><ul><li>Then was bailed and transported by either wagons or wharfs and shipped to steamboats. </li></ul><ul><li>Steamboats carried cotton to port cities and shipped to New England states or Britain </li></ul>
  10. 10. Question?? <ul><li>How did planters transport their cotton to market?? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Plantation Lifestyles <ul><li>Wealthy planters lived in large, stately houses </li></ul><ul><li>Houses generally had pillars with large rooms, high ceilings, and tall windows </li></ul><ul><li>Not all leisure </li></ul><ul><li>Had to give directions or even direct slaves themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Plantation owners were both men and women mostly men </li></ul>
  12. 12. Lifestyle continued <ul><li>Owner’s wife generally directed house staff and gave medical care </li></ul><ul><li>Required great deal of organization to be a successful plantation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Slave Lifestyle <ul><li>Some were house slaves which included; kitchen help, maids, butlers, and coach drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Some were skilled slaves such as carpenters, blacksmiths, and gardeners </li></ul><ul><li>Majority were field hands </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hard Lives <ul><li>Lived in cabins close to owners </li></ul><ul><li>No windows and single rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Bed was plank of wood with a coarse blanket </li></ul><ul><li>Had a fireplace for cooking and heating </li></ul><ul><li>Food consisted of pork, corn meal, and molasses </li></ul><ul><li>Few clothes had to last them all </li></ul><ul><li>year </li></ul><ul><li>Many Southerners felt slavery was a benefit to black people </li></ul>
  15. 15. Generosity <ul><li>Some slave owners were generous </li></ul><ul><li>Gave slaves some comfort such as allowing them to hunt, fish, plant gardens, and raise chickens </li></ul><ul><li>Still hard however, due to the fact they lost their freedom, working for nothing, and rewarded or punished as the owner saw fit </li></ul><ul><li>Harsh owners often beat and whipped their slaves especially if they ran away or misbehaved </li></ul>
  16. 16. Slave Culture <ul><li>Religion – Christianity, hoped to find comfort and reward of going to heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Attended Methodist or Baptist churches run by white congregations </li></ul><ul><li>Some all black churches – African Baptist Church </li></ul><ul><li>Could run own services </li></ul>
  17. 17. New Style <ul><li>Developed new style of music </li></ul><ul><li>Sang spirituals which were religious folk songs </li></ul><ul><li>Expressed yearning for freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Slow chants while working </li></ul><ul><li>Told folktales at night </li></ul>
  18. 18. Separation <ul><li>Slaves tried to keep families together </li></ul><ul><li>One of most cruel aspects of slavery was members often sold to different masters </li></ul><ul><li>Especially when “Old South” started moving to “Lower South” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Fear <ul><li>Plantation owners feared revolts since slaves outnumbered the whites </li></ul><ul><li>Main reason why they overworked their slaves and kept discipline strict </li></ul>
  20. 20. Question?? <ul><li>Why did slaves fear being sold “down the river” to the Lower South? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Rebellions <ul><li>To show their desire for freedom slaves not only expressed themselves through their culture but also by running away or by rebelling </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 200 rebellions took place during the years slavery was in existence </li></ul>
  22. 22. Rebellions <ul><li>Seldom led to freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Proved they would fight for freedom </li></ul>
  23. 23. Rebel Leaders <ul><li>Nat Turner </li></ul><ul><li>Led one of the bloodiest revolts of the time </li></ul><ul><li>1831 he and his band of slaves killed 57 white people </li></ul><ul><li>Led to more than 100 blacks being killed by whites who panicked due to the uprising </li></ul>
  24. 24. Leaders <ul><li>Gabriel Prosser – Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark Vesey – South Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>Madison Washington – Louisiana </li></ul><ul><li>Washington led a successful revolt aboard the ship Creole. They seized the ship and sailed to the West Indies living out their lives in freedom </li></ul>
  25. 25. Blacks in the City <ul><li>Some blacks lived in cities </li></ul><ul><li>Some were free, some were hired skilled labor </li></ul><ul><li>1860 about 260,000 free blacks lived in south </li></ul><ul><li>Many left country to live in city where they could own property and hold jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Some were successful in business </li></ul><ul><li>Most lacked education and opportunity to vote </li></ul>
  26. 26. Question?? <ul><li>What factors enabled a minority of people – the planters – to maintain political leadership in the South? </li></ul>