Persecution and the exodus of Germany's

    525,000 Jews began almost immediately

    Albert Einstein called the events...
Heinrich Himmler

        Nazi German politician and head of the
    
        Schutzstaffel (SS)
        Second most pow...
November 9, 1938

      Jews were attacked and Jewish property
    
      was vandalized across Germany
     Approximat...
 Jews had been murdered in mass
  scale since 1939

 In 1940 some Nazis considered
  eliminating Jews according to the
 ...
After the invasion of Poland, the Nazis

    established ghettos throughout 1941 and 1942
      Warsaw Ghetto was the la...
“From this day to the ending of the world,
    But we in it shall be remembered-
We few, we happy few, we band of brothers...
Nazis intensified acts of violence in 1933



    Set up camps as concentration centers within

    Germany
      First...
Transportation of prisoners was carried

    out under horrifying conditions
      Usually via rail freight cars
      ...
By 1941, Himmler and Heydrich were

    becoming increasingly impatient with the
    progress of the Final Solution

    ...
The largest of Nazi Germany's

    concentration camps

    Located in Poland



    90% of those that died at Auschwitz...
 During 1942, in addition to
  Auschwitz, five other camps were
  designated as extermination camps
    Purpose was to c...
At camps with gas chambers all the

    prisoners arrived by train

    Trainloads were sent straight to the gas

    ch...
Once the chamber was full, the doors were

    shut and cyanide was released inside
      Those inside died within 20 mi...
By mid 1944, the Final Solution had run its

    course

    Jewish communities within easy reach of the

    Nazi regim...
Commanders continued to kill Jews and

    shuttle them from camp to camp by
    forced quot;death marchesquot; until the...
The first major camp, Majdanek, was

    discovered by the advancing Soviets in
    July 1944

    Auschwitz was liberate...
 Auschwitz - 1,400,000


 The total number of
 dead at the hands of the
 Nazis:
   9 and 11 million
Why We Fight
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Why We Fight

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Why We Fight

  1. 1. Persecution and the exodus of Germany's  525,000 Jews began almost immediately Albert Einstein called the events in Germany a  quot;psychic illness of the massesquot; He never set foot in Germany again  He was expelled from the Prussian Academy  of Sciences and his citizenship was rescinded In 1935, Hitler introduced the Nuremberg Laws  Stripped German Jews of their citizenship  and deprived them of all civil rights Hitler said if the quot;Jewish problemquot; cannot be  solved by the Nuremberg laws it quot;must then be handed over by law to the National-Socialist Party for a final solution” (Endlösung) quot;Endlösungquot; became the Nazi euphemism for  the extermination of the Jews
  2. 2. Heinrich Himmler  Nazi German politician and head of the  Schutzstaffel (SS) Second most powerful man in Nazi  Germany, after Adolf Hitler Oversaw all police and security forces  Overseer of concentration and  extermination camps Coordinated the killing of millions of  Jews Reinhard Heydrich  Hitler considered him a possible  successor  Chose as President of Interpol or the Nazi international law enforcement  Heydrich chaired the Wannsee Conference
  3. 3. November 9, 1938  Jews were attacked and Jewish property  was vandalized across Germany  Approximately 100 Jews were killed  30,000 sent to concentration camps  7,000 Jewish shops and 1,668 synagogues (almost every synagogue in Germany) were damaged or destroyed Countless pogroms by local groups  occurred throughout WWII Form of riot directed against a  particular group, whether ethnic, religious, or other Some pogroms were with Nazi  encouragement and some were spontaneous
  4. 4.  Jews had been murdered in mass scale since 1939  In 1940 some Nazis considered eliminating Jews according to the Madagascar Plan  It was unrealistic but it was an important psychological step on the path to the Holocaust  The plan was to ship all European Jews to Madagascar  It was a remote and slower genocide through the unfavorable living conditions on the island
  5. 5. After the invasion of Poland, the Nazis  established ghettos throughout 1941 and 1942  Warsaw Ghetto was the largest (380,000)  The Łódź Ghetto the second largest (160,000) They were immensely crowded prisons, used as  instruments of “slow, passive murder” Warsaw Ghetto   30% of the population of Warsaw  Occupied only 2.4% of the city's area  Averaged 9.2 people per room 1940 through 1942, starvation and  disease, killed hundreds of thousands Over 43,000 residents of the Warsaw ghetto  died there in 1941  More than half the residents died in 1942
  6. 6. “From this day to the ending of the world, But we in it shall be remembered- We few, we happy few, we band of brothers” Why We Fight
  7. 7. Nazis intensified acts of violence in 1933  Set up camps as concentration centers within  Germany  First was Dachau (opened in March 1933)  Early camps were meant to hold, torture, or kill only political prisoners, such as Communists  Usually basements and storehouses Eventually full-blown centrally run camps  emerged outside the cities By 1942, six large extermination camps had  been established in Nazi-occupied Poland They were places where Jews and POWs were  either killed or forced to live as slave laborers  Established 15,000 camps in the occupied countries, many of them in Poland
  8. 8. Transportation of prisoners was carried  out under horrifying conditions  Usually via rail freight cars  Many died before reaching their destination Extermination through labor   Camp inmates would be worked to death Many camp prisoners died because of  harsh overall conditions Upon admission, some camps tattooed  prisoners with a prisoner ID Many who could work were dispatched  for 12 to 14 hour shifts  There were roll calls that could last for hours  Prisoners regularly died of exposure
  9. 9. By 1941, Himmler and Heydrich were  becoming increasingly impatient with the progress of the Final Solution The Wannsee Conference (January 20, 1942)  Met at a villa in the suburbs of Berlin  Purpose was to finalize a plan a  extermination They called for killing all the Jews in  Europe, including 330,000 Jews in England and 4,000 in Ireland Plan became known as Operation Reinhard  Officials were told there were a total of 6.5  million Jews that would be ‘dealt’ with All would be transported by train to  extermination camps in Poland Those unfit for work would be gassed at once  Eventually all would be killed 
  10. 10. The largest of Nazi Germany's  concentration camps Located in Poland  90% of those that died at Auschwitz were  Jews from almost every country in Europe Most victims were killed in Auschwitz  gas chambers Other deaths were caused by:  Systematic starvation  Forced labor  Lack of disease control  Individual executions  “Medical experimentsquot; 
  11. 11.  During 1942, in addition to Auschwitz, five other camps were designated as extermination camps  Purpose was to carry out of the Reinhard plan  Many camps had extermination facilities added to them  Three new camps were built for the sole purpose of killing large numbers of Jews as quickly as possible  Extermination camps are frequently confused with concentration camps  Extermination camps were run by SS officers
  12. 12. At camps with gas chambers all the  prisoners arrived by train Trainloads were sent straight to the gas  chambers Jews were first taken to platforms where  all their clothes and other possessions were seized They were herded naked into the  chambers  Were told there were showers inside (signs outside said “baths” and “sauna”)  Some were given a small piece of soap and a towel to avoid panic  They were told to remember where they had put their belongings  When they asked for water they were told to hurry up, because coffee was waiting for them in the camp
  13. 13. Once the chamber was full, the doors were  shut and cyanide was released inside  Those inside died within 20 minutes Gas was then pumped out and the bodies were  removed  Victims were found half-squatting  Their skin was colored pink with red and green spots  Some foamed at the mouth or bleed from the ears Gold fillings in their teeth were extracted  Women's hair was cut  The floor of the gas chamber was then cleaned  and the walls washed The work was done by the Jewish prisoners   Hoped to buy themselves a few extra months of life
  14. 14. By mid 1944, the Final Solution had run its  course Jewish communities within easy reach of the  Nazi regime had been exterminate  90% percent in Poland  25% in France During 1944, the task became more difficult   German armies were evicted from the Soviet Union  In June, the western Allies landed in France Despite the Nazi military situation great  efforts were made to conceal evidence of the camps  Gas chambers were dismantled  Crematorias dynamited  Mass graves dug up and the corpses cremated  Polish farmers were induced to plant crops on the sites to give the impression that they had never existed
  15. 15. Commanders continued to kill Jews and  shuttle them from camp to camp by forced quot;death marchesquot; until the last weeks of the war Many were already sick after months or  years of violence and starvation Prisoners were forced to march for tens  of miles in the snow to train stations  Those who lagged behind or fell were shot Around 100,000 Jews died during these  marches The largest death march took place in  January 1945 as the Soviet army advanced on Poland Nine days before the Soviets arrived at  Auschwitz, the SS marched 60,000 prisoners 35 miles to where they were put on freight trains to other camps  Around 15,000 died on the way
  16. 16. The first major camp, Majdanek, was  discovered by the advancing Soviets in July 1944 Auschwitz was liberated, also by the  Soviets, on January 27, 1945 Buchenwald by the Americans in April  1945 In most of the camps discovered by the  Soviets, almost all the prisoners had already been removed 7,000 inmates were found in Auschwitz  The British forced the remaining SS  guards to gather up the corpses and place them in mass graves
  17. 17.  Auschwitz - 1,400,000  The total number of dead at the hands of the Nazis:  9 and 11 million

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