• Like
Battles
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
Uploaded on

Power point discusses Civil War battles. Includes soldier activity interviews. -- 8th grade SS

Power point discusses Civil War battles. Includes soldier activity interviews. -- 8th grade SS

More in: Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
2,752
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
93
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Civil War Battles and events during the war
  • 2. Soldier Interview
    • Why did the soldiers mention the War of 1812 and the war with Mexico?
    • What rights did the Southerners think were being threatened?
    • Why would a soldier’s wife, sweetheart, or parents actually encourage him to enlist and go off to war?
    • Do you think the soldiers’ idea about camp life and battle were realistic? Why or Why not?
  • 3. 1861
    • April 19, 1861
    • 1 st casualties of war not actually on a battlefield between the two armies
    • Baltimore, Maryland skirmish between Union troops and civilians
    • Massachusetts’ regiment heeding President Lincolns’ call for volunteers exchanged shots with a crowd of pro-secessionist civilians hoping to prevent the troops from reaching Washington D.C.
    • 11 civilians and 4 soldiers died
  • 4. 1861
    • May 25, 1861
    • Union gets it’s 1 st hero
    • Three regiments of Union soldiers led by Colonel Elmer Ellsworth crossed the Potomac River and seized Alexandria, VA.
    • Ellsworth was killed trying to haul down a Confederate flag from the roof of The Marshall House Hotel by the hotel keeper
    • Ellsworth’s death was avenged by Private Francis Brownwell. Ellsworth’s death plunged the nation into a patriotic spasm of grief
  • 5. 1861
    • July 21, 1861
    • 1 st major battle of war – Battle of Bull Run
    • Fought only 30 miles from Washington D.C.
    • Union troops marching to a battle cry “on to Richmond” marched into the small town of Manassas, VA. They would have to defeat these Rebel troops in order to take Richmond
  • 6. 1861
    • 39,000Union forces led by General Irvin McDowell
    • 21,000Confederate troops led by General Pierre Beauregard
    • Battle eventually resulted in a Confederate victory despite being outnumbered
    • Union troops were ill-prepared
  • 7. 1861
    • Union defeated largely in part to the stand by General Thomas J. Jackson and his troops
    • Confederates saw Jackson and his troops standing strong and they rallied and joined with him holding off the larger Union army until reinforcements could arrive. This stand earned Jackson the nickname “Stonewall”
    • 11,000 Confederate troops led by Brigadier General Joseph E. Johnston arrived to help and Johnston assumed command of Confederates
  • 8. 1861
    • With an equal amount of troops the Confederates mounted a counter attack
    • As they attacked the Northern troops the Rebs let out a blood curdling scream, later known as the “rebel yell”, which caused the Union troops to panic
    • They scattered, broke ranks and retreated
    • The Confederate victory in the 1 st Battle of Bull Run thrilled the South and shocked the North
  • 9. 1861
    • Many in the South thought they had just won the war
    • Lincoln realized they took the South for granted
    • He sent his 90-day Militia home and called for a real army of 500,000 volunteers for 3 years
    • This battle was actually so close to Washington there were civilians scattered around picnicking like it was a Sunday afternoon entertainment
  • 10. 1861
    • As the Union soldiers scattered and fled, they dropped all kinds of useful supplies such as; coats, blankets, cooking tins, caps, belts, bayonets, etc. Instead of chasing the Union troops the Confederates let them go and stopped and picked up all the supplies
    • The months that followed the battle of Bull Run, saw many battles take place West of the Appalachians
  • 11. 1861
    • Aug. 5, 1861 – Congress in attempts to help pay for the war levied the 1 st income tax in U.S. history. The tax law fixed a tax of 3% on incomes in excess of $800 per year
    • Aug. 10, 1861 – 1 st major battle in the West. Wilson Creek, Missouri
    • Confederate victory despite valiant attempt by Union troops and Gen. Nathaniel Lyon who was eventually shot and killed in the battle
  • 12. 1861
    • Nov. 1, 1861 – Lincoln names a new army chief
    • General George Brinton McClellan replaced Winfield Scott
    • Known as Little Mac, given the post because of his work in turning around the Army of the Potomac into a crack unit rivaling the Confederacy’s best
  • 13. 1861
    • The 1 st year of the war there were 308 battles in 11 states and at sea
  • 14. 1862
    • March 9, 1862 – Major sea battle. Hampton Roads, Virginia
    • 2 Ironclads meet and battle to a draw after 2 hours of fighting
    • The Union’s Monitor and the Confederate’s Merrimac (Virginia)
    • The Merrimac actually used to be a Union ship. It was built before the war as a regular 40-gun steam frigate
  • 15. 1862
    • In April 1861, as Union troops withdrew from Norfolk Naval Shipyard in Virginia, they sank the Merrimac to keep it out of Rebel hands
    • Confederates repaired the ship, covered it with iron and renamed it Virginia. They sent it to battle against the Union’s blockade. In its 1 st battle it defeated 3 Union ships. After that, Union builds its own Ironclads
    • By the end of the war the Union had 626 warships of which 65 were Ironclads
  • 16. 1862
    • These Ironclads helped the Union with their plan to split the Confederate forces in two
    • In February 1862, Union General of the West, Ulysses S. Grant, used partial Ironclads to capture two Confederate river forts
    • Fort Henry on the Tennessee and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland
  • 17. 1862
    • The seizure of Fort Henry opened a river highway into the heart of the South
    • Union gunboats could now travel on the river as far south as northern Alabama
    • The fall of the forts caused panic in Nashville. People fled the city which allowed Union troops to march into Nashville a week later
  • 18. 1862
    • April 7, 1862 – Battle of Shiloh in Tennessee
    • Confederates made a surprise attack at Shiloh and almost won the battle until fresh Union troops arrived
    • After gaining reinforcements Grant forced the Confederates to retreat
    • Shiloh was one of the bloodiest battles of the war
  • 19. 1862
    • 11,000 0f the 41,000 Confederates fell during the 2 day battle
    • 13,000 of the 52,000 Union troops were wounded or died
    • After this bloody battle, Congressmen criticized Grant for the high casualties and wanted Lincoln to replace him
    • Lincoln wouldn’t he simply replied, “I can’t spare this man—he fights.”
  • 20. 1862
    • April 25, 1862 – Union Captures New Orleans
    • Union fleet led by David Farragut
    • Battle lasted 10 days. Began with bombardments of Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip which were guarding the Southern entrance to the city
  • 21. 1862
    • Rebel gunboats tried to ram the Union warships but were unsuccessful; they did however manage to sink one
    • Farragut’s ships made it through cannon fire and floating burning rafts
    • Once making through they rushed the city and forced officials to surrender
  • 22. 1862
    • With Grant and Farragut’s victories and a Union victory in June of 1862 at the river city of Memphis, Tennessee, the North had almost achieved its goal of splitting the South into 2 parts
    • The Union controlled all of the Mississippi with the exception of a 250 mile stretch between Vicksburg, Mississippi (which was guarded heavily) and Port Hudson, Louisiana.
  • 23. 1862
    • May 20, 1862 – Federal Homestead Law signed
    • Congress hoping to appeal to northern voters, passed the Homestead Act. This permitted citizens over 21 to own a free plot of 160 acres on land in the public domain—if they would occupy and improve it for 5 years
  • 24. 1862
    • Many in Congress opposed it at first, because they thought it would drain men and money from their regions and some feared a movement of anti-slavery Northerners into the West
  • 25. 1862
    • May-June 1862 – General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson staged a brilliant campaign in the Shenandoah Valley
    • His efforts forced the Union to divert troops from other areas to protect Washington
    • In 30 days, Jackson achieved immortal military fame. His infantry marched 350 miles, defeated 3 separate Union armies in 5 battles, inflicted twice the casualties, and seized numerous supplies
  • 26. 1862
    • June 25- July 1, 1862 – Seven Days’ Battle
    • McClellan over a seven day period fought 5 battles with Generals Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson
    • Union, despite superior numbers, lost at Mechanicsville, Gaine’s Mill, Savage Station, and Frayser’s Farm
    • Union troops forced to retreat to James River
    • Little Mac’s leadership and Union prestige dwindling, another failed attempt to capture Richmond
  • 27. 1862
    • Aug. 29-30, 1862 – Second Battle of Bull Run
    • 13 months after first battle, another battle at Manassas Junction
    • Robert E. Lee and Jackson defeat Union troops led by General John Pope
    • Union outnumbered Confederates 3-2 but suffered twice as many losses
  • 28. 1862
    • Aug-Sept. 1862 – Sioux uprising put down in Minnesota
    • Despite the Civil War going on, the Minnesota Sioux Indians in an attempt to eliminate white settlers from their lands, harassed and killed some 800 settlers
    • Raids led by Chief Little Crow but were put down by Colonel Henry Sibley
    • 1,500 Sioux captured, after trials 300 Indians hung
  • 29. 1862
    • Sept. 17, 1862 – Bloody Antietam
    • Lee led 40,000 soldiers across the Potomac into Maryland. He hoped to destroy RR lines and capture Washington D.C.
    • However, a copy of his plans fell into the hands of McClellan
    • McClellan met Lee at Antietam with 70,000 troops
  • 30. 1862
    • Antietam was actually 3 different battles in one
    • In the morning the Union attacked the Confederates left flank
    • Battle lasted 4 hours going back and forth
    • Almost 13,000 dead or wounded after 4 hours
  • 31. 1862
    • 2 nd portion of Antietam, the Union attacked the center of the Confederate troops
    • After several charges the Rebels give up “Bloody Lane” and retreat
    • Union fails to finish them off
    • On the right flank Union troops are hammering the Confederates along Antietam Creek
  • 32. 1862
    • Union manages to cross the bridge over the creek and pour into Lee’s right flank
    • The Confederates would have folded here if it were not for Major General A.P. Hill who arrived from Harper’s Ferry and managed to force the Union troops back across the bridge
  • 33. 1862
    • However, after heavy fighting, Lee returned to Virginia
    • More than 25,000 soldiers between the two sides had been killed or wounded
    • 4,710 dead, 18,440 wounded, 3,043 missing
    • McClellan had an opportunity to pursue Lee and finish off the crippled Confederate Army
    • He chose not to much to his demise. Lincoln fed up with the passiveness fired him and replaced him with Ambrose E. Burnside
  • 34. 1862
    • Lincoln used this Union victory for diplomatic advantages
    • British and French had been helping the South with ships and supplies
    • British and French begin to think twice about helping South
    • They didn’t want to back a loser, plus they had already found other sources for their cotton
    • Lincoln also after this battle announced a bold new policy
  • 35. 1862
    • Dec. 13, 1862 – Fredericksburg
    • Robert E. Lee defended the city from a line of fortified hills called Marye’s Heights
    • 12,000 Union forces led by Gen. Ambrose Burnside attacked the hills and were massacred
    • Lincoln is disappointed with his general, replaces Burnside with Joseph Hooker
  • 36. 1862
    • Soldier Interview
    • Where is the Rappahannock River?
    • Why didn’t the soldier know much about the battle when he was in it?
    • Why do you suppose the soldiers believe that if the common soldiers could just talk about the war they could end it?
    • How did war differ from what they thought when they enlisted early in the war?
    • What was the soldiers’ favorite ration (food)?
    • How much money did the common soldier make?
    • Which General did the soldiers believe could “fix things?’
    • Why do you suppose they had so much confidence in him?
  • 37. 1863
    • Emancipation Proclamation Transparency
    • What do you see in this picture?
    • Who is the man?
    • What symbols do you see?
    • What do you notice about the curtain?
    • Why is it an American Flag?
    • What other symbols do you see?
    • What does the scale, globe, sword, cross, Bible stand for?
    • The petitions on the floor and around Lincoln were mostly anti-slavery petitions from various groups in the North. Why are they pictured here?
  • 38. 1863
    • Jan. 1, 1863 Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation
    • Supposed to free all slaves in Confederate Territory
    • Tremendous impact on public, but freed very few slaves
    • Most of the slaves he intended to free lived in territories to far away for Union troops to enforce
  • 39. 1863
    • Why did Lincoln only free slaves in the South? The Constitution. Because freeing slaves weakened the Confederacy. This was viewed as a military move and as Commander-in-Chief he could do so. The Constitution would not allow the President to free slaves in the Union. However, Lincoln did request Congress to abolish slavery gradually. This act, despite freeing few slaves, became a symbol for the North. They no longer were just out to preserve the Union.
  • 40. 1863
    • Response to Proclamation
    • Abolitionist loved it. Many were angered because they felt Lincoln had not freed all enslaved persons, including those in border states.
    • Northern Democrats claimed the proclamation would only make the war last longer because he angered the South.
    • Union soldiers happy because it weakened the South
    • South angered because the result was many slaves running away and depriving the South of labor and adding to Union Soldiers
  • 41. 1863
    • May 1863 – Chancellorsville
    • Four day battle. Confed. led by Robert E. Lee, Union led by Joseph Hooker
    • Confederacy wins despite losing 10,000 soldiers
    • Great triumph but cost Lee greatly. Stonewall Jackson, Lee’s right hand man, was shot by one of his own men. He died 8 days later with pneumonia
    • Without Jackson’s brilliance to aid Lee, Confederate victories will be hard to come by now
  • 42. 1863
    • Soldier Interview
    • What rations did the rebels usually receive?
    • What is a shell jacket?
    • Why do you suppose the South had so much trouble supplying the armies?
    • Describe several punishments used by the officers.
    • What kind of equipment did the Southern soldier carry after he became experienced?
  • 43. 1863
    • July 1-3, 1863 Gettysburg
    • Union led by Gen. George Meade, Confed. led by Gen. George Pickett and Lee
    • Lee learned of a supply of shoes in Pennsylvania and led a group of soldiers to Gettysburg where they ran into Union troops
    • Both sides called for reinforcements and the Battle of Gettysburg was started
  • 44. 1863
    • 90,000 Union troops, 75,000 Confederates
    • Union forces attempted to hold down their position upon the Cemetery Ridge
    • The battle went on for 3 days back and forth until Lee ordered Pickett to make an attempt to charge at the Union forces leading 15,000 men. This charge became known as Pickett’s Charge
  • 45. 1863
    • Union troops cut them down and caused them to retreat
    • However, once again the Union forces failed to pursue and finish them off
    • North lost 23,000 men, South lost 28,000
    • Lee heartbroken and dejected headed back for Virginia. His invasion of the North is halted again.
    • Lincoln is wondering when he will ever find a general who will finish off Lee and the South
  • 46. 1863
    • The news of the victory at Gettysburg caused great joy in the North
    • The Union success at Gettysburg blocked the confederate invasion of the North
    • This victory and others soon to come, proved to America and people overseas, that the South might fight on, but it was not likely to win
  • 47. Questions
    • Why would moving Confederate troops into Pennsylvania be an Advantage for Lee?
    • Why did both sides at Gettysburg want to control the high ground during the battle?
    • Why was Pickett’s charge a mistake?
    • Why was the Battle of Gettysburg the turning point of the war
  • 48. 1863
    • July 4, 1863 – Vicksburg
    • Vicksburg was the last remaining Confederate Stronghold on the Mississippi River
    • Grant’s initial charge was unsuccessful so he dug in and prepared for a long battle
    • Grant surrounded the fort and cut off supplies
    • Eventually they ran out of food and had to eat mules, dogs, and rats to survive
  • 49. 1863
    • After a month and a half they surrendered
    • Mississippi fortress falls to Gen. U.S. Grant after 1 year long battle
    • Union fulfills Anaconda plan and gains complete control of Mississippi river cutting the South into 2 parts
    • With the victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg the North starting to gain lots of confidence
    • Britain gives up all thought of supporting South
    • Gen. Grant starting to get noticed by Lincoln
  • 50. 1863
    • July 13, 1863 – New York
    • Draft riots break out in reaction to Lincoln passing the draft law in March
    • Amazingly there is sympathy for the South and widespread hatred for the President
    • Rioting lasted for three days and opposition to the war is beginning
  • 51. 1863
    • Sept. 19-20 Chickamauga
    • Confederates gain a little confidence back
    • After two decisive losses, Confederates win at Chickamauga Creek in Georgia under Gen. Braxton Bragg
    • This was a battle fought in terrain of thick and dense woods and underbrush
    • Dominated entirely by Confederacy other than the Union’s left flank which was led by Gen. George Thomas. This area of the battle came to be known as “The Rock of Chickamauga”
  • 52. 1863
    • Oct. 3 1863 – Thanksgiving Proclamation
    • A bright spot in the war
    • President Lincoln issues the Thanksgiving Proclamation
    • Lincoln calls for a day of observance on the last Thursday of November
    • People will have a chance for a break and a chance to be thankful for the things they have
  • 53. 1863
    • Nov. 19, 1863 – Lincoln delivers Gettysburg Address
    • After the Battle of Gettysburg the U.S. government set aside 17 acres of the battlefield as a soldiers’ cemetery
    • Lincoln delivered his Gettysburg Address at the dedication ceremony. Lincoln had to wait more than 2 hours for featured speaker Edward Everett to deliver his speech.
    • Speech only lasted 2 minutes.
    • Lincoln asked for increased dedication and a new birth of freedom
  • 54. 1863
    • Nov. 23-25, 1863 – Chattanooga
    • Frustrated and anxious after losing at Chickamauga, Gen. Thomas led his Union army of the Cumberland up Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain
    • Thomas earned a crushing victory over Gen. Bragg’s rebel forces
    • Union forces engaged without official orders and took the ridge in one hour
    • With the control of the major Southern city, Union forces can now easily move into Georgia and Alabama and further split the Confederacy
  • 55. 1864
    • March 10, 1864 – Grant gets well deserved Position
    • Lincoln appoints U. S. Grant to command all Union armies. Lincoln is tired of incompetence
    • This strengthens the Union’s military potential
  • 56. 1864
    • May 5-17, 1864 – Spottsylvania
    • Battle known as the wilderness because of the thickness of trees
    • Even though being outnumbered South has advantage
    • During this battle woods caught on fire, incinerating many soldiers
    • High death totals on both sides, which caused a retreat by both
    • Armies met up again later and it resulted in many more deaths. Lee won again but did suffer many losses
  • 57. 1864
    • Soldier Interview
    • What other jobs did the bandsmen have besides playing the regimental band music?
    • What happened at Chancellorsville because the surgeons were unable to reach the wounded soldiers?
    • What did a surgeon do if a soldier’s limb bone was shattered?
    • Describe the role women nurses had on a battlefield.
  • 58. 1864
    • What were most wounds caused by?
    • What killer was even worse than battle deaths?
    • Why do you suppose the surgeon said that General Grant was “using up” his soldiers?
  • 59. 1864
    • June 9, 1864 – Lincoln earns re-nomination
    • Lincoln won the party’s re-nomination along with running mate Andrew Johnson
    • The party’s platform included putting down the Confederate rebellion and a constitutional amendment ending slavery
  • 60. 1864
    • June 10, 1864 South expands draft age
    • Went from 18-35 to an increase from 17-50
    • South’s troops being depleted need to replenish
    • Estimated that under this new law, it will account for nearly 1/3 of the total Confederate armies in the months to come
  • 61. 1864
    • Aug. 5, 1864 – Mobile Bay
    • Union wins major naval battle
    • Admiral David Farragut displays Union’s superiority at sea
    • Union seizes the port and seizes the city of Mobile
    • During this battle, Farragut’s fleet steamed through a minefield and sparked famous command: “Damn the torpedoes—full steam ahead.”
    • Another key victory for Union. Union moving closer to Atlanta, Georgia
  • 62. 1864
    • Aug, 31, 1864 – Democrats choose their candidate
    • Democrats choose George B. McClellan to oppose Lincoln
    • Democrats choose George H. Pendleton as the running mate
    • Their platform includes a demand to immediately end the war and restore the Union
  • 63. 1864
    • Sept. 2, 1864 – Atlanta
    • Gen. William T. Sherman captures Atlanta
    • Sherman’s men fought several battles as they approached Atlanta. Rebel forces evacuated the city on Sept. 1. Sherman after shelling the city for days occupied the city the next day.
  • 64. 1864
    • Nov. 8, 1864 – Lincoln wins re-election
    • Received 212 electoral votes and McClellan 21 – McClellan only won 3 states Delaware, Kentucky, New Jersey
    • Popular vote – Lincoln 2.3 million, McClellan 1.8 million
    • Military vote – Lincoln won 116,897 to 33,748
    • Lincoln begins his pursuit to reunite the Union
  • 65. 1864
    • Nov. 15, 1864 Sherman begins his march through Georgia to the sea
    • Sherman leads 60,000 soldiers on march through Georgia
    • Sherman cut a path of destruction 60 miles wide and 300 miles long
    • They burned houses, barns, towns, crops
    • They tore up RR tracks and killed farm animals along the way
  • 66. 1864
    • December 1864 Sherman captures Savannah
    • Sherman sent Lincoln a telegram after this battle: “I beg to present you, as a Christmas gift, the city of Savannah, with 150 heavy guns and about 25,000 bales of cotton.”
    • The North is sensing victory the end is nearly in sight
  • 67. 1865
    • Feb. 3, 1865 – River Queen
    • Lincoln along with other officials travel to Hampton Roads, VA to meet with Confederate leaders to discuss peace terms
    • Lincoln tells Rebel officials only after the Confederacy recognizes the national authority of the United States over the rebel states would serious peace terms be considered
  • 68. 1865
    • Lincoln also told Rebel V.P. Alexander Stephens there would be no peace treaty because the CSA was never a separate nation
    • The Confederates thought Lincoln’s demands sounded too much like unconditional surrender so nothing came from this meeting
    • Rebel forces will continue to fight on until captured
  • 69. 1865
    • March 4, 1865 – Lincoln inaugurated
    • Second term begins
    • Discusses peace options
    • Discusses restoring the Union
  • 70. 1865
    • Soldier Interview
    • Describe the soldiers’ life in a trench.
    • What were the Southern soldiers’ reactions to the North using black soldiers against them in battle?
    • How did the Southerners react when Mr. Greeley asked about the possibility of the South’s losing the war?
  • 71. 1865
    • April 3, 1865 Petersburg, Richmond
    • Union troops under leadership of Grant finally beat Rebel forces led by Lee
    • Capture the region around Petersburg and Richmond
    • The nine month siege of Petersburg cost the Union 60,000 troops in the 1 st month
    • This siege began just after the Cold Harbor incident where Grant lost 7,000 men
  • 72. 1865
    • Lee finally has to surrender and pull out of the city
    • President Davis received word while in church and by 11:00 a.m. evacuated the city
    • Monday April 3, 1865 Union troops enter the city and occupy the Confederate capital
    • The war is all but over
  • 73. 1865
    • April 5, 1865 Lincoln takes a tour of Richmond
    • He even toured Davis’ home
    • Troops cheered, citizens cried as they watched the Confederate flag lowered and the Stars and Stripes raised
  • 74. 1865
    • April 6, 1865 – Saylor’s Creek
    • Retreating and trying to stay together Lee mounts one more charge at Saylor’s Creek
    • Lasts one day and ends in Union victory
    • In wake of the battle, 8,000 Confederates; approx. 1/3 of Lee’s troops, surrender. This is the largest number of any war in North America
    • On this “Black Thursday” Lee continued to retreat West. His comment on news of the surrender: “My God! Has my army dissolved?”
    • Lee’s surrender is imminent now
  • 75. 1865
    • April 9, 1865 – Lee surrenders to Grant
    • Lee surrenders to Grant in the home of Wilmer McLean at Appomattox Court House
    • 3 hour meeting, ending with surrender.
    • Took place on Palm Sunday
    • Terms included surrender of Confederate Army, turning over Rebel arms and supplies, Rebels could keep private horses and arms. Lee did not surrender his sword
  • 76. 1865
    • Hot Seat Activity
  • 77. 1865
    • April 15, 1865 Lincoln is assassinated
    • April 26, 1865 Booth captured and killed
    • May 10, 1865 CSA President Davis captured in Georgia
    • Davis tried to escape, even dressing as a woman but the 4 th Michigan Cavalry captured him
    • Davis was taken to Fort Monroe, VA and imprisoned
    • Along with Davis captured were Varina Davis his wife, Postmaster Gen. John H. Reagan, Presidential Secretary Burton Harrison and a few others
  • 78. 1865
    • Civil War is over